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J 



• 




®IF 










9 






AND ARTS. 



CONDUCTED BY 



BENJAMIN SILLIMAN, 

KOtJ-SSOR OF CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY, ETC. IN YALE COLLEGE \ CORRi 



pr»M>ING MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS, 



;tlres and com- 



merce OF LONDON, MEMBER OF THE ROYAL MINERALOGIC At. 
SOCIETY OF DRESDEN, AND OF VARIOUS LITERARY AND 

CIENTIFIC SOCIETIES IN AMERICA. 






VOL. II No. 2 November, 1820. 



ENTIRE NUMBER, VI 



■< 



NEW-HAVEN: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY S. CONVERSE, frOR THE EDITOR 






Sold 
Good 



by the Publisher and Howe k Spalding, Ne 
odrich, Hartford; Cummin^ & Hilliard, Bost 



New-Haven ; Samuel G 

Ezekiel Goodale 



ler& Hutohms, Providence, R I 






/ 









PREFACE. 



- 



_A.S two volumes of this work are now completed, the 
public are in a situation to judge how far the execution has 
corresponded with the original plan. Not a locals but a na- 
tional undertaking, its leading object is to advance the in- 
terests of this rising empire, by exciting and concentrating 
original American effort, both in the sciences, and in the 
arts, and it may with truth be said, that no Journal was ev- 
er more fully sustained by original communications. They 
have been forwarded from our cities, towns and villages, 
from our academies and colleges, from the East and the 
West, the North and the South, and even occasionally from 
other countries, so that the Editor feels himself justified in 
believing, that this work is regarded as a national Journal. 
If therefore this view be one which patriotic and honoura- 
ble men can approve, and if the execution has in any good 
degree corresponded with the design, it is to be hoped 
that the American public will not permit the work to 
languish, for want of pecuniary patronage. This is the on- 
ly material difficulty which it has encountered, and this is 
far from being removed. A more extended patronage is in- 
dispensable to its permanent establishment, and, should it 
fail on this ground, who can wonder if our national charac- 
ter should be even more severely (perhaps even more de- 
servedly) reproached than ever. / 

The Editor, although called upon to sustain the pecunia- 
ry,^ well as the more appropriate responsibilities of the 
work, is determined not lightly to abandon the undertaking. 
He will perseverd, until it is ascertained, whether the vast 
American Republic, with ten millions of inhabitants, with 
wealth scarcely surpassed by that of the most favoured na- 
tions, and with immensely diversified interests, growing out 
of those physical resources, which the bounty of God has 
given us, will permit this effort, devoted to the advancement 
of its wealth and its power, its honor and its dignity, to be- 
come abortive, with the gloomy presage that it may be very 
long before any similar enterprize can be successful!)' pros- 
ecuted. 
• Yale College, November 1, 1820. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Vol. 2.— No. I.— APRIL, 1820.— ENTiRr.No. VI. 



TOPOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 



Art. I. Account of a journey to the summit of Mount 



Page 



Blanc ; by Dr. Jeremiah Van Renssellaer 1 



II. Account of the Kaatskill Mountains ; by Mr. Hen- 

ry E. Dvvight 

III. On the Prairies and Barrens of the West ; by Mr. 



11 



A. Bourne 



30 



FOSSIL ZOOLOGY. 



IV. Observations on some species of zoophytes, shells, 

&c. principally fossil, by Thomas Say, (concluded) 34 

MEDICAL BOTANY. 



V * On the Ergot of Rye, by Dr. WilHam Tully 45 



MATHEMATICS. 







VI. Mathematical Problems, with geometrical con- 
structions and demonstrations, by Professor Theo- 
dore Strong — (to be continued) -'•'.- 54 

HARMONICS. 

VII. On different modes of expressing the magnitudes 
and relations of Musical Intervals, with some re- 

" ERRATUM. 

In the Te*t, the Roman Numeral was inadvertently omitted, before this 
article, and in consequence, the other articles are numbered, erroneously 
i. £. Art V. in the text, should be VI. and so on, 



4 






CONTENTS. 



Fage 

marks, in commendation of Professor Fisher's 
proportionally tempered Douzeauve, by Mr. John 
Frarey, senior - - - - 



65 



MEDICAL CHEMISTRY. 



VIII. Abstract and translation of Dr. F. Magendie's 

late Publication on Prussic acid, by the Editor, 
with remarks 



81 



PHYSICS, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, and the ARTS. 

fX. Description of a Machine invented by David 
Bushnell for submarine navigation and for the de- 
struction of ships of war, with an account of the 
first attempt with it to destroy some of the British 
ships lying at New-York, by Charles Griswold, 
Esq. - - ... 94 

X. Remarks on the Revolving Steam Engine of Mo 
rev, bv Mr. Isaac Doolittle 



101 



reply to Mr. Doolittle 



.g bteam -bnzine. in 



106 



XII. Observations on the Dry Rot, by Col. George 

Gibbs ... 

XIII. On Heat and Light, (first communication) by 

Mr. Samuel Morey ... 

XIV. On Heat and Light, (second communication) 

by the same 

XV. On some curious and singular appearances of 



114 



118 



122 



snow and hail, by the Rev. D. A. Clark - 132 



Rafinesque 



Atmospheric Dust, in reply to M 



134 



XVII. On the existence of Cantharidin in the Lytta 



Vittata or Potatoe Fly, by Dr. I. F. Dana 137 

INTELLIGENCE WD MISCELLANIES. 



1. American Geological Society - - 139 

2. Curious Geological Facts - - 144 

3. Professor N. Smitk on Fossil bones found in red 



sand stone 



I4fi 









■ 



CONTENTS. 






Means of obtaining Light 



4. Professor Bigelow on the Sea Serpent 

5. Revue Encylopedique - 

6. Miscellaneous articles of Foreign Intelligence, com- 
municated by Dr. J. W. Webster 

7. Curious facts respecting animal poison 

8. Map of the heights of Mountains 

9. Cabinet of Minerals, for sale 
10, American Cinnabar and Native Lead 
11. 

12. Troy Lyceum 

13. Fibrous Sulphat of Barytes 

14. Red Sand Stone formation in North Carolina 

15. Sidero-graphite - 

16. Fetid fluor Spar - 

17. Effects of Cold on Lake Champlain 

18. Stromnite, a new Mineral 

19. German Correspondent - 

20. Exploring Expedition - 

21. Mermaid - 

22. Bubbles blown in melted Rosin 
2d* Effects of temperature on human feeling 



Page 

147 
165 



166 

168 

ib. 

169 
170 
171 

173 

ib. 

175 
176 

ib. 
177 

ib. 
178 

ib. 

ib. 

179 
180 



Plates in this Number at the conclusion. 






1. Figures to illustrate Strong's Problems, 

2. Sullivan's Steam Boat with Morey's Revolving Engine 

3. The same. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Vol. 2— No. II.— NOVEMBER, 1820.— Entire No. VI. 



GEOLOGY, MINERALOGY, AND TOPOGRAPHY. 

Page. 

Art. I. Account of the Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, &c. 

of the secondary region of New- York and New-Jer- 
sey, &c. by James Pierce - - 182 

II. Account of a singular position of a Granite Rock, by the 

Rev. Elias Cornelius - 

III. Sketches of a tour in the Counties of New-Haven and 
Litchfield in Connecticut, with notices of the Geology, 
Mineralogy, Scenery, &c. by the Editor - 201 



200 



236 



IV- Localities of Minerals, by Professors Dewey, Eaton, 
Douglas, and Dana, and by the Rev. F. C. Schaeffer, 
and Dr. I. W. Webster ... 

V. Account of ancient bones and of some fossil shells found 

in Ohio, by Caleb Atwater, Esq. - - 242 

VI. Geological section from Williamstown, Mass. to Troy, 

N. Y. on the Hudson, by Professor Dewey - 246 



notice of a mineral supposed to be a variety 
of Wavellite, by the same 
VII. Remarks on the environs of Carthage Bridge, near the 



249 



mouth of the Genesee, by Dr. John L Bigsby - 250 



BOTANY. 



VIII. Floral Calendar for 1815, 16, 17, 18, and 19, kept at 
Deerfield, Mass. by Dr. Dennis Cooley - 254 

IX. On the indications of a late or early autumn, given by 
late flowering indigenous plants, by Professor Dewey 255 

X. On the manufacture of Sugar from the River Maple, by 

Dr. John Locke - 258 

XL On the Oriental Chene and the oil which it affords 264 



MATHEMATICS. 



XII. Mathematical Problems, with geometrical constructions 

and demonstrations, by Professor Theodore Strong 266 






CONTENTS. 



302 



CHEMISTRY, PHYSICS, AND THE ARTS. 

Pag* 

XIII. Strictures on Dr. E. D. Clark's book on the Gas Blow- 
pipe, by Professor Robert Hare, M. D. - 281 
Explanation of the plate ... 298 

XIV. Experimental inquiry into the chemical properties and 
economical and medicinal virtues of the common Hop, 
by Dr. A. W. Ives .... 

XV. Account of new Eudiometers, &c. by Professor Robert 
Hare, M. D. - - - 
Explanation of the plate - 

XVI. Analysis of the New-Jersey Ores of Zinc, by M. P. 
Ferthier, Engineer of the Royal Corps of Mines, (from 
the Ann. des Mines) ... 

XVII. A new process for Nitrous Ether, by Professor Hare 326 

XVIII. Description of a differential Thermometer, by Pro- 
fessor W. Howard, M. D. 327 
Heat in the rays of the Moon - - 329 



312 
317 



319 



330 




XIX. Account of a new Inflammable Air Lamp, by Profes- 
sor Jacob Green - 

\ Account of an improvement in the Electrical Lamp, by 
Dr. James Cutbush - 

XXI. Account of a Gelatinous Meteor, by Rufus Graves, Esq. 335 

XXII. On the crystallization of Snow, by Professor Jacob 



332 



Green 



337 



INTELLIGENCE AND MISCELLANIES. 



Foreign Literature and Science. 

Number of books in the German and Prussian libraries — Py- 
roligneous acid ; confirmation of its powers — Botanic gar- 
dens in Austria — Manuscripts of Herculaueum — A new 
plant with febrifuge powers - 

New works, &c. at Leipsic — Artificial substitute for the 
Lithographic stone — New mode of killing animals — Acad- 
emy of Cadiz — Terrible effects of lightning — Hot water in 
the streets of Paris - 

Reduction or enlargement of the size of engravings — Steam 
navigation — Facilities of conveyance to and from London 



J 40 



341 



Karl}' discovery of the pyroligneous acid - 342 

Ancient copy of Homer's Iliad — Heat of a vacuum — Educa- 
tion in Africa - . - 343 



^H 



CONTENTS. 



344 



Page 

Edinburgh society of arts — Liberality of the king of Den- 
mark — The root of the plantain a febrifuge — Literature of 
the Low Countries - - 

Death of Volney — New alkalies — Public spirit of Count Ro- 
manzow — New hydraulic machine — Egyptian society 345 

Progress of lithography in Russia — Liberality of the Swedish 
iron masters — The ex-king of Norway — Lithography in 
Paris — Iron vessel on the Clyde — Letters and Journals in . 
Pafis and London — Literature of Italy - - 346 

Artificial gum and sugar — Cashmeer goat — Drawing in per- 
spective — Fine arts in Paris — Canal of Alexandria — Steam 
boat on the Baltic — Population of Sweden - 347 

Transparent pictures — Oil in grape seed — Instruction of Af- 
rica — University of Corfu — Lithographic portraits of dis- 
tinguished French persons - 348 

Metallic vegetation — Boiacic acid, native - - 349 

2fe\v method of preparing the purple of Cassius — Fulminating 
gold — new alkali — Compounds of mercury - - 350 

Lignite near Paris — Dr. Daubeny's opinion on the district of 
Auvergne, &c. - 351 



352 



Geology of Scotland— Death of M. F. de St. Fond— New 

mineralogical dictionary - - - 

Geological society of London — Origin of amber - 353 

Geological Map and Atlas of England, &c. — Conite — JEme- 

rald mines - 354 

Obituary notice of Dr. Murray ... 355 

Red snow of Baffin's Bay — Breccia of Mont D'or - 356 

Poisons — New mode of grafting trees — Phosphoric acid in 

plants — Rectification of alcohol . - - 35S 

Hydrophobia — Thermometer — new geometrical work 359 

Latent heat of vapours — Boiling point of liquids - 36l 

Chlorine theory — Specific gravity of the gases - 362 

lode in sponges — Auruni Millium, a new metal — Systema al- 
garum _.-«-- 363 

Astronomical Society of London - - 364 

Gas lights and other improvements in Glasgow - 365 



366 

372 



Columbian and other presses — Proceedings of the New- York 

Lyceum 
American Geological Society 
Pharmaceutical preparations — Sulphate of barytes - 373 

Carbonat of barytes — Comet of 1819 — Oxid of manganese 

and chromat of iron 



374 



Cylinders of snow — Cleaveland's Mineralogy — Sulphate of 

magnesia — Hudson association - 375 

Fluoric acid in mica— Remark - 3J6 



■ 




ERRATA. 



Page 143 line 7 from top, for twenty read one hundred an3 






twenty. 

172 line 10 from top, for T \ read j. 

264 u 3 from bottom, for folius read foliis. 

266 H 13 in demonstrations omit the final s. 

282 u 6 from bottom, for Dr. Pursh read Dr. Parish. 

338 u 4 and 14 from top, for spicule read spicula.* 



N. B The articles of intelligence at page 166 of this volume, 
were communicated merely as materials to be arranged and digest- 
ed by the Editor, and not to be published in that form. 

* It was spicula in the MS. 



1 

4 



»6#9 




DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 



Plates at the end. 



Plate I. 

Plate II. 

Plate II. on mathematics. 

Plate III. on mathematics. 

Fifth, Professor Hare's plate 011 the Blowpipe, &* 

Sixth, the remaining plate on Eudiometers. 






, 






THE 



AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, &c. 



TOPOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY A \D MINERALOGY, 



Art. I. Account of a journey to ike summit of Mount 

Blanc ; by Dr. Jeremiah Van Ren's -^elaer, of New- 
York. 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAN. 



Geneva, July 19, 1819. 



Dear Sir f 




TAKE the liberty to send you a hasty sketch of a short 
tour that I completed a few days ago, including the Vale of 
Chamouny — and an ascent to the top of Mount Blanc. As 
this latter is a journey not often made, and never before by 
an American traveller, I trust no apology -will be thought 
necessary. 

As I have suffered much both from heat and cold, and 
9UB still labouring under an affection of the eyes and face, 
you will excuse such errors as may occur in orthography^ 
&c. As to the statement, I copy it from notes made on the 
mount, and soon after my arrival in the Vale. 

With much respect, I have the honour to be, 

Yours truly, 

JEREMIAH VAN RENSSELAER. 

Returning from Italy by the grand road of the Simplon, 
which, more than his victories or reverses, will contribute 
to the fame of Bonaparte, we enjoyed the scenery of the 



Vol. II No. 1. 



1 









\ 






2 Account of a journey to the 

Vallais and the south side of the Lake before arriving at 
Geneva. We had scarcely finished with the curiosities of 
the place, when my friend and fellow-traveller, Mr. W. 
Howard, of Baltimore, proposed a visit to the Vale of Cha- 

mouny. 

This delightful valley, the most elevated in Europe, and 
almost separated from the world, lies 18 leagues S. E. of 
Geneva — it is 5 leagues long, and 1-2 a league broad, and 
is covered during the few months of summer, with the most 
luxuriant vegetation. To the North, rises the chain of Red 
Needles (Aiquilles Rouges ;) to the South the gigantic mass 
of Mount Blanc; to the N. E. is the Col de Balme; and to 
the S. W. the mountains of Lacha and of Vaudagne. The 
river Arve, joined by Arvieron, that gushes impetuously 
from beneath the glacier des Bois, flows rapidly through the 
length of the vale ; and receives the tributary streams of the 
glaciers that increase its size only to augment the volume of 
the Rhone, into which it pours its accumulated writers. The 
beauty of the vale, the fertility of its soil, the innocence and 
simplicity of its inhabitants, and the singularity of the land- 
scape, in which mountains of ice alternate with fields of 
flowers, have long drawn the attention of Travellers. Each 
glacier, each needle, each mountain forms a distinct curi- 
osity, and a whole season might pass pleasantly enough in 
contemplating nature in her mildest and in her most chilling 
moods, — for she smiles and frowns alternately on the vale. 

The most interesting object that strikes the attention, , 
where every thing is worthy of notice, is Mount Blanc. The 
frozen glaciers, that like feet seem to support its huge mass 
in the air, while its snow capped summit is lost in the 
heavens, form a singular contrast to the green fields in 
which they rest. Having already visited some of the high- 
est points of the Appennines, in traversing the ridge as it ex- 
tends through the Tuscan, the Roman and the Neapolitan 
states into Sicily, I felt a desire to stand on the lofty mount 
before me, and mentioned it to my companion. The diffi- 
culty of the undertaking, the many failures, and the small 
number of those who have succeeded, s< med at first very 
discouraging — but we resolved upon the aftteHipt and sent 
out for guides. These it \ s not difficult to procure; for 
as the inhabitants considered it a mark of courage and per- 
everance, it is ever thought an honour to have been on the 









Summit of Mount Blanc. 3 

summit, and is mentioned in praise of him who has happily 
attained the object. It was therefore difficult to choose — 
but we took those who had before made the attempt. The 
women too were to be consulted, for however anxious they 
might be that their sons should procure the honor, they 
were loth to let their husbands encounter so many perils. 

In vain did the guides represent to us the dangers and 
privations of the undertaking — in vain expatiate on the heat, 
the cold, the fatigue, and above all on the many failures. 
We conversed with Balmat and Paccard, the two fust who 
ascended, and having previously agreed with a master guide, 
appointed the next day for the ascent. 

At 3 o'clock A. M. on the 11th inst. mass was said for a 
successful journey and a safe return, and at 5 we commen- 
ced our way — our guides preceded with the necessary arti- 
cles and we followed, confident of success. For a league 
our way laid through fields of grain, and then commenced 
the woody region that extends double the distance up the 
mountain. Here we found ourselves at the edge of the Gla- 
cier Bossons (one of the grandest of the mount,) and for two 
leagues mounted near to its side. The way was painful 
and difficult, winding on the mountain side, and crossing 
streams that pour constantly from the higher regions. We 
had now ascended 5 leagues, and were about to quit the 
land; here commenced the region of eternal ice. Balmat, 
the veteran hero of the hoary mount, who first placed foot 
on its frozen summit, had thus far accompanied us : his age 
prevented him from ascending farther, and wishing us a 
safe return, he retraced our mountain path. Thus far we 
had followed a kind of path, but once on the snow, a bleak 
region extended before us, — no footstep marked the white 
surface — no sign of life or animation arose to cheer us. Here 
too commenced the dangers of the way, and we were for- 
ced to follow in regular succession : — first went a guide with 
two long poles to search for crevices, that we might avoid 
them — then followed a man with an axe to cut foot holes 
in the ice ; then came two who changed with the above, 
and formed a relief: next followed a man with the ladder 
at some little distance I followed tied by a rope round the 
waist to two guides, one of whom preceded, the other fol- 
lowed me — and lastly came Mr. H. tied in the same manner 
to two other guides. Each of the men carried a knapsack 



4 Account of a journey to the 

with provisions, blankets, sheets for a tent, cords, coals, a pan 
to melt snow in, a chafingdish, bellows, &c. &c. ; and each 
of us was armed with a pole about 9 feet long, with a sharp 
iron spike in the end, to support ourselves and to prevent 
us from falling. — Our line of march seemed rather formida- 
ble as we ascended and descended the broken glaciers. 

We encountered many crevices, some of which were dis- 
tinctly seen ; others more than half hid by the snow. Oc- 
casionally masses of ice had sunk, and left the remaining 
wall rising 40 or 50 feet above us : in such cases it was ne- 
cessary to search the lowest end of the wall, and ascend by 
the ladder, or by cutting stepping holes in the side. This 
however could be attempted only where the wall was not 
more than 20 feet high, as our ladder was only of that 
length. Where besides ihe wall, there was a crevice at the 
bottom, the ascent was indeed dreadful ; for while crossing 
agulph that yawned 150 or 200 feet beneath us, we were 
climbing the ladder placed against the side of ice, where the 
least slip must have precipitated us to immediate death. 
Where the sides of the crevice were of equal height, the 
ladder was laid down, and we then crawled over on all fours. 
In a few cases it occurred that an arched bridge of snow- 
connected the sides, and here it behoved us to tread lightly 
and with caution, lest breaking through, we should have 
sunk into a pit from which it would have been impossible 
to return. Often frustrated in our course by unforseen 
crevices and walls, we were forced to make a lengthened 
march ; but at last clambered up a solitary rock that rises 
from the snow, 8 leagues from the village. It is called the 
Grand Mulet, and having served several travellers as a rest- 
ing place, was chosen by us as the only rock on which it 
was practicable to sleep. It is composed of quartz, and 
micaceous schist rising in perpendicular lamina 60 or 70 
feet above the ice, and 7,800 feet above the level of the sea. 
A few pieces of schist arranged into a kind of platform -af- 
ford a tolerable resting place for him who is not over fas- 
tidious on such a journey. On one side rises the sharp 
Aiguille de Midi, and on the < her the* Dome de Coute, that 
seems to soar far above Mt. Blanc. It was yet early in the 
afternoon, and the sun beat down so powerfully as to under 
the heat very inconvenient : — occasionally however a cloud 
ef thick m ; st enveloped us — it was then extremely chiiJin 




Summit of Mount Blanc, 5 

and uncomfortable. While on the grand Mulet we observ- 
ed a beautiful butterfly, of the most vivid and brilliant col- 
ours, making its way towards the summit of the mountain. 
At G P.M. Reaumur^ Thermometer stood at 4°,(41° of Fah- 
renheit) above freezing. With the aid of a blanket, and a 
sheet placed so as to keep off the wind we formed a tolera- 
ble tent, and lay down to refresh ourselves. Night soon 
closed upon us, and rendered our situation still more appall- 
ing : — the dead silence of darkness was broken only by the 

roans of the weary, or by the loud thunder of a fallen ava- 
lanche that roused us from an imperfect sleep* 

On the 12th at 2 A. M. the guides began to make prepa- 
rations, and at 3 we resumed our journey — A road had been 
cut for some distance the evening before, and the snow 
being hard, we advanced without great fatigue or danger, to 
the grand Plateau, a distance of 4 leagues : it is a plain, with 
a more gentle elevation extending about a league towards 
the summit. Here we rested some time, and one of the 
guides found himself unable to proceed. We however went 
on after taking some refreshment : the air was much rarefi- " 
ed, and the sun exceedingly warm. At the end of the Pla- 
teau began the steepest ascent : — dreadful avalanches that 
seemed falling with their own weight hung over our way, 
while fearful chasms yawned beneath us. The elevation 
was too great to allow us to ascend in a straight line, our 
path therefore was in a zigzag course towards the top, every 
step being cut in the ice with a hatchet. The path was so 
difficult and the rarefaction of the air so great, that even the 
stoutest guides could not advance more than fifteen steps with- 
out stopping to rest — and Mr. H. found himself so much in- 
commoded, that we feared he would have to return. His 
perseverance enabled him to proceed, and at 11 o'clock we 

rrived at the petit Mulet, a granitic rock that just shows 
itself above the snow; here some of the guides being much 
fatigued we rested some time. From this rock the ascent 



a 



is not steep, but very fatiguing, on account of the rarefac- 
tion of the air — we however reached the summit at half past 
12 — and stood upon the highest point in Europe. The top 
is formed by a ridge running N. E. and S. W. about 12 feet 
above the little plain that lies to the south. As to the depth 
of snow upon it we are unable to form a conjecture. Bo- 
naparte, after many fruitless attempts, succeeded in having 






6 



Account of a journey to the 



placed here a pyramid 12 feet high. It was visible for three 
years, but has gradually disappeared, and has not been seen 
for some years. In the sun the Thermometer was at the 
freezing point ; in the shade 3° of Reaumur below it ; (25°, 
25 of Fahrenheit.) A bri ht sun shone on us, through a 
vault of indigo blue, in which not a spot was obscured by a 
cloud. To the North, at the distance of nearly 100 miles, 
rose the black ridge of Jura : farther east, lay the mountains 
of Underwalden and of Uri; — to the east St. Gothard and 
the Simplon ; St. Bernard and Monte Rosa seemed to stand 
at our side, and Piedmont to stretch at our feet. — A light 
floating vapour hid from us the vales of Lombardy and of 
France — On one side the happy valley of Chamouny lay 
beneath' and the little village shone in the smiling plain, be- 
set with fields and woods ; — on the other the Vale d'Aoste, 
with her cheerful river, extended her green surface to re- 
lieve the eye. The glaciers of Bossons, desBois, d'Argen- 
tiere and of Tour seemed sliding into the meadows — while 
the frozen waves of the Mer de glace seemed hushed into a 
calm, — and the Montanvert, with the needles of Dru, Ge- 
ant, Charmoy, Midi, &c. showed their splintered pinnacles 
far below us. We remained an hour and a half on the small 
plain to the south of the crowning ridge, and here four of 
our guides laid themselves on the snow and slept for some 
minutes. We did not feel fatigued, but found our respira- 
tion much quickened and our pulse greatly accelerated ; this 
was particularly the case with Mr. Howard who is of a fuller 
habit than myself. Though we had provisions, none of us 
felt an inclination to eat ; but our thirst was great, and we 
found vinegar and water the most refreshing beverage. We 
fired a pistol three times nearly filled with powder, and well 
wadded ; the report was that of a squib. 

At 2 we began our descent with an intention to examine 
the different rocks that broke through the snow. The high- 
est is about 350 feet below the summit, formed of granitic 
tables, that lay loose on each other, and of which feldspar is 
1 the predominant ingredient. The petit Mulct is of the same 
formation — and I may here add, that, to be minute would 
only be to give you what has already been printed. 

The descent was perhaps more fatiguing than the ascent 
had been, and far more alarming, for we now saw the crev- 
ices that yawned beneath us; and the reflection of a bright 



Summit of Mount Blanc. 7 

sun from the glistening snow almost prevented us from seeing 
our path, the least deviation from which would have been 
inevitable death. Part of one of the avalanches that threat- 
ened us in our ascent, had already fallen and lay scattered 
over our path and the part that yet hung suspended above 
us seemed ready to follow its fallen half. Dreadful indeed 
was the silence in which, with hurried step, we hastened 
down the sidehill. — Fearing to raise a look from the path- 
W8 , and scarcely daring to breathe, we arrived near the 
bottom. The danger being now past, we turned to survey 
the hanging mass ; — the eye was soon satisfied — and in 
speechless meditation we resumed our way. 

At the grand Plateau we found the guide who had re- 
turned — and it w - here we discovered that our thermome- 
ter was broken. It was exceedingly hot, and \\ e jested only 
a few minutes to gain breath, and refresh ourselves. Thus 
far the ice and frozen snow had formed a good path — but 
the influence of a sun, now more powerful than I ever felt, 

had melted the snow ; and after leaving the Plateau, we 
sunk every third step, nearly to the waist. It was of no 
use to send the guides to break the way, nor to seek a new 
road — it was immaterial if we followed their track, or made 
one for ourselves — we still sunk. Our progress was further 
interrupted by some crevices that we had not seen in the 
morning — and being wide, with one side higher than the 
other, our ladder was of no use. At these places we sat on 
the snow, and slid down so fast as not to break the frail co- 
vering of the crevice. This was the most fatiguing part of 
the whole journey, and we were happy once n re to climb 
the steep sides of the Grand Mulct. 'The sun had set upon 
the valley, but its rays yet beamed upon our elevated rock 

its effects had been severely felt — and though scorching 
during the day, it seemed in pity to lend its lingering light 
to shorten the dreariness of the night. 

Fatigue had nearly lulled us to eep, when thinking on 
the last journey of the morrow, some of the guides turned 

to seethe path by which we 1 d ascended the dav before. 
While yet following its traces they saw part of it lost in an 
avalanche — a mass had fallen in, and our road was gone. 
Few and unrefreshing were the hours of our repose — the 
cold was excessive — and some coals in the chafmgdish, kept 
constantly enflamed by the bellow erved to keep us from 






I 



3 Account of a journey to the 

freezing. Our faces pained us almost intolerably — our eyes 
were so inflamed that we could scarcely distinguish an ob- 
ject at the distance of a few feet — our fingers and toes were 
nearly benumbed — and the whole system disordered, not 
so much from fatigue as from a strange influence of the at- 
mosphere. 

Early on the morning of the 13th we began the labor of 
the last day's journey* Our path had been partly lost in 
an avalanche, and partly dissolved in the melting sun of 
yesterday — and we followed the track of the Chamois, that 
has never been known to err. With much difficulty could 
we discern our way, as we were nearly blind — the crape and 
goggles we had worn the day before, were now of no avail. 
We happily quitted the ice soon after the sun shot its first rays 
on the mountain we had left — having been forty-five hours on 
the frozen surface. Happy were we all, when arriving again 
at the woody region, we heard the tinkling of the herd — we 
eposed a few minutes in the shepherd's hut — and arrived 

at Chamouny at 10 o'clock. 

We went immediataly into a darkened room — and after 
washing in cream, went to bed, but not to rest. Our eye- 
lids were glued together, and our faces entirely blistered. 
When the sun was down, we rose for a few minutes — and 
again lay down. Our fatigue overcame our pain — and ex- 
hausted nature sunk to sleep : — we awoke in the morning 
much refreshed — so that on the 14th we came to Geneva in 
a darkened carriage. The skin has fallen from our faces, 
which are now, though raw, much better — the inflammation 
of the eyes is subsiding, but still troublesome and confines 
us to the house. 

The minute and accurate observations of Mons. de Saus- 
sure have left but little for future travellers. His genius for 
a time seemed to reside in the Alps, and it was his delight 
to stand in reality or in imagination on those elevated sum- 
mits from which the world seemed to lie below him. His 
daring spirit led him to climb the most difficult and danger- 
our points — and it was on one of these, the Col de Geant, 
that in 1788, he passed fifteen days in performing a scries ol 
physical and meteorological experiments of the most inter- 
esting nature — at the elevation of 10,578 feet above the sea. 
His researches on the different summits are of the same 
kind, and have been found accurate by the test of succeeding 



Summit of Mount Blanc. 9 

observations. Our ascent to the summit of Mount Blanc, 
then, may be considered a journey of curiosity: but it was 
our wish to examine the temperature and rarefaction of the 
atmosphere, to obtain an exact knowledge of glaciers and 
of the frozen region, and to survey the rocks. Our thermom- 
eter was broken the second day, when after taking the tempera- 
ture at the top, we were about to notice it at stated distances 
on our descent. Our vessels of air from the summit were 
injured in sliding down the declivities or in wading through 
the snow. — As to the rocks little can be said of them : the 
nature of the mountain has long been well known, and it 
would be useless to enlarge upon the accounts already given. 
Thus our journey lias been of no avail in adding to our 
knowledge of the rarefaction of air at the top, yet we are 
satisfied with having made the attempt. It may be ascer- 
tained by a barometer, which we had not, or by tilling many 
vessels, so that some at least might be brought down safe. 
This too would allow a portion for analysis — I know not 
that the attempt has been made. 

Mons. de Saussure found the absolute height of Mount 
Blanc to be 14,700 feet : Delue made it 14,346 : Prof. 
Pictet says it is 14,556 : while M. Tralles, who has measur- 
ed it three times, with the same result makes it 14,793 feet : 
making its absolute height 5,355 feet less than that of Chim- 
borazo ; but its relative height is great- 1 /, as it rises 11,532 
feet above the vale of Chamouny, while Chimborazo is ele- 
vated only 11,232 feet above the valley of Tapia — making 
a difference of 300 feet relative height. 

It was in 1760 that M, de Saussure seems first to have 
thought of measuring Mount Blanc, and offered a reward to 
the person who should discover a way to the summit. His 
offers were sufficient to induce many to make the attempt 
and for twenty-five years, unsuccessfully. The most impor- 
tant trials are recorded as follows. 

The first attempt was made in 1762 by an inhabitant of 
Chamouny; he failed as he only reached the glacier Bossons. 

In 1775 four men, following the same route, advanced to 
the mount de la Cole, running parallel to the glacier Bossons. 

In 1783 three others tried the same path, but were forced 
to return by a strong desire to sleep, which would have been 
fatal, if indulged. 

Vol. IL....No. I. 2 



10 Account of a journey ) ^-c* 

In the same year, M. Bourrit of Geneva was driven back 
by a snow storm. The following year he was again frus- 
trated by the violence of cold and fatigue. 

In 1785 M. de Saussure and M. Bourrit made another 
attempt with fifteen guides. They arrived the evening of the 
second day at the Needle de la Cote, at the elevation of 1 1,442 
feet above the sea : the softness of the snow and their fa- 
tigue made them return. 

In 1786 six men made another trial ; but were forced to 
relinquish the enterprise. One of them, named J. Balmat, 
wandered from the rest, and passed the night alone on the 
glacier — in the morning he found himself near the top. He 
returned and suffered much from an affection of the face 
and eyes. He was attended by Dr. Paccard, and in grati- 
tude offered to conduct him to the summit — which he did a 
few weeks afterwards. They found it extremely cold 
their provisions froze in their pockets, and the ink in their 
inkhorns — they remained only a few minutes, and descend- 
ed to the village in a shocking condition. Dr. P. had his 
hands and feet frozen — and Balmat's face was disfigured for 
eight days. 

The same year de Saussure tried again without success. 

The year following he made another attempt with seventeen 
guides — and on the third day of his journey reached the sum- 
mit. He passed there five hours in making those observa- 
tions and experiments that have gained him so much and 
.so deserved reputation. On the fifth day they returned to 
Chamouny. 

The next day M. Bourrit made his fourth attempt, but was 
forced to return. 



In 1788 



Wo 



man, and M. Camper, a Hollander — a storm dispersed the 
party, but Mons. B. with three guides gained the summit. They 
descended immediately. Mr. Woodley had his hands and 
feet frozen — M. Bourrit was forced to use ice applications 
for thirteen days — the guides suffered from frozen fingers 
and toes. 

In 1790 Col. Beaufoy, an English Officer, gained the 
summit, and returned with the fear of losing his sight — he 
however recovered. 

In i 792 four Englishmen undertook the task — but were 
forced to return — all of them much hurt. One guide had 
his leg broken, and another fractured his skull. 



Account of the Kaatskill Mountains. 1 1 

In 1802 Messrs. Forneret and d'Ostern with seven guides 
gained the top, and declared on their return that nothing 
could induce them to make another attempt. 

In 1816 Count du Lusy, a Russian, ascended a little 
above the petit Mulct, but was obliged to return — His feet 
were so frozen that the skin came off with his stockings ; 
and he was long forced to use crutches. Two of his guides 
were frozen nearly to the same degree. 

In 1817 Count Malazesky, a Pole, gained the top with 
eleven guides — his nose and ears were frozen. 

There have been various attempts made by persons who 
returned after the first or on the second day; such trials have 
not been recorded. 



Art. II. Account of the Kaatskill JWouniains ; by Mr 

Henry E. Dwight. 



TO THE EDITOR OP THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OP SCIENCE, &C. 

Dear Sir, 




HE following description of the Kaatskill Mountains, 
and of the country in the vicinity, has been delayed much 
longer than I intended, and is much less perfect than I could 
wish. 

During the last summer I made an excursion to this chain, 
and examined the prospects and geology for several miles 
around the lakes. The scenery is in the highest degree 
beautiful and sublime, and well deserves the best efforts of 
the muse and of the pencil. 

I have been particular in describing the variegated pros- 
pects which these mountains present, as little or nothing is 
known of the existence of such scenery, excepting in the 
immediate vicinity. Few even of those who live within a 
few hours ride, have curiosity enough to visit it. This 
scenery, including the numerous cascades, ravines, precipi- 
ces, and the prospect from the top of this chain, while it af- 
forded me much more pleasure than a view of the falls of 
Niagara, awakened emotions not less elevated. 

I have mentioned these mountains to more than fifty per- 
sons since I visited them, but I have not met with more than 




12 Account of the Ka at skill Mountains* 

hve or six who had ever heard of this sublime display of 
nature's workmanship. 

The cascades which I have described, I visited immedi- 
ately after the heaviest fall of rain that had occurred within the 
memory of the oldest inhabitant. Some idea can be formed 
of the quantity of water that fell, when it is known that one 
mile north of the village of Kaatskill, a ravine was formed 
by the water directly through a wood, one hundred and 
ninety-five feet in breadth, by seventy-nine in depth, for the 
distance of nearly a furlong ; when it united its waters with 
the Kaatskill creek. As I was on the mountain at the time, 
I took the opportunity to visit these cascades early the next 
morning, and have described them as they then appeared. 
Probably they will not appear to those who visit them in 
the summer season, to be adorned with all the lustre which 
they exhibited at this time, but if seen in the spring, or after 
a heavy shower, they, with the scenery around them, will 
produce an effect on the mind of the beholder, which will bid 

defiance to all description. 

With much respect, 
; I am, &:c. 



Neiv-Haven, Dec. 20, 1819. 



HENRY E. DWIGHT. 



Geological and descriptive account of the Kaatskill Moun- 
tains and of the vicinity. 

The town of Kaatskill is situated on a creek bearing the 
same name, one mile from its confluence with the Hudson 
river. This river is remarkable for the high banks which 
bound it, exhibiting for 150 miles nothing like an interval. 
These banks vary in altitude from 20 to 400 feet, pre- 
senting every variety, from steep hills to perpendicular 
precipices. Most of this extent, with the exception of the 
Highlands, is of secondary formation. Between this town 
and the river, a hill rises to the height of 150 feet, forming 
the western bank of the stream at this place. The bank is 
washed by the Hudson during the freshets in the spring, 
presenting a view of the rocks which compose it. These 
rocks which are Wacko, vary in appearance, exhibiting a 
solid and compact mass ; again they are stratified, and often 
approximate to argillaceous slate. The strata vai J from 






Account of the KaatsliU Mountains. 13 

an inclination of a few degrees, to a horizontal position, and 
have their fissures filled with veins of Carbonate of Lime, 
of a white colour, translucent, and presenting a fine crystal- 
ization. The Wacke varies in colour from light to dark 
brown, frequently resembling indurated clay. Ascending 
the hill, veins of Flint, Hornstone and Pitchstone appear on 
the surface, or in veins in the Wacke. The Pitchstone is 
of a black and dark green colour, and more abundant than 
the Flint or Hornstone. 



Petrifactions. 

On the Kaatskill creek three miles above the town, is a 
cascade of about 20 feet in height. South of this foil, the 
rocks which form the bed of the stream, run parallel with 
the current and are composed of Carbonate of Lime. They 
are partially composed of petrifactions of the clam, entro- 
cite, fee. The entrocites vary in length from one to six 
inches, though they sometimes exceed this. I saw imbed- 
ded in one of the rocks, one of fifteen inches in length. They 
lie on the surface and in an oblique and right angled posi- 
tion. As these petrifactions are siliceous and the matrix 
limestone, they rise above the surface, owing to the greater 
attrition of the rock. The entrocites commonly appear 
straight, and resemble vertebrae united to each other. Some- 
times they assume a twisted appearance, as if struggling to 
escape when first imbedded. I observed here several pie- 
ces of Madrepore adhering to the rock, or imbedded in it, 
weighing from ten to twenty pounds. In these rocks are 
veins of Flint, of several inches in width, partially covered 
with crystals of Quartz. The rocks forming the bed of the 
stream appear to have been rent asunder, leaving cavities oi 
several feet in breadth, and ten in depth, in which, when 
the stream is very low, most of the water runs. 

Diamond Hill. 



At the termination of Main-Street, on the bank of the 
creek, is a small elevation called Diamond Hill, from the 
great number of Quartz crystals found in it. The rocks 
which compose this hill, bear a strong resemblance to those 
in the hill between the river and the village, only they are 



14 Account of the KaatsJcill Mountains. 

more stratified. In these rocks several feet below the sur- 
face, are many cavities partially filled with a black mud. In 
this mud, large quantities of these crystals are found, varying 
in size from a pipe stem, to several inches in diameter. 
These crystals are commonly imperfect, presenting a sur- 
face with several sides polished. They usually have cavi- 
ties in them, partially filled with mud, probably owing to 
the particles when in a state of solution, not being near 
enough to attract each other. Several crystals containing 
water in a fluid state, have been found in this hill. This 
water appears in a cavity in the crystal, which is filled with 
this fluid and air. I have one found here, in which, by 
changing its position, the air will rise in the tube, causing 
the water to descend. In number IV. of the " American 
Journal of Science" is a description of a crystal of this kind, 
found in this hill. Professor Dewey who describes it, sup- 
poses the liquid to be naptha, from the fact that the " fluid 
did not freeze." I have seen several crystals from this hill 
of this kind, and as far as I could form an opinion from the 
appearance of the fluid as seen through this transparent me- 
dium, I have supposed it to be water. As these crystals lie 
in a black mud several feet below the surface, it would seem 
improbable that Naptha should have been found mingled 
w ith it, particularly as the rocks around it bear a strong re- 
semblance to argillaceous slate. This oil is rarely if ever 
found pure, and when pure is usually associated with Car- 
bonate of Lime. A specimen of this kind belonging to a 
friend of mine, when exposed to an atmosphere 6° or 8° below 
zero of Fahrenheit, congealed. As the water filled most of 
the cavity, it expanded during congelation, so as to burst 
the crystal, and the liquid which had every appearance of 
water evaporated. The fate of the crystal was not known 
until some time after the evaporation of this fluid. The 
large crystals are seldom transparent, owing to the mud and 
riffs beneath the surface. Those of a small size are gene- 
rally transparent and perfect. The common form is a six 
sided Prism, terminated at each end, by a six sided pyra- 
mid. These en is are frequently irised, presenting all 
the colours of the Iris, (Wing to the fissures under the sur- 
face. I have seen several specimens of Twin crystals that 

were found in this hill, united to each other at one of their 
edges. 



Account of the Ka at skill Mountains. 15 

Between the village and the mountain, the country is al- 
tered in its appearance. Near the western end of the bridge, 
which crosses the Kaatskill at the village, a hill rises to the 
height of 150 feet. The rocks which compose this hill are 
much more compact than those near the river. They have 
a dark blue colour and bear a much stronger resemblance 
to trap. Haifa mile west of this, a ridge of land rises to the 
height of fifty feet, when the country changes to Carbonate 
of Lime. These rocks are compact, and filled with petri- 
factions of the clam, entrocite, &c. often in so great quanti- 
ties as to compose one sixth of the rock. On the surface of 
the Limestone tract, I observed several specimens of red 
Jasper. 

Sulphurous Spring. 

On the bank of the Kaaterskill (in the limestone region 
which is about four miles in breadth,) there is a sulphurous 
spring,* which is covered by the stream when the water is 
high. The water of this spring is so strongly impregnated 
with sulphur, as to alter the colour of the stream for some 
distance after its union with it. It has a strong sulphurous 
taste, several rods below T the junction of these waters. When 
the stream is low the atmosphere around the spring is strongly 
impregnated with the odour of Sulphuretted Hydrogen Gas. 
I have been informed that a large piece of native sulphur, 
was found near this spring a little below the surface. 

Slate and Sand Stone tract. 



Two miles from the base of the mountain, the Limestone 
region terminates. Sand Stone immediately appears. The 
earth here assumes a more reddish appearance, and con- 
tinues of this colour to the mountain. The sand stone ter- 
minates at the base of the mountain. As you ascend the 
mountain, Slate begins to appear resting upon the sand stone 
below, varying in its strata from nearly horizontal to an angle 
of 30°. It contains too much argil to be useful in building, 
and after exposure to the air is easily broken. The region 

* I learned the facts relative to this spring from a Gentleman who had 
often visited it. The waters of the stream were so high as to prevent my 
examining it when I last made an excursion to the Kaatskill Mountain-. 






an 



16 Account of the Kaatskill Mountains. 

of Slate continues one third of the ascent, when Sand Stone 
again appears, resting upon it. The colour of these rocks 
is a dark varying to a light brown. They are darker and 
much more compact than those near the base. On the 
peaks of these mountains, are many specimens of Conglom- 
erate or pudding stone. I observed a rock of this kind 
(on the peak north of Round Top,) of half a mile in length, 
and from eight to ten feet in height, forming an immense 
I to the mountain. The pebbles imbedded were from 
the size of a bullet, to that of a six pound shot. There 
are no Limestone rocks on these mountains. The inhabi- 
tants have to bring all their lime from below. I saw a speci- 
men of carbonate of Lime, similar to that near the village, and 
partially filled with petrifactions, several miles west of the 
conglomerate rock. As it was lying loose in the road, aud 
as the rocks around it were either quartz or sand stone, I 
presume it must have been carried up the mountain by some 
of the inhabitants. 

The scenery of this mountain is probably not surpassed 
by any in the United States. The narrow glen, the deep 
ravine, the lofty precipice and the glittering cascade, com- 
bining the sublime and beautiful, excite the highest interest 
in the mind of the spectator. 

There are two roads leading up the mountain, one through 
the Kaaterskill clove, the other is cut in a serpentine direction 
up the side of the mountain. The most interesting ascent 
is through the clove or cleft in the mountain, which appears 
to have been formed by some great convulsion of nature. 

Kaaterskill Clove. 

This Clove is formed so as to present a descending ra- 
vine, for five miles in length, in which the Kaaterskill pursue 
its way from near the top of one of the peaks to the base ot 
the mountain. 

The road runs on the sides of these mountains, following 

for se\ nil miles the direction of the stream, above which it 
is elevated from twenty to several hundred feet After run- 
ning on the north side of the Kaaterskill tor about a mile, it 
crosses it and rises two hundred feet above the stream 
Standing at this place, as the spectator casts his eye beneati 
him, he beholds the water forcing its way over a bed ol 



Account of the Kaatshill Mountains. 11 

rocks, or obstructed in its course by some rock precipitated 
iVoin above, rushing around it with great impetuosity, now 
descending a rapid or precipice with a hoarse thunder, or 
stealing gently along with an uninterrupted current. On 
the opposite side of the stream, ilie rocks rise at an angle of 



70° -Ahout Jive hundred feet in height, when they lift then 
heads five hundred more, presenting a precipice of salient 
and reentering angles looking like the rude bastions of a 
natural fortification. The road for about a mile runs on the 
south side of the stream, which it then again crosses and 
continues on or near it, until it readies the top of the moun- 
tain. As you turn your eye towards the east, you behold 
this ravine five miles in length, bounded by eminences of sev- 
eral thousand feet in altitude, forming a v ta of mountains, 
peak after peak projecting into it, through which a part of 
the counties of Greene, Ulster, Dutchess and Columbia ap- 
pear variegated with hill and dale, their cultivated fields and 
dark forests adorning the back ground. 

Western fall of the Ka at er skill. 

At the termination of this ravine, a short distance from 
Parmaters, is a cascade of great beauty, formed by the wa- 
ters of the main branch of the Kaaterskill. This stream is 
formed by the union of two branches, one rising in two 
lakes about one and a half miles east of this cascade, the 
other about half the distance in a northerly direction. The 
best view of this fall is from below, the foliage above being 
so thick as in a great measure to obscure it. Below the 
fall the banks of the stream, which are nearly three hundred 
feet in height, rise almost perpendicularly from the surface 
of the water. I visited it during the Inst summer, (1819) 
a few T hours after a very heavy rain. In company with my 

friend E I descended the bank, which, owing to the 

bower, w r as very difficult. The rocks were either loose or 
covered with moss, which, wet with the rain, prevented us 
from obtaining a firm foothold. In many instances we 
were saved from a fall of many feet, by grasping some 
neighbouring twig, which, if it was not pulled up by the 
roots, served at least to stop us till we could discover firmer 
ground. We stationed ourselves near the foot of the fall, 
where the view amplv compensated us for the difficulties 

Vol. IF No, 1. * 3 






18 Account of the Kaatskill Mountains. 

we had encountered. The stream, which was then fifty feet 
in breadth, descended in the form of a rapid for some dis- 
tance above the precipice, when, reaching it, it presented a. 
perpendicular fall of 120 feet ; then striking on a rock, 
which makes an* angle of 40°, it rushes down this rock, en- 
veloping it in foam. The water fell in such a manner as 
not to strike the precipice, but formed a plane parallel to it. 
A number of shrubs rooted in the crevices of the rocks 
which form the precipice, appeared through the fissures of 
the stream, waving their green foliage with the wind, which 
was very great, owing to the suction through these parallel 
planes. 

- The rocks on each side of the stream project so as par- 
tially to eclipse the sides of the fall. They have fallen 
from time to time, in such a manner as to form seventeen 
natural steps rising one above another. We stationed our- 
selves on these steps, to enjoy the scenery around us. Be- 
fore us the stream fell in a beautiful sheet, exhibiting its 
transparent waters, when, striking the inclined plane, it 
rushed down it with headlong fury, bearing on its suriace a 
foam of silvery whiteness. On the right and left, the banks 
rose over our heads in silent grandeur, as if on the point of 
detaching their projecting masses into the ravine where we 
were standing ; while below us the water was visible for 
about thirty rods, descending in the form of a rapid, when 
bending around the point of a projection of the mountain, 
it disappeared from our view. The spray was so thick as 
to make a dense cloud, on which the sun shining with great 
brilliancy, and being nearly vertical, imprinted a perfect 
rainbow. This bow, which was not more than eight feet in 
diameter, formed a circle around us slightly eliptical, near 
the centre of which wo stood. As we approached the fall, 
the spray thickened, the splendour of the colours increased, 
and the shrubs, the rocks, and the water, were tinged with 
its choicest hue-. To complete the view, a small rivulet, 
caused by the late rains, fell about two hundred feet, in the 
form of a cascade, down the precipice, on the southern 
bank of the stream, displaying its < 5tal waters through the 
green foliage which adorned it. We remained here enjoy- 
ing the prospect for some minut* , when, drenched with 
spray, we reluctantly bade it adieu, with all those emotions 
which the sublimity and beauty of such a scene would 
naturally awaken. 



Account of the Kant skill Mo itain*. 1H 



* 



Elevation of the Kaatskill .Mountains. 

These mountains vary in height from 2500 to 3800 feet 
as ascertained by Capt. Partridge, who measured them by 
the barometer. Round Top, which is the highest of these 
peaks, can be seen much farther, and to the eye appears 
much higher than Saddle Mountain at Williamsiown, which 
has been often measured, and found to be about 4000 feet 
in height* 

View from the Mountains. 

The view from Round Top, which rises south of the 
ravine, is superior to that from any part of this chain, com- 
prising a greater extent, particularly towards the west. I 
nave never climbed this peak, but have often ascended that 
immediately north of it, and shall describe the prospect 
from this eminence as it appears in August. Before you, 
the counties of Greene, Columbia, and Dutchess, expand 
towards the east, presenting to your view a variegated car- 
pet, checquered with forests, groves, and orchards, and 
blooming with all the luxuriance of that season. Beyond 
them, the states of Massachusetts and Connecticut are 
spread towards the horizon, till they finally intersect it. 
Beneath are many undulations, where the rallies and hills, 
glowing with cultivation, exhibit all the varieties of green 
and yellow, which an approaching harvest presents to the 
eye. In the middle of this area, the majestic Hudson rolls 
its glittering tide for more than one hundred miles, orna- 
mented with towns, cities, and villas, along its banks, while 
its bosom is covered by many a vessel, spreading her canvass 
to the breeze. At the distance of forty miles, Mount 
Washington " swells from the vale" to the height of 2500 
teet. On the south, the Highlands, at a greater distance, 
lift their peaks to nearly the same elevation above the Hud- 
son, which rolls between them ; while Saddle Mountain, at 
Williamstown, at the distance of sixty miles, looks down in 
proud magnificence upon the vale beneath it. North of 
this, the Green Mountain range extends for fifty miles, 
"Alps rising on Alps" till they melt away in the horizon, 






, 



20 Account of the KaatshiU Mount aim 









where the view is terminated. The diameter from north 
to south is about 150 miles, embracing the most opulent 
part of the state. 

View in a fog. 

t 

In the autumn, a dense fog commonly arises during the 
night, from the streams within the view, covering with its 
misty waves the whole area, excepting the tops of these 
lofty mountains. The only land visible, is Saddle Moun- 
tain and the Highlands, each sixty miles, and the Taagh- 
connoc Mountain, at nearly the same distance. The fo< 
rises about 1500 feet in height, and is gilded by the beam 
of the morning sun as it appears above the horizon. Foi 
an hour after sunrise, the mist is quiescent, i :hibiting an 
almost shoreless ocean, with the tops of these peaks rising 
above it, like distant islands in a calm at sea. After the 
sun has risen a few degrees above the horizon, the fog 
begins to be agitated, and to move in vast undulations 
towards the heavens, shooting its need! s into the atmos- 
phere, or rolling its lengthening billows into a thousand 
figures, presenting a glowing picture of the general deluge. 
It remains agitated about an hour, when, unfolding its misty 
mantle, the earth below appears here and there illumined 
by the rays of the sun. When the fog is dispelled by its 
beams the landscape unfolds all its beauties, as if it had just 
sprung into existence at the command of the Creator. 



Lakes. 

One mile west of this peak are two lakes,- uniting with 
each other by a small outlet, over which the road passes. 
These lakes are each of them about three-fourths of a mih 
in circumference, and are the source of one of the branches 
of the Kaaterskill. They are, as I have been informed, 
more than 100 feet deep to the centre, and abound with 
several kinds of fish. The outlet to these lakes is the 
commencement of the stream y t mentioned, which forces 
a passage over the rocks. Here it arrives at a precipice 
about one mile from the south lake, ever which with a 
rapid current it descends, making a beautiful fall of between 
two and three hundred feet. I have often se n this cascade 













Account of the KaatsJcill Mountains. 21 

in the summer season, when the stream is much reduced. 
The best time to view it is in the spring, when the snows 
are dissolving, which selling its size and increasing its 
current, add much to the beauty of this fall. 

Eastern fall of the Kaato 7. 

I visited this cascade immediately after viewing the west- 
ern fall on the Kaaterskill, when the column of water was 
swollen to eight or ten times its common size, and shall 
describe it as it then appeared. The rock over which the 
water descends, projects in such a manner that the cascade 
forms part of a parabolic curve. After striking a focfc be- 
low, it runs down an inclined plane a few rods in length, 
when it rushes over another precipice of one hundred (vvt. 
The column of water remained entire for two-thirds the de- 
scent, and its surface was covered with a rich sparkling foam, 
which, as it fell, presented to the eye a brilliant emanation. 
Here it was broken, and formed a continued succession oi 
showers. Large globules of water, of a soft, pearly lustre, 
enriched with a prismatic reflection, shot off in tangents to 
the curve of the cascade, and being drawn by the attraction 
of gravitation, united again with the stream. The sun 
shining through a clear atmosphere, imprinted on it his 
glittering rays, appearing like a moving column of transpar- 
ent snow. The spray rising to the height of several hundred 
feet, was continually agitated by a strong wind, which gave 
birth to a number of rainbows. They were elevated one 
above the other, and increased in brilliancy towards the 
base of the cascade, where, as well as at the lower foil, an 
Iris spread its arch of glory, tinging the rocks and foliage 
with its brightest colours. 

The ground below these cascades continued descending 
at an angle of 45°, forming a hollow like an inverted cone, 
ol one thousand feet in depth. This was lined with lofty 
trees, whose verdant tops, varying from the dark hemlock 
to the light maple, were bending with the wind. Through 
this waving forest the cascade appeared at various distances, 
sparkling with the rays of the sun, and forming a fine con- 
trast to the sombre rocks which surround it. From this 
cavity, at the distance of several miles, a peak rose to an 
elevation of two thousand feet, while the mountains on th* 



22 



Account of the Kciatskill Mountains. 



right and left, impressed their bold outlines on the sky be- 
yond th£m. 

The best view of this scene, is a few rods from the base 
of the lower fall. These cascades are both of them in a 
direct line, and by standing in this position can be united in 
one. By raising your eyes, a fall of four hundred feet ap- 
pears precipitated from the precipices above, apparently 
ready to overwhelm you, while the rocks above overhang 
the abyss in wild sublimity, threatening you with destruc- 
tion. 

A few years since, I visited this spot in company with a 
number of gentlemen, and lodged on the mountain. Sev- 
eral of our company left us, early in the morning, to hunt 
the wild game on a neighbouring peak, and agreed to meet 
us at the fall. They arrived while we were at the foot of 
the lower cascade, and to apprise us of their approach, dis- 
charged one of their fowling pieces. The cavity was im- 
mediately filled with the sound, which resembled the dis- 
charge of a small cannon. The report went from peak to 
peak, each one rolling back the thunder ere the last echo 
had died upon the ear, until having given from ten to twenty 
distinct reverberations, it passed away, leaving no sound but 
the roar of the cascade. 



Column of Ice. 

The appearance of the upper cascade in the middle of 
winter, is very interesting. The rock over which the stream 
descends, projects in such a manner, that the icicles which 
form in that season, meet with no interruption in their de- 
scent towards the base of the fall. The water which strikes 
the rocks below, begins to congeal and rise (between the 
column of water and the rock,) towards the icicles above* 
These project towards the base, increasing in magnitude 
from day to day, while the column from below is greatly 
enlarged by the water and the spray, which immediately 
congealing, in a short time surrounds the stream. A column 
of ice, resembling a rude cone, of between two and three 
hundred (eet^ is thus formed, through the centre of which 
the stream pours its current, dwindled, by the congelation 
of its waters, to one-tenth its common size. When illu- 
mined by the rays of the sun, it presents a transparent 






Account of the Kaatskill Mountains. 1$ 

column glowing with brilliancy, reflecting and refracting its 
rays in such a manner as to present all the colours of the 
prism. It remains some weeks, a striking example of the 
power of hoary frost, when, partly dissolved by the genial 
warmth of spring, it falls, scattering its thousand fragment? 
on the rocks around it. 



Stony Clove. 

About six miles west of this fall is a gap in the mountain, 
called the Stony Clove. This cleft is formed by two moun- 
tains meeting at their base, and rising so as to form a very 
acute angle. The passage through it is about one and a 
half miles in length ; the mountains on each side rising in 
rugged grandeur, to seven hundred feet. They have de- 
tached their huge ma s into this angle, so as to fill it to the 
height of many feet. At the termination of this cavity the 
nic mains recede from each other, forming a plane which 
is filled with water by the melting of the snow, and by the 
numerous springs which rising in these peaks, pour their 
waters into it. The Lake which is thus formed is of con- 
siderable depth, and about half as large as those before men- 
tioned. On the surface of this lake, a grass is growing with 
a great number of strong roots, which intersect each other. 
They are so twisted as to bear the weight of a man. It 
wanted only a slight display of art to give us a forcible idea 
of the floating gardens of Mexico. By jumping up and 
down several times upon this grass, it a \\ commence ai 
undulation around you, which motion being continued for a 
few minutes, will cause an extent of more than an acre to 
move, like the waves of the sea. Our guide informed us 
that he visited this lake a few months before with a compan- 
ion, who, in making this undulation, jumped so high that when 
he struck the grass, the roots below broke, and let him 
partly through into the water. He saved himself by extend- 
ing his amis. He was rescued by his companion from this 
situation, rendered peculiarly dangerous by the existence 
under the water, of a quick mud of great depth, which yields 
to a slight pressure. This anecdote together with the diffi- 
culty of reaching the grass, induced us to depart without 
trying the experiment. This gap in some seasons of the 
year, is much frequented by wolves and bears, which find 






24 



Account of the Kaatskill Mountains. 



it a safe retreat in consequence of the difficulties of the pas- 

They have their dens in the caverns formed by the 



sage 



rocks which have been precipitated from the precipices. 

Mink Pot. 



On the east branch of die Schoharrie river which rises in 
these mountains, is a rock with a large hole in it. This cav- 
ity is shaped like a pot, much larger a few inches below than 
at the rim. It is near the surface of the water, and is over- 
flowed by it during a freshet. I did not visit it during the 
few days I passed on the mountain, and shall therefore de- 
scribe it as I heard it from one who formerly resided on 
one of the peaks of this chain. It is called by the hunters, 
" the Mink Pot' 1 from the following circumstance. In the 
spring the river is so much swollen by the rains, as to fill 
this cavity with water. The fish of the stream go into this 
cavity owing to the great depth of water, and when the 
stream subsides, those of them that happen to be in it are 
confined until the next freshet. The Minks as soon as the 
waters have subsided, in order to indulge their appetites, 
leave their abode among the rocks and come to this pot. 
As soon as they have arrived, they jump in to prey upon the 
fish. If they remain after the waters have fallen a few 
inches below the rim, they are as effectually imprisoned as 
their prey. The hunters often visit this place to take the 
minks. This is done by striking them with a small club, as 
they come up to the surface of the water to breathe. Seve- 
ral of these animals have, in the course of a few minutes, 
been killed in this manner. 



Trees. 



These mountains are covered with trees, which are ot 
different kinds at the base from those on the top of the 
mountain. As you leave the Hudson, and proceed towards 
tills chain of mountains, the trees which grow spontaneously 
are principally the black and white oal ; the former used 
for timber, the latter for its bark. Hickory or walnut, ches- 
nut, butternut and several kinds of pine, are found inter- 
spersed among the oaks. These seem indigenous to the 
soil, but do not grow as abundantly as the oak. On the hills 









Account of the Kuat skill Mountains. 25 

bordering the river, and for some distance back are many- 
cedars of a small size, the soil being usually so thin, as to 
prevent their taking deep root. Elms, iron-wood, and white 
birch, and in the swamps a wood called swamp ash, are 
thinly scattered among the trees before mentioned. Maple, 
beech and hemlock, do not often grow below the mountain, 
but as soon as you ascend, these trees make their appear- 
ance. The two first on the sides of the mountain are moi\ 
abundant, but as soon as you cross the ridge in the serpen- 
tine path which leads to the lakes, the evergreens are very 
numerous. The hemlocks here, and still more on those 
peal farther west, are very large, and rise to a great alti- 
tude. The spruce and the white pine, are visible in a 
thicket soon after crossing the ridge just mentioned. Around 
the lakes, and for several miles west of them, a tree which 
is usually called the Silvery Fur, and sometimes the balsam, 
is very abundant. Th tree is much admired for its beauty, 
ind often procured to adorn the grounds of the opulent. 1 
have never observed any which had the rich silvery lustre, 
or grew to the same elevation, with those near these bodies 
of water. The soil appears peculiarly adapted to the growth 
of these trees, some of which are fifty feet in height. 

Several miles west of the ridge, the evergreens are less 
frequent, and do not rise to as great an elevation, as those 
near the bodies of water just mentioned. Still they appear 
intermixed with the maple, beech, birch and ash, which 
rise to a great elevation* Most of the vallies which lie be- 
tween the ridges of these mountains, are covered with hem- 
lock, with birch, beech and cherry trees scattered among 
them. For some distance up the sides of the ridges and 
peaks, the hemlock continues, but near the top the hard 
woods are the most numerous. Along the currents of water 
w r hich are very abundant on these mountains, the hemlock 
is generally found, and if the peaks (which often rise almost 
perpendicularly from these streams) are not very elevated, 
this tree usually continues to t e top of the ascent. The top 
of those ridges and peaks which are very elevated, are co- 
vered with moss and with many thickets of spruces, which 
are often so dense as to be almost inaeec ible. Some large 
oaks are found near the tops of the per 1 , but at this alti- 
tude most of the trees are much diminished in their size. West 

Vot>. II No. 1. 4 






2<J Account of the Kaatskill Mountains. 

of the lakes the hickory, white oak and chesnut, which are 
abundant on the eastern side of the ridge, are seldom if ever 
found.* 



Shrubs. 



Below the mountain and east of the lakes, the whortle- 
berry grows in great abundance. West of them they are 
very rarely if ever found. I ascended the peak near which 
the lakes are situated, on the first of October, 1816, and 
found them just beginning to be ripe. The laurel is very 
frequent on the eastern as well as the western side of the 
ridge. With this exception, the trees and shrubs which are 
numerous on the eastern side of the mountain, are seldom if 
ever found west of the ridge, nature having drawn this ridge 
as a boundary or dividing line between her productions. 

Strawberries ripen here, about one month later than at 
the base of the mountain. This fruit is succeeded by the 
black and red raspberry in great profusion. As soon as 
these disappear, the high blakberry succeeds them in great 
abundance. These fruits are indigenous to the soil, always 
springing up after the woods have been cleared and the 
trees burned. They are of a fine flavour, having as much 
sacharine matter as those which grow several thousand feet 
below 7 . The Juniper berry is in many parts of the moun- 
tain very abundant. Deer, in the winter season, when the 
vines and small shrubs are covered with snow, find this 
their only food. 



Streams. 



The principal streams which rise in these mountains, are 
the Kaaterskill and the Schohariekill, which are formed by 
numerous branches. The former, before it reaches the base 
of the mountain receiving additions from eight or ten tribu- 
taries, the latter from as many as twenty. These streams 
rise within a few miles of each other, the Kaaterskill descen- 
ding the mountain in an easterly direction and joining the 

* For this description of I he \vevs and shrubs, I am much indebted to my 
friend W. W. Edwards E«q- of Hunter, New -York, 









Account of the KaatsJcill Mountains. 27 

waters of the Hudson at the village before mentioned. The 
Schohariekill after descending from this eminence, runs in 
a northerly direction, and unites with the Mohawk about 
fifty miles from its confluence with the Hudson. Hence the 
waters of this stream, which originate within three or four 
miles of those of the Kaaterskill, run about one hundred and 
fifty miles before they unite with them in the Hudson. The 
water composing these streams, as well as the numerous 
springs which rise in every part of these mountains, are re- 
markably pure and pellucid. The sweetness and purity of 
these fountains cannot escape the observation of the specta- 
tor. They have the same soft lustre and transparency, that 
are so strikingly displayed in the waters of Lake George ; 
and would, if covering as large an extent, present the same 
brilliant emanation, which the surface of that beautiful sheet 
of water always exhibits. 

These mountains, when sailing upon the Hudson, appear 
to rise in the form of a ridge, and then to descend with 
nearly as great a declivity. I was much struck the first time 
I made the ascent, to find that instead of descending im- 
mediately as I had supposed, they presented a level for 
some miles, somewhat undulating, with here and there a 
deep ravine, when a succession of peaks rose one above 
another, as far as the eye could reach. Along the banks of 
the Schoharie, are intervals of considerable width, when the 
hills ascend at an angle of from 3° to 8° for several miles. 
The low price of these lands, has induced many persons to 
remove to these mountains, and this level has been laid out 
into a town called Hunter, which at this time contains from 
six to seven hundred inhabitants. This land is very luxuri- 
ant the first year or two after it is cleared, owing to the 
vegetable mould on the surface. The intervals on the 
Schoharie, produce good crops and if manured would be 
very productive. The town which is about 2,000 feet in 
height, does not exhibit that thrift and improvement which 
might be expected, as most of the inhabitants spend much 
of their time in converting their trees into lumber. This 
is easily effected, as there are more than fifty mill seats in 
the town, which are supplied sufficiently with water, to run a 
saw mill most of the year. 

The peaks of these mountains are covered with snow 
about one month longer than the lowlands immediately be- 



28 Account of the Kaaiskill Mountains. 

neath. The summer is usually a little shorter, and vegeta- 
tion several weeks later ; but when spring commences, it is 
more rapid than near the Hudson. The winters are so se- 
vere, and the frost so late, that peaches and several other 
fruits which grow luxuriantly near their base, will not ar- 
rive at perfection at the height of 2,000 feet. The fruits 
which grow here, as well as the vegetables and grain, are 
from three to four weeks later, in coming to perfection, than 
near the village. 

The atmosphere of this mountain is very salubrious, as 
a current is blowing through some of the ravines, or from 
some of the peaks, during most of the year. This ventila- 
tion during the months of July and August, renders these 
mountains a fine retreat from the intense heat which is fre- 
quently experienced at their base. This salubrity is so 



or 



great, notwithstanding the intense cold experienced durin 
the winter season, that between January 1st, and the 28th of 
November, there had been but three deaths in a population 
of one hundred families. 






Wild Beasts. 

These mountains abound with many wild beasts, some of 
which during the winter season, when they find it difficult to 
procure food, are dangerous. Bears* are often met with 
in the wild passes and cloves of the mountains. These an- 
imals are hunted down by the inhabitants of the town, and 
only when exasperated, or destitute of food, will they ven- 
ture to attack a man. Panthers are seldom seen at this 
time, though a few years since, they were numerous. They 
are very ferocious, and are not dispatched without great diffi- 
culty. The inhabitants relate to the stranger who visits this 
mountain, such heroic achievements in Panther hunting, 
as, if true, ought to entitle the victor to such a niche in tlu 
temple of fame, as General Putnam acquired by his contest 
with the wolf. Deer are found here in great numbers, and 
are hunted at certain seasons of the year, but they are lees 
numerous than formerly. To prevent their extermination 
in this state, the Legislature have enacted a law, making it 
a penalty to kill them during the summer months. 

* The guide who accompanied us (d Stony Clove, has, inre that lime, 

as I have been informed, caught in a trap placed at the entrance of lht£ 
clove, liiree bears and a wild cat 






Account of the Kaatskill Mountains. 29 

Wolves a few years since were very abundant, destroying 
the sheep of the inhabitants. They are disappearing rapidly, 
as there is a reward of eighty dollars paid by the state and 
county for every one killed. Foxes are found here in great 
numbers, and often hunted with success; Wild cats are 
not unfrequent, and are often very furious. In a few in- 
stances the Hedge Hog has been caught, armed with quills 
of from three to five inches in length. Minks and the mar- 
tin are found in some parts of the mountain in considerable 
numbers. These are the principal beasts that are of any 
size. Small animals which usually frequent our woods, are 
found here in abundance. 

The length of this chain from north to south, is twenty 
miles, when it turns towards the west, and extends in that 
direction still farther. As far as these mountains have been 
explored, they present a rugged surface, peaks rising on 
peaks in endless succession. Between these heights of land, 
is usually found a deep ravine, through which some stream 
fed by the numerous springs in this elevated region, pours 



its pellucid waters, exhibiting its brilliant surface through 
the gloomy umbrage which surrounds it; or occasionally 
appearing to view, it gives life and motion to the wild sub- 
limity which is so strikingly visible in these mountains. 
The scenery which I have described, may be considered 
as a fair representation of those parts of this chain, where 
the foot of man never wandered, and where no eye ever 
Tested, excepting His who " hung the earth upon nothing," 
and adorned it from the stores of his magnificence. The 
scenery on the Plaaterkill, and that through the clove bear- 
ing the same name, I have been informed is not inferior in 
sublimity to that I have described. Many parts of this 
chain which have been explored by the hunters, are de- 
scribed by them as exhibiting the bold bluff, the tremendous 

precipice, and the awful chasm which so strongly mark thd 
sublime. 

The Botanist would find a rich repast in exploring these 
mountains, as they abound in medicinal plants and in wild 
flowers. With the hope that some individual conversant 
with this science, will ere long explore these Alpine peaks, 1 
will conclude the account of these mountains, already length- 
ened much beyond my original intention. 



I 






30 On the Prairies and Barrens of the West. 



Art. III. On the Prairies and Barrens of the West ; by 

Mr. A. Bourne. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, &C. 



Chillicotiie, (Ohio,) July 30, 1819. 



Sir, 



JjLAVING seen in the second number of the America! 
Journal of Science, an essay on the Prairies and Barrens of 
the West, by Caleb Atwater Esq. wherein he attempts to 
prove that the Prairies and Barrens were wholly formed by 
the agency of water; and in the fourth number of the same 
Journal some remarks on the origin of Prairies by Mr. It. 
A. Wells, by which he attempts to prove that the Prairies 
and Barrens were wholly formed by the agency of fire; I 
was induced with a view of conciliating these contrary opin- 
ions, to make a few observations on the situation, varieties, 
and the probable causes of the formation of natural mead- 
ows. 

1. The salt meadows or marshes, which skirt the tide- 
waters of the Atlantic Ocean, particularly in the eastern part 
of Massachusetts, have evidently been formed by the agency 
of water. — Because they are all nearly level, sloping a very 
little towards the water, from which their surfaces have but 
little elevation, wherever they are found. 

They are covered with a peculiar kind of grass, which is 
from six to twelve inches high, of a reddish colour and grows 
very thick ; the roots of which, form a very compact turf 
pr sward, and it requires a sharp instrument and considera- 
ble force to cut it. They are covered by the salt water a 
few inches deep several times in a year by the spring tides, 
and this appears to be necessary to their existence, or pe- 
culiar character : for if the water is kept from them by 
dykes, the upland grasses take root, the turf moulders away, 
or loses its tenacity, and in a few years their appearance is 
completely changed. 

As the surface of these meadows lies a little above com- 
mon high-water mark, there is generally a slope of about 
^ix feet in two or three rods, to low-water mark; and this- 






On the. Prairies and Barrens of the West. 61 

dope is covered with a coarse tall grass called sedge, which 
requires a partial inundation every tide, or twice in twenty- 
four hours to bring it to maturity. 

2. Adjoining the salt meadows, on the same level, and ai 
the farthest extent which the salt water flows at spring tides, 
fresh meadows commence, by an almost imperceptible line 
of distinction ; and they generally extend to the upland, but 
sometimes there is wet ground covered with bushes or a 
swamp between them and the upland. — These meadows arc 
wet and soft, and few will bear a waggon. — They are some- 
times found several miles from any salt meadows or salt 
water, and generally at the heads of rivers, where the face 
of the country is level. The general appearance of all these 
meadows is the same : being covered with wild grass oi 
different kinds from twelve to thirty-six inches high, accor- 
ding to the quantity of water in the soil of the meadow ; and 
the more water there is, the coarser and taller the grass will 



be, until flags and rushes take its place. 

These meadows are much lower than the upland, and 
were evidently formed by the agency of water ; which has 
deposited an alluvial soil, composed of the firmer particles 
from the upland, and decayed vegetable substances. 

If they are drained by a large ditch round them at the 
foot of the upland and one through the lowest part of them, 
so that the water from the upland may soon run off; then 
the same meadows become hard, will produce cultivated 
grass, and even trees ; and will in a few years lose all their 
iormer features except their comparatively low and level 
situations. 

3. The Prairies of the Western country seem to me to 
exhibit the same general appearance as the fresh meadows 
east of the Alleghany mountains, and evidently were formed 
in the same manner. 

The prairies are generally found in the level parts of the 
country, on the banks of small rivers and creeks, and fre- 
quently extend to their sources. They are level, generally 
wet and soft, and are covered with a tall wild grass. — The; 
are much lower than the upland ; and when well drained by 
ditching, they will produce cultivated grasses, grain, and 
trees; and exhibit every appearance of level upland, excepi 
their comparative depression and greater fertility. — The prai- 
ries of the west are much richer and more productive thai 



32 On the Prairies and Barrens of the West. 

the fresh meadows of the east ; because the upland near 
them is richer, consequently the alluvion of the prairies will 
be deeper and finer ; and the climate is warmer, and more 
favourable to spontaneous productions. 

It is not impossible for prairies to be formed on the sides 
of mountains near their tops, like the glades on the Allegha- 
ny mountain ; because there may be shallow hollows on the 
sides of mountains, lying nearly parallel to them, and so 
formed as to contain so much water from rain and the springs 
above them, that trees will not grow in them ; and in pro- 
cess of time a quantity of alluvial soil from the higher parts 
of the mountain and from leaves and other vegetable sub- 
stances will be accumulated in them, so as to reach the sur- 
face of the water, then particular kinds of grass will grow, 
and the hollow will exhibit every appearance of a natural 
meadow. 

4. The Barrens, so called from their sterile appearance, 

are found on the high plains in the west parts of Ohio and 

Kentucky, in Indiana, Illinois and Missouri. — They have 

features in common with the prairies, but are essentially dif- 
ferent in many respects. 

They occupy the highest part of the country, and are 
;• enerally level ; some of them are uneven, but I have seen 
none hilly. — They are generally poorer than the timbered 
land in their vicinity, but some spots in them may be richer. 
They are spotted with innumerable groves or clusters of 
stinted oak and hickory trees, of about half the size which 
the same kind are on the timbered land. 

The soil is not a recent alluvion like the prairies ; and if 
it is not primitive, it is at least as old as any other parts of 
the great western valley. I think it must be evident to 
every one who will view the barrens attentively, that their 
present appearance was caused by fires, which have con- 
sumed the trees and the acorns from which they grow : be- 
cause many of the trees that are standing are partially burnt, 
and almost every one that is lying down has been burnt more 
or less. The surface being generally level, the rains make 
them wet or moist three fourths of the year, and the warm 
climate urges a spontaneous production of wild grass nnd 
weeds sonnuhat similar to that of the prairies. The fires 
in the barrens are generally kindled by the Indians for the 
convenience of travelling over the smooth surface, to enable 












On the Prairies and Barrens of the JVtst. 

them to approach game without noise, and also to insure a 
jood crop of grass for the next summer. 

Fires sometimes escape from the camps of travellers in 
the dry season, and hum until the rain or some other cause 
puts them out. 

When the white people settle on the barrens or nen 
them, the Indians recede, fires are seldom seen, a youni 
growth of trees, healthy and vigorous soon springs up, far 
superior to the stinted growth which the frequent fires have 
scorched, and the barren assumes the appearance of a tim- 
bered country. — That the barrens are frequently burned, 
ffd that when the burnings cease, a young, vigorous growth 
of trees soon springs up, are facts which can be attested by 
the most respectable people in this country. 

Small prairies are sometimes found in the barrens, and 
the prairies near the heads of creeks are so blended with the 
barrens in many places, that it is difficult to determine where 
the one ends or the other begins. 

5. Whatever may be said by Mr. Atwater or Mr. Wells, 
to prove that prairies and barrens were formed by the same 
agent, I shall take the liberty of differing from them both ; 
for in my humble opinion, the difference in the situation, 
appearance, and structure of these natural meadows indi- 
cates in the strongest manner, that they were formed by dif- 
ferent agents. 

Mr. Wells says that, " where the grass has been prevented 
from burning by accidental causes, or the prairie has been 
depastured by large herds of domestic cattle, it will assume 
in a few years the appearance of a young forest. 

If the low wet prairies are not burned, but pastured by 
cattle, will they become forests ? If they are now 7 too wet 
to produce trees, when were they dry enough to produce 
them ? I say never ; and that the same cause that made 
them prairies will keep them such : but if the water is effectu- 
ally drained from them, they may produce trees. 
I Mr. Atwater's views of the Geology of the Western coun- 
try, I think are hardly tenable ; for he says that the lakes 
Erie and Michigan once emptied themselves into the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers through the Scioto, Miami and Illinois 
rivers ; that the barrens in Ohio are elevated from fifty to 
one hundred feet above the level of the Scioto river ; that 
the whole descent of the Scioto may be one hundred feet ; 

Vol. II Xo. 1. 5 



>? 






34 



Say on Shells, tyc. 



I 



and that the course of the outlet of the Lakes has been 
changed by the wearing down of the bed of the Niagara 
river several hundred feet : but the surface of the water just 
above the fall of Niagara, by the best modern measurments, 
is not yet fifty feet lower than the top of the slope near 
Queenstown, where it is generally supposed the wearing be- 
gan* — Our citizens express a great anxiety to become the 
founders of new systems and theories to account for the 
surprising phenomena which they discover in the structure 
of the western country. But perhaps it would advance the 
progress of science and general knowledge as much, to ex- 
amine facts carefully, and report them to posterity faithfully, 
without bending and twisting them to prop up imperfect 
theories. 



I am, very respectfully, 

Your humbe servant, 



BOURNE 



« 



FOSSIL ZOOLOGY. 




Art. IV. Observations on some Species of Zoophytes, 
Shells, fyc. principally Fossil, by Thomas Say, of Phila- 



delphia. 



(Continued from Vol. I. p, 367.) 

Genus Catenipora, Lam. 



Coral lapideous, composed of parallel tubes joined to- 
gether in vertical laminae ; laminse anastomosing into a net- 
work. 



Species. 

C. Escharoides, Iamarck, millepora. (Tubipora wtenv- 
laria,) American Acad. vol. I. p. Tubi/wra catenulata, 
Gmel, &c. (Cabinet Acad. Nat. Sciences ; and Pealeh 
Museum.) 






w 









Say on Shells, fyc. 



35 



Fossil in different parts of the U. States, particularly at 
the falls of the Ohio river and in Ulster County, New-York. 
From this last locality, Mr, C. W. Peale obtained some fine 
specimens when digging for bones of the Mastodon, — Has 
not yet occurred in the alluvial deposit of New-Jersey. 

Each tube is divided into numerous cells by transverse 
septae, precisely as in the Favosite. Mr. Parkinson, in his 
Organic Remains 2, p. 21. remarks, that minute openings 
are observable in the sides of the tubes ; these are not dis- 
tinct in the specimen under examination, owing perhaps to 
its being entirely silecified, though an equivocal appearance 
justifies the belief of their having existed ; and if so, the 
analogy is very strong with the Favosites. A species of 
Turbinolia is implanted in the specimen under examination. 

Pentacrinus caput — Medusa. 

Of this very remarkable and rare animal, a specimen oc- 
curs in the collection of the Museum of South Carolina ; it 
was brought from the Island of Gaudaloupe by Mr. L'Her- 
menier. This is, I believe, the fourth recent 



known, of this family of extinct animals 



and 



specimen 
of the two other 
others in British 



collections. 

The well known fossil animal supposed to be of this fam- 
ily, so common near Huntsville and in some parts of Ken- 
tucky, and which has been figured and described by Par- 
kinson, cannot be properly arranged under either of the 
genera. These vary in form and size. I have seen four 
very distinct varieties, but it is possible they may have be- 
longed to different parts of the same pedicel. 

Although this fossil is familiar to the observation of Natur- 
alists, yet it does not appear that any particular name has 
been appropriated to it, or that it has been assigned to any 
definitive place in the systems. 

From its peculiar appearance, persons who have not de- 
voted their attention, to the affinities of natural objects, have 
regarded it as a petrified nut or Althea bud, and from the 
ambiguity of its characters, or the obliteration of its sculp- 
ture, naturalists have hesitated to indicate its family, or kin- 
dred generic group. 

Parkinson is the first author who has figured and descri- 
bed this animal remain. He refers it to the genus Encri- 



36 Say on Shells, <yc. 

m/s under the name of Kentucky Jlsterial fossilj but at the 
same time and subsequently, he expresses himself doubtful- 
ly, as to the propriety of that arrangement. His specimens 
were not so perfect as to exhibit the basal articulating radii, 
and the sutures and ossiculae were perhaps obliterated, as 
they were unnoticed. 

The examination of numerous specimens, in the collec- 
tion of the Academy of Natural Sciences, collected by Mr. 
Samuel I • izard, near Ifuntsville, affords rne an opportunity 
to corroborate the correctness of that arrangement. 

But I am induced to believe, notwithstanding the imper- 
fection of our knowledge of these animals, that the genus 
as it now stands, needs the reforming hand of the system- 
atise that it is in reality a natural family, including several 
perfectly distinct genera of many species, the individuals of 

some of w bich, as their remains testify, were immense!} 
multiplied in the ancient world. 

Actuated by this conviction, I submit to the decision of 
Naturalists, the propriety of separating the asterial fossil, from 
the genus Encrinus, as the type of a distinct genus, under 
the following name and characters. 



Genus Pentremite. 



JJody 



trunk ; pelvis (Parkinson) pentagonal, more or less abruptly 
attenuated to the base ; ambulacra (Lam.) five, incomplete, 
radiating from the summit and terminating each side at the 
angles of the pentagon, each with numerous transverse striae, 
a longitudinal indented line, two sutures, and numerous 
transversed impressed lines, which alternate with a marginal 
series of oblique pores ; interstitial spaces (included be- 
tween the ambulacra) triangular, equal, with a longitudinal 

suture ; apex perforated by five rounded foramina, and an 
angula ted central one ; ossa innomiuuta (Park.) large, rhom- 
bic. Trunk branched ? cylindrical, articulated, elongated; 
segments perforated, articulating surfaces with alternately 
elevated and depressed radii. 

A transient view of the superior porii« i of.thi reliquium, 

present- a considerable resemblance to the Echinii, by the 
apicial foramina, and by the radiating ambulacra winch are 
somewhat similar to a pentapetalous [lower. But an atten- 






w 



Say on Shells, Sfc\ 37 

e examination of its characters, exhibits its inseparable 
connection with the family of Encrinites by the analogy of 
its mode of support, its rectilinear sutun ;, and the general 
form of its pelvis or basal portion. 

To the base is generally attached, the sing e superior 
joint of the trunk or vertebral column ; this joint is short, 
and is longitudinally divided by three sutui >, which radiate 
from a central foramen ; its inferior articulating surface is 
orbicular, with numerous marginal radii, and the centre ex- 
hibits the opening of the foj men ; at its junction with tin 
ossainnominata it is somewhat trilobate. The ossa innomi- 
nata are of a rhomboidal form, sometimes pentagonal or 
uhquadrate. The pelvis has the same general form with 
that of the Enerinus liliiformis, but the angles of the penta- 
gon are much more acute, and those parts which Parkinson 

nominates ribs, clavicles and scapula are not distinct. 

From the superior angle of each of the ossicular of the 
base, a suture ascends, bisecting each of the interstitial spa- 
ces, and is divaricated near the tip, ^o as to give to the j 
triangular spaces, arhombric termination. Each of the five 
outer foraminae, (of which one is invariably much the lar- 
gest) is the common aperture of two tubes which penetrate 
to the tips of the ambulacra, immediately beneath the su- 
tures of those parts, and which are not visible but by dis- 
section ; the central foramen is stellate. 

The peculiar adaptation of these various parts to each 
other, may have permitted their independent movement, in 
order that the animal might assume some form of expan- 
sion ; but we are led to suppose that this motion could not 
have been very considerable, from the relative situation of 
the mures. And 1 may further add, that, as we have no 
direct proof that this animal did possess the power of ex- 
pa nding, it may be, that the motion of its body was confined 
to the protrusion of tentacula through the foramina, and per- 
haps smaller ones through the pores of the Ambulacra, 

This question, however, must remain for the solution of 
future observers, who may have an opportunity to examine 
them in situ, and of comparing together their different frag- 
ments which may be di overed. All the specimens which 
J have seen, about sixt in number, are id a perfectly similar 
collapsed -tate. 













38 - Say on Shells, 8f€. 

The several different appearances exhibited by specimens 
of the Pentremite may be thus defined 
1st. Pelvis abrubtly attenuated, nearly horizontal 

Length from seven tenths to more than half an inch. 

Kentucky Aster ial fossil, Park- Org* Rem. vol. 2, pi. 13. 

This is the most common. 

2d. Body oblong ; pelvis gradually attenuated ; transverse 

elevated lines of the ambulacra, grooved 

Length from three fourths to one inch and one fourth. 
3d. Body subglobular ; pelvis hardly more attenuated than 

the superior portion 
Length about one inch 
Less common than the preceding ones. 

In Pcalc's Museum a large specimen of the latter is pre- 
served, of which the sutures, have each a parallel impressed 
line on each side ; this specimen was brought from England 
by Mr. Reubens Peale, he was informed that it w r as found 
in the vicinity of Bath, but the fact is very equivocal. 

A specimen of the second variety is in the collection of 
Mr. B. Say ; it was presented to him several years ago un- 
der the name of petrified althea bud, and was dug up in a 
garden in the borough of Reading, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Z. Collins informed me that this fossil has been 
noticed and figured, by Dr. S. L. Mitchell, of New-York, 
as an Echinus of the family (genus) Galerite, and also as an 
asterite. See his geological observations in the New- York 
edition of Cuvier's theory as translated by Jameson p. 363, 
pi. 8. This figure indicates the above first variety. 

Renilla Americana, 

Is very common on the coast of Georgia and E. Florida, 
cast up by the waves. 

Perna toria. 



This large species of fossil Perna has been discovered at 
Upper Marlborough, in the state of Maryland, by Mr. J. 
Gilliams of this city. The hinge portion is very entire, but 
the anterior part, is more or less broken off, as is the case 
with those found in Europe and like them the substance of 
the shell is in a tolerable state of preservation, not having 












Say on Shells, fyc. 30 

undergone much apparent change, excepting that the lamel- 
lary increments are readily separable and very friable, the 
epidermis also is wanting. 

It is the same species of shell as that described and figur- 
ed by Collini in his Journal p. 10, pi. 6. fig. 1. under the 
name of Ostreum polyleptogingUmum ; and also anonymous- 
ly* by Parkinson Organ. Rem. vol. 3, pi. 

The teeth of one specimen, in the possession of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, are obsolete. 

Collini says, it is often perforated by sea insects ; our 
specimens are also penetrated, but the cavities are formed 
by an ampullaceous Pholas, which in reality may be the 
same as those which that author alludes to, by the term sea 
Insects ; it may be thus named and described. 

Pholas oralis. 



Tube equal, entire and rounded at base, and gradually 
attenuated towards the anterior termination. Shell subo- 
vate, dehiscent ; valves with crowded, acute, elevated, trans- 
verse lines, somewhat decussate with longitudinal slightly 
indented ones, a more conspicuous, longitudinal, indented 
line before the middle, posterior basal margin smooth ; 
within equal, the posterior basal margin distinguished by a 
slight undulation. 

This is not, strictly speaking, a Pholas, inasmuch as it is 
included in a tube ; but in other respects it corresponds 
very well with the species of that genus, as far as I can judge 
from incomplete specimens, not having seen the accessory 
valves. It will not agree with Teredina Lam. as its valves 
are concealed by the tube ; by which character it is assim- 
ilated to Fistulana, but from this genus also, it is distinguish- 
able, by the form of its valves, and most probably, by being 
destitute of the anterior, crustaceous, branchial appendages 
or valvules, though it is proper to observe that the anterior 
extremities of the tubes (which contain these parts in fistu- 
lana, teredo, &c.) are deficient in my specimens of P.ovalis. 

In the somewhat compact earth which was included be- 
tween two fragments of the valves of the abovementioned 
Perna, were a few interesting shells, some of which are per- 
fectly firm and entire, others, although to all appearance 
similarly circumstanced, are extremely friablp, and eve» 






10 



Say on Shells, fyc. 



A portion of an obtusely rugose incrassated, Ser- 



its complete growth. 



fatiscent. Amongst these I recognized a Crepidula, which 
differs from any I have seen, but is too imperfect to be de- 
scribed. 

pula. A Pecten which does not appear to have attained to 

A small laminated Cythcrea, Lam. 
a Fissiirella allied to F. grccca, but immature. A Turri* 
rella, and fragments of a Balanus of considerable size, seve- 
ral specimens of a JVucula and of a Calyptraca. The two 
latter may be described as follows. 

Nncula obliqua, valves obliquely subtriangular, obsoletely 
striate transversely, one or two of the striae more conspicu- 
ous, numerous, hardly perceptible longitudinal striae ; ante- 
rior and posterior sides forming an acute angle ; umbo ob- 
tuse ; apex acute ; teeth angulated, prominent, cavity at the 
apex of the hinge profound, rather long ; basal margin den- 
ticulatocrenate. 

Greatest length one fifth of an inch. — 

Very much resembles Area nucleus Lin. but is a smaller 
species, and proportionally narrower towards the apex, the 
hinge teeth are also more prominent and the cavity at the 
apex of the hinge is proportionally larger. 

Calyptrcea costata, oval, convex, with numerous slightly 
elevated, equal equidistant costae, and crowded obtuse, con- 
centric lines, which are regularly undulated by the costae ; 
apex mamillated inclining to one side ; inner valve pate- 
liform, dilated, attached by one side to the side of the shell, 
acutely angulated at the anterior junction, and rounded at 
the posterior junction, and rapidly tapering to an acute tip, 
which corresponds with the inner apex of the shell. 

Length nearly one inch 

Seems to approach, in its characters to the genus Infundi J- 
ulum of Montf. but from the fatiscent state of the specimens, 
this cannot be acurately determined. No definite spiral su- 
ture is perceptible. 

Genus BacuHtes, Lam. 

Shells straight, cylindrical, compressed, slightly conic 
divided within into transverse septa, which are sinuous or 
ramose on their margins and pierced with a siphunculus ; 
siphunculus at one extremity of the longest transverse di- 
ameter. 



j 



Say on Shells, fye. 



41 



Sped 



aes. 



I. 7?, ovata, elongated ; transverse septa subovate, sixlo- 



bed and a smaller one behind 



>////e superior f i 



the septa, three on each side, with a minute one between 
each, dentated at their edges, anterior lobe, (nearest the 
siphuBcle) small not sinuous, second lobe with a single pro- 
jection each side and sinus at tip, third lobe dilated, with a 
small sinus each side and more obtuse and profound one at 
tip, posterior lobe hardly larger than the lateral intermedi- 
ate ones. 

Greatest diameter of the transverse section one inch and 
one fifth, smaller diameter seven tenths; length of the seg- 
ment about half an inch. 

The specimen is in the collection of Mr. Reuben Haines 
of this city, it was found on the Neversink hills, in Mon- 
mouth County, New-Jersey, it is a cast of three very entire 
segments, no vestige of the shell remaining. The dimen- 
sions are taken from the largest segment. 

In point of form this species approaches B. vertebralis, 
Lam. particularly in the curvature of the transverse section, 
but it is somewhat more obtuse behind ; another difference 
consists in the form of the lobes, which, in that species, as 
represented by Mr. Desmarest, are less symmetrical, des- 
titute of the lateral processes and of the profound terminal 
sinus ; that species also is very diminutive. 

2. J5 5 compressa, elongated, much compressed ; transverse 



septa 



oblong-oval narrowed 



to each end ; lobes dilated, 



dentated on their edges, each with from three to five si- 
nuses each side and a very profound one at tip. 

This description is taken from two fragments in the col- 
lection of the Academy of Natural Sciences, which were 
brought from the Missouri, one by Messrs. Lewis and Clark 
and the other by Mr. Thomas Nuttall. As they exhibit the 
appearance of having been violently compressed by fortu- 
itous circumstances, I have not been able to obtain correct 
proportional dimensions of the specie . But notwithstand- 
ing this distortion of form, I have much confidence in placin 



or 

n 



n. & 



without doubt been naturally a much compressed shell, with 
the lateral edges not very u ilike those of that large and re- 



Vol. If No. I. 



£ 









42 Say on Shells, fyc* 

markable species ; from which, however, it is sufficiently 
distinct by the much developed form of the lobes* 

In these specimens a considerable portion of the shell 
remains exhibiting its beautiful iridescent colours. 

Mr. Nuttall gave me the following account of this species. 
It occurs in the ancient alluvium of the Missouri, or clay 
formation, reposing adventitiously on the chalk stratum of 
this region, and imbedded in the indurated shistose beds, 
amidst other shells, and in the beds which overlie more or 
less intimately the Xylanthrax or Surturbrand ; they are 
gradually and regularly acuminated through a length of 
twelve or eighteen inches, being from three to four inches 
broad at the base and diminishing to less than half an inch, 
but a perfect apex or base has not yet been discovered. 
They are of frequent occurrence, washed out on the banks 
of the river, from White river of the Missouri to the Man- 
dans, but at the same time, locally and not uniformly dis- 
tributed. 



Genus Ostrea. 



O. convexa, Oval, inequivalve ; inferior valve remarkably 
convex, with a longitudinal indented line on one side, slight- 
ly auriculated, or rather, angulated each side of the hinge, 
a longitudinal, transversely wrinkled depression, each side 
before the hinge ; ligament cavity oval, placed beneath the 
apex ; superior valve suborbicular, flat or somewhat con- 
cave, radicated from the apex to the periphery, annual in- 
i rements strongly marked ; hinge each side before with 
transverse rugae. 

Length of the convex valve nearly three inches, breadth 
two and an half — depth about two inches. Cabinet of the 
Acad. Nat. Sciences. 

A perfect specimen was found by Mr. S. Wetherill near 
Burlington, N. J. I have since obtained a ferruginated one 
at Mullizer Hill in the same state. It is remarkable for the 
great convexity of one of its valves and by the angles each 
•ideof the hinge. — It closely approaches to the genus €hy- 
phcea ; the lower valve is even proportionally more convex 
than that of Anomia gryphaa, and is also furnished frith the 
indented line or lateral lobe as in that shell, but the umbo is 
not prominent, the superior valve is as operculiform as that 



\ 



Say on Shells, fyc. 43 

of the shell abovementioned, and indeed, with the exception 
of the less elevated umbo, it is almost as closely related to 
Gryphcea as the G. dilatata of Sowerby. 

Genus Exogyra. 

Shell inequivalve, inequilateral ; cicatrix one, large, deep- 
ly impressed, subcentral ; inferior valve convex, attached, 
umbo spiral, spire lateral, prominent, hinge with two parallel, 
transverse grooves ; superior valve discoidal operculiform, 
umbo not prominent, revolving spirally within the margin, 
hinge with a single groove on the edge. 

U. costata, apex lateral, with about two volutions ; infe- 
rior valve convex, costate, transversely corrugated, costal of 
the disk somewhat dichotomous, sometimes fornicated ; 
within, a single profound cicatrix placed rather nearer to 
the inner side ; hinge with two nearly parallel, profoundly 
excavated grooves, of which the inner one is shortest, and 
corrugated ; superior valve flat, slightly concave, destitute of 
eostte, outer half exhibiting the increments, outer edge ab- 
ruptly reflected from the inferior surface to the superior, but 
not elevated above it ; hinge with a single groove on the 
edge ; cicatrix profound. 

Length four inches, breadth three and a half. — Cabinet 
of the Acad, of Nat. Sciences. — Peale's Museum. 

This interesting shell is the largest and most perfect of 
its class, which has yet been found in the Ancient Alluvial 
deposit of New-Jersey. It is not uncommon. I have seen 
many specimens. They vary somewhat in the costae, being 
sometimes almost antiquated, sometimes nearly smooth. 
The aged shells became extremely thick and ponderous. 

It seems to differ from the genus Gryphcea by having 
been attached, and by the lateral situation of the spire ; the 
hinge grooves also are parallel w r ith the edge, so as to be 
transverse with respect to the shell, bearing some resem- 
blance to those of some species of Chama. 

Genus Terebratula. 






T. plicata, suborbicular, convex, ten or twelve profound, 
longitudinal plicae, the two middle ones of the siphunculated 
valve, slightly more elevated, and the corresponding ones 



44 Say on Shells, fyc. 

of the opposite valve, slightly more depressed ; two or three 
more conspicuous incremental lines are continued so as to 
cross the projecting face of the siphunculated hinge margin, 
which is but slightly prominent. 

Cabinet of the Acad. Nat. Sciences. 

This handsome species was found in the New-Jersey Al- 
luvium by Mr. S. Wetherill of Burlington. The folds are 
somewhat similar to those of Plicatula plicata. It resem- 
bles the T. crumena of Sowerby, in the form of its folds, and 
in their extending to the beak, but the middle of the front 
is very slightly elevated, with but two folds, instead of three 
as in the crumena, the sides also have two or more folds, in- 
stead of four or more, and the beak is not very prominent. 

Bdcmnites. 



These are often found in the New-Jersey Alluvium, 
sometimes entirely changed into chrystalized blue iron earth. 
(Hydrate of iron, of Judge Cooper.) 

Ammonite. 



A species of this genus was found in the abovementioned 
locality by Mr. Wetherill. It approaches nearest to A. ele- 
gans of Sowerby, but I have not seen a specimen sufficiently 
entire to determine its species with exactness. 

Dentalium. 



A species has been found in New-Jersey, near Mulliger 
hill, by Mr. A. Jessup, which seems to approach nearest to 
D. sulcatus, but as it has only about sixteen equal costae it is 
more than probably a new species. ♦ 

Turrit ell a. 



A species of this genus was found by the same gentleman 
with the preceding, in plenty. It approaches very closely 
to the T. conoidea of Sowerby and is mgst probaly the same 

species. 

I have seen several redintrigrate fossils from the New- 
Jersey Alluvium, amongst which I may mention a Cucullaea 


















Medical Botany. 45 

Lam. which in general form resembles C. Glabra, length 
about one inch and three fourths, breadth rather more ; an 
Area, about one inch wide ; a Terebratula which seems to 
approach nearest to T. ornithocephala , Soicerby ; a large 
species of Terebratula resemoling the F. ovoides of the 
same author, excepting that it is very slightly truncated be- 
fore. I found at Mulliger hill a Natica much changed by 
the ferruginous matter so abundant in that region ; length 
nine tenths of an inch ; and also a somewhat distorted im- 
pression of a Myiillus. Specimens of Tiirbinolia, Lam. 
often occur in different situations. 



--xr 



MEDICAL BOTANY. 



On the Ergot of Rye, by Dr. William Tilly, of Middle*- 

town, Connecticut. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE; &C- 

Dear Sir, 




SEND you the following Essay, for publication in your 
Journal, not so much from my own judgment, as at the 
suggestion of Professor Ives, to whom it was read a short 
time since. 

As the regular and scientific employment of the Claims, 
in medicine, originated exclusively with American Practi- 
tioners, and has so nearly superseded the use of the Forceps . 
and Vectis, in obstetrical practice, that they are not now 
necessary in one case out of a hundred, in which they were 
formerly employed ; and as most of the information, which 
has been laid before the public, respecting the article in 
question, is in disjointed fragments, and dispersed through 
various distinct works, it was thought, that a digested sum- 
mary of what appears to be well founded, with respect to 
one of the greatest medical discoveries of the age, could not 
but be acceptable to the public. 

As this sketch is not entirely medical, it seemed more 
proper, for a work devoted to science in general, than to 



\ 



i 



46 Medical Botany. 

one exclusively confined to Physic ; and as your Journal 
includes Materia-medica within its plan, and is, in all prob- 
ability, more extensively known in our own and foreign 
countries, than any other American periodical publication, 
I take the liberty of forwarding it to you. 

Yours Sir, very respectfully, &c. 

WILLIAM TULLY. 



SCLEROT1UM-CLAVUS. Becand. 



' 



Clavus-SecaUs- Cereal is, Chwus-Secalinus, Mater-Seca- 



cornt 



Horned-Rye, Spurred-Rye, Ergot of Rye, Mother of Rye. 

Ord. not. Fungi Lin. 

Europe, United States. 

This article is parasitic within the glumes of some of the 

Gramina, most commonly of Secale-Cereale, but frequently 

of Triiicum-sativum, Hordeum-vidgare, and Avena-Sativa. 

It is more rarely found upon Triticum-repens, Avena-elatior, 
Jllopecurus-pratensis, Jlrundo- Cinnoides, Festuca-jluitans, 

Phalaris-Canariensis, LoUum-temuleatum, Phleum-pra- 

tense, fyc. 

There have been three distinct opinions, respecting the 

origin and nature of the Clavus. 

First* It is affirmed to be a morbid change, or modifica- 
tion of the seed of the plant, upon which it is found. This 
has been supported by the assertion of Teissier, that he 
found seeds, one half of which were sound rye, and the 
other half Clavus ; and by the assertion of others, that in 
Chemical composition, it approximates nearer to the seeds 
of the plants upon which it is found, than to any other vege- 
table substance. 

As to the statement of Teissier, it is to be remarked, that, 
i»s no one but himself has ever witnessed such a fact, it is 
highly probable, that he may have been incorrect in his ob- 
servations ; but admitting that he was not, the phenomenon 
in question, is nothing more than sometimes happens, with 
respect to some unequivocal examples of Fungi, that grow 
among seeds ; as for example, the smut upon an ear of 

w-Mays. The conclusion from analysis will be found to 
have but little more weight, when it is recollected, that the 
-omposition of the seeds of the different plants, upon which 







k 



Medical Botany. 47 

it is found, is considerably various, and especially, thai its 
own proximate principles, differ from every thing hitherto 
obtained from the vegetable kingdom. 

The second opinion is, that the Clavus is an excrescence 
produced by the sting, and deposition of the eggs of an 
insect. 

As there is no analogy in any respect, between this arti- 
cle, and such excrescences as are demonstrably occasioned 
by insects, this opinion must have originated from the fact, 
that the Clavus is occasionally found to be eaten by minute 
worms, and that small larvcz of insects, have been detected 
in it, which on being preserved, afterwards hatched into 
moths, or butterflies. These occurrences are however too 
rare to establish the hypothesis, to which they seem to have 

given rise, and our inevitable conclusion must be, that they 
are only accidental. 

The third, (and only opinion which appears to be well 
supported,) is that the Clavus is a parasitic Fungus, like the 
different sorts of blight, smut, he. 

The correctness of this appears to me, to be fully estab- 
lished, by the following considerations. 

First. This article has, exactly, all the physical charac- 
ters, such as colours, form, taste, smell, he. and even the 
casualties incident to Sclerotium, a genus of Fungi. This 
genus consists of small solid fungous bodies, of a rounded, 
oval, or elongated form, their interior substance hard, occa- 
sionally almost as much so, as wood, sometimes a little 
fleshy, always white or inclining to white ; the outer skin 
in an early stage, is smooth, in a more advanced one often 
a little wrinkled, usually black, sometimes of a dingy pur- 
ple, seldom yellow, or white, in several species, covered by 
a peculiar kind of dust, or efflorescence, of the same colour 
as the surface. 

Second. It has, like the several species of Schroilum, an 
appointed place of growth. Some of these, as we are in- 
formed, are subterraneous, on the roots of mosses, or in the 
mass of tan, in bark-beds, in close damp places screened 
from the light, as under moss heaps, or upon the surface o( 
the ground under the droppings of cattle, on the nerves of 
cabbages stored under ground, upon the leaves and branches 
of plants that are beginning to decay, on the fading foliage of 
trees, on the rind of living fruits, on the receptacle of com- 




48 Medical Botany. 

pound flowers, on the interior of fistula? twigs, on the living 
leaf growing from under the epidemis, and (if the Clavus 
be admitted to belong to the genus,) from within, or near to 
the germen in the Gramina, and developed in the place of 
that organ. All this diversity of situation is similar to that 
of many other Fungi. 

Third. It does not affect the general health of the plant 
upon which it grows, which is more remarkably the fact, 
with respect to the genus Sclerotiirm, than of any other para 
sites, as all the species, except S. Cyparissice, are developed, 
only after the plant has done flowering, or when it tends to 
decay. 

Fourth. The Clavus, like other parasitic Fungi, is strictly 
topical, as one or more seeds in the same ear, may be com- 
pletely destroyed by it, and the rest remain perfectly in 
their natural condition* 

Fifth. The progress of the growth, and the maturity of 
the Clavus, like other parasitic Fungi, has no correspon- 
dence with that of the plant, or any part of it, on which it 

is found. 

Sixth. The Clavus is not peculiar to one plant, but is 
found on a considerable variety, that differ very widely from 
each other. This is true of other parasitic Fungi, and it 
completely overthrows the opinion, that it is merely a morbid 
change of the seed, as it would be incredible, nay indeed 
impossible, that individual seeds, so diverse as those of Se- 
cale, Alopecurus, Arundo, Festuca, Phalaris, Lolium, Phle-* 
urn, fyc. should be converted into the same article. 

Seventh. Increased humidity favours the production of 
Clavus, as it is said to do, of all the species of Scleroiium ; 
but neither Clavus, nor any Sclerotium, can be produced, 
by any degree of artificial humidity. In addition Clavus, 
and all the Sclerotiums, abound more in certain districts, 
than in others, though external circumstances are equally 
favourable for their production. 

Eighth. The Clavus, like other Fungi of a soft substance 
when young, whose seeds are commonly developed in a 
position, that does not admit of complete and free expan- 
sion, has the curious property of moulding itself in some 
measure, to the surface of the obstacle which presents itself. 

Ninth. The chemical composition of the Clavus, as far 
as the subject has been investigated, seems to correspond 



] 



Medical Botany. 49 

nore nearly to that of the Fungi, than to any other class of 

vegetables. 

Tenth. The Clavus is said to be so like S. compactum 
and S. stercorarium, that its analogy can hardly be denied, 
by any, who have seen them together. 

Eleventh. The Abbe Fontana is said to have planted in 
his garden, a number of grains of wheat and rye, and upon 
the top of each to have placed several grains of Clavus. 
The result was a crop, in which both the wheat and rye, 
were infested with Clavus. This has been considered an 
evidence of the contagious nature of Clavus ; but does it 
not rather prove propagation by seeds ; for Decandolle in- 
forms us, that, contrary to the opinions of Tode and Per- 
soon, Sclerotium should be ranked between Elvella and 
Clavaria, as belonging to that group which have external 
organs of reproduction, and not internal ones, as in Truffle, 
to which it has been approximated. Indeed the difference 
of Sclerotium and Clavaria, are said to be so slight, as to 
occasion difficulty in characterizing them. 

The Clavus, as it commonly appears, is externally of a 
violet colour, and internally white. Its form is cylindrical, 
tapering at the two extremities, occasionally straight, but 
generally curved somewhat into the shape of a crescent, in 
most instances with a longitudinal groove both upon the con- 
vex and concave side, though sometimes destitute of it on 
one, or even both sides. Its dimensions are from four to 
twelve lines in length, and from two to three in diameter. 
Its flavour is, at first, imperceptible, but after some time, it 
is disagreeable, nauseous, and sub-acrid. If chewed for a 

considerable while, it produces a sense of fullness in the 
throat. 

A grain of it cut transversely and viewed through a micro- 
scope, is said to present an assemblage of small and brilliant 
grains like starch. The external and coloured pellicle, seen 
under similar circumstances, appears as a mass of a violet 
colour, strewed with small whitish spots. 

When a grain is inflamed, by contact with a lighted can- 
dle, it burns with a white flame, distilling some drops of an oily 

liquid, emitting a dense black smoke, and smelling like burnt 
bread. 

Wilklenow speaks of two varieties of Clavus, the first of 
which he denominates simple, and describes as of a pale 
Vol. IT No. I. 7 



oO Medical Botany. 

violet upon the out side, and as whitish and mealy within, 
without any smell or taste. The second he calls malignant, 
and affirms, that it is externally dark violet, blue, or black- 
ish; and internally of a bluish grey colour, a fetid smell and 
a sharp pungent taste. 

He supposes the latter to be active upon the human sys- 
tem, and the former inert. 

From the best chemical analysis it appears that this arti- 
cle contains 

First. A pale or fawn yellow-colouring matter, soluble in 
alcohol, and tasting like fish-oil. 

Second. A white oily matter, of a sweetish taste, which 
is very abundant. 

Third. A violet colouring matter, of the same shade as 
orchil, but differing from it, by being insoluble in alcohol, 
and easily applicable, to aluminated wool, and silk. 

Fourth. An acid, probably the Phosphoric. 

Fifth. A vegolo-animal matter, very abundant, and prone 

to putrefaction, yielding much thick oil, and ammonia, by 

distillation. 

Sixth. A small quantity of free ammonia, which can be 

obtained at the temperature of boiling water. 

This article, when taken in substance into the stomach, 
in moderately large doses, occasions nausea ; and even a 
scruple, or a drachm, has produced vomiting, but without 
quickening the peristaltic motion of the alimentary canal. 
Very large quantities have occasioned head-ache, and tem- 
porary febrile symptoms. 

Its most prominent effect however, is its direct action up- 
on the uterus, producing and increasing contractions, when 
there is a predisposition to action, in that organ, and re- 
storing the catamenial secretion, when obstructed. It musl 
therefore be ranked in the Matcria-medica as a Partus- 
accelerator, and as an Emmenagogue. 

The cases in which it is indicated as a Portus-accelerator. 

are 

First. In the early sts 5 of pregnancy, when abortion 

has become inevitable, uterine contractions are feeble, and 
haemorrhage considerable, so that it has become important 
to abridge the sufferings, and lessen the danger of the pa- 
tient. 

Second. In cases of alarming hemorrhage, near the clos 
of the period of uterb-gestatidnf, not occasioned by attach- 












* 



Medical Botany. 5 1 

ment of the placenta over the os-uteri, and not accompanied 
by efficient contractions. 

Third. In puerperal convulsions, in which action is mor- 
bid, and misplaced, and speedy delivery becomes neces- 
sary. 

Fourth. In lingering labour, oonnected either with the 
death of the child, or owing to a cessation of contraction, 
the os-uteri being sufficiently dilated, and the other soft parts 
properly relaxed. This is its most important use, as it is 
here capable, in all cases, of superseding the employment 
both of the forceps and vectis, instruments, which, previous 
to the discovery of the powers of the Clavus, were not un- 
frequently necessary, but could seldom be used without 

some injury, either to the mother, or child, and usually to 
both. 

Fifth. In retention of the placenta, from deficeney of con- 
traction, it is in general, if not always, capable of superse- 
ding; the introduction of the hand. 

Sixth. In subjects liable to hoemorrhage after delivery, 
from laxity and deficiency of contraction, this effect may be 
entirely prevented by the exhibition of a suitable quantitj 
of the Clavus fifteen or thirty minutes previous to the time, 
when the labour would otherwise have terminated sponta- 
neously. 

Seventh. It may even be employed with advantage after 
delivery, to restrain the haemorrhage, and moderate the ex- 
cessive lochial discharge, which results from laxity, and de- 
bility. 

In too early a stage of labour, before the os-ateri is suffi- 
ciently dilated, and when there is much rigidity of the other 
soft parts, or when there is any malconformation, or a pre- 
sentation that requires changing, the Clavus seldom pro- 
duces any benefit, but in general, greatly increases the suf- 
terings of the mother, retards her ultimate recovery, and 
roost commonly causes the death of the child. 

As a Partus-accelerator, the substance in powder, or bet- 
ter the infusion or decoction, in the quantity of ten grains, 
to an ounce of water, may be exhibited every ten minutes, 
till its effect is produced. 

It sometimes, though very rarely, proves inoperative, but 
not oftcner than twenty-five grains of jalap fail of purging, 
or eight grains of Tartrate of Antimony fail of vomiting. 






52 Medical Botany. 

Indeed, so certain is this article in its operation, that all or- 
dinary cathartics and emetics, in their customary doses, 
much more frequently prove inert. Its effect is generally 
speedy, sometimes taking place, in as short a time as ten 
minutes, and seldom later than thirty. The uterine con- 
tractions produced by it, are commonly powerful, and inces- 
sant, and almost convulsive, and by an experienced prac- 
titioner, may always be distinguished from such as are spon- 
taneous. In doses of two or three grains, combined with a 
little opium, it is said, that it may be so managed, as to pro- 
duce the interrupted pains of regular labour. If given after 
a full dose of opium, it is liable to fail of producing any ef- 
fect. 

As an Emmenagogue, the Clavus is not- equally effica- 
cious, convenient, and unfailing. In reference to this ef- 
fect, the substance in powder, the infusion, decoction, and 
tincture have all been recommended, but here likewise, in- 
fusion and decoction seem to claim the preference. The 
quantity of the Clavus necessary to be taken daily, in JLme- 
norrhcea, varies from two drachms, to an ounce ; and this 
often requires to be continued for some weeks. In these 
cases, it commonly produces some unpleasant effects upon 
the stomach, and occasionally head-ache, increased heat of 
the body, and pain in the hypogastric region. 

On the whole, I am inclined to think, it will not be likely 
to come into repute, for this purpose. 

We are informed, that some instances of hysteria have 
very suddenly yielded to this article, but are ignorant of the 
circumstances of the cases, without a knowledge of which, 
no precept can be laid clown. 

As relates to the medical history of this article, it appears, 
both from printed authority and traditional information, that 
some general and indefinite knowledge of the medicinal pro- 
perties of the Clavus, has been, from time immemorial, in 
the possession of a few old women, and empyrical practi- 
tioners, in England, some other parts of Europe, and even 
in the United States. 

In France, as early as 1774, it seems to have been used 
with considerable judgment, by some female practitioners, 
and probably as early as 1747, by a regular Dutch Accou- 
cheur. The subject however, was in all probability, man- 
aged with the customary mystery of the times, and when 












• 



t 

Medical Botany. 53 

brought to light, at a subsequent period, it seems to have 
been viewed, as a remnant of the credulity of an ignorant, 
and superstitious age. As it was reserved however, for the 
illustrious Jenner to investigate and promulgate to the world, 
the important discovery of Vaccination, so it has fallen to 
the lot of our countryman Dr. Stearns, first to search into, 
and ascertain by experiment : to reduce to scientific form, 
and make public the powers of the Clavus, and at the same 
time, to prescribe the true restrictions, and limitations, which 
should always regulate its use ; — a discovery, which, next 
10 Vaccination, may be regarded as the greatest of the 
present age, in the science of Medicine. 

With respect to the poisonous qualities of the Clavus, and 
its power of producing malignant and epidemic diseases, 
there seems to be no foundation, for such opinions. The r 
quantity taken with bread, must of necessity be so small, it 
must be diffused in such a quantity of flour, and so changed 
by the panary fermentation, as to become completely inert. 
Besides, it must have been eaten, from time immemorial, 
as well since, as before ti:e occurrence of the diseases, that 
have been attributed to it, whilst their appearance has been 
so rare, as to cause them to be looked upon as phenomena. 
In this country, the Clavus seems always to have been 
abundant, and till of late, there has been no suspicion of its 
imparting deleterious qualities to bread. Even here, the 
diseases which have been ascribed to it, have occurred as 
frequently, prevailed as extensively, and proved as mortal, 
in parts, in which nothing but Maize and Wheat are used 
for bread. 

The fact that epidemic causes have never been satisfac- 
torily investigated, has left an unbounded field for conjec- 
ture and hypothesis ; and, unfortunately for the credit of 
the human understanding, the one in question, is not the 
most absurd. 

Vide New-York Medical Repository, 1807. — Tkacher's 
Dispensatory. — New-England Journal passim. — Prescoifs 
Dissertation. — Decandolle in Branded Journal of Science 
and the Arts. — Vauqxielin in Do. — Dyckman's Duncan's 
Dispensatory. 



4 Strong's Problems. 



MATHEMATICS. 



Art. V. Mathematical Problems, with Geometrical Con- 
structions and Demonstrations, by Professor Theodore 
Strong, of Hamilton College. 

[For the figures, see the annexed Plate.] 



Problem I. 



rn 



are not in th' 



X HROUGH tliree given points which 
same straight line, to describe a circle. 

Let A, B, C (Fig. 1. pi. i.) be the three given points 
which are not in the same straight line, it is required to de- 
scribe a circle the circumference of which shall pass through 
these points. 

Construction. Join AB, BC, and AC. Then ABC is a 
triangle. Describe a circle about this triangle. (Sim. Eucl. 
IV. 5.) Then will the circumference of this circle pa? 

through the points A, B, C. — Q. E. L 

* 

Problem II. 

Let there be three straight lines, which are not all parallel 
to each other, and do not cut each other in the same point, 
given, it is required to describe a circle, such that it shall 
touch each of them. 

Let AC, BC, BH, (Fig. 2.) be three given straight lines 
which are not all parallel to each other, and which do not 
cut each other in the same point, it is required to describe 
;i circle such that it shall touch each of them. 

Const. Let AC, BC, produced if necessary, meet in C; 
•<md also CB and BH in B. Bisect the angle ACB by the 
straight line CD, and also the angle CBH by the straight 
line BD. Let them meet in D. From the point D draw 
!)G, at right angles to BC, DF at right angles to AC, and 
DE at right angles to BH. From D as a centre, with ra- 
' dins DF, describe the circle EFG, which shall be the circle 
required. 



Strong's Problems. .35 

Demonstration, Because the angle FCD = angle GCD 
and the angle DF = angle DGC, and DC is common i«» 
both the triangles DFC, DGC, the straight line DF 
traight line DG. In like manner it may be shewn thai 
DG = DE. Therefore a circle described from D as cen- 
tre with DF as radius will pass through the three points K, 
F, G. And it is manifest also that it touches the lines BII 
AC, CB, in those points, since the radii DE, DG, DF ar« 

severally perpendicular to the lines Bll, BC, CA.-Q. E. J 

Problem HI. 



Given two points and a straight line in position, the 
'points not being on opposite sides of the line ; it is required 
to describe a circle the circumference of which shall pass 
through the two given points, and touch the given line. 

Case I. When one of the given points is in the given 
straight line. 



Const. Let AB (Fig. 3.) be the given straight line, C 
the given point in AB, and I) the other given point. — Join 
DC, and through C draw CE at right angles to AB. At 
the point D in the line DC, make the angle CDE = the an- 
gle DCE. Then the side DE = side CE. Therefore a cir- 
cle described from E as a centre with radius DE, will pass 
through C, and D. And it will likewise touch the line 
AB, this line being perpendicular to the radius CE. 

Case II. When the straight line joining the two given 
points is parallel to the given straight line. 

Const. Let AB, (Fig. 4.) be the given straight line, and 



C, D, the two given points. Join 
F. From F draw FE, at right am 



CD ; and bisect CD in 
G *,. —gles to CD. Let FE ex- 
tended cut AB in E. Through C, D, E describe a circle, 
which shall be the circle required. 

Demonst. For Join ED, and EC. Because the angles 
EFC, EFD are equal, and CF = FD and FE is common, 
the angle FCE = angle FDE. But the angle FCE 
alternate angle CEA. Therefore CEA == CDE*. Therefore 
AB touches the circle CDE in the point E. (Eucl. III. 22.) 

Case III. When the straight line joining the two gh n 

points is oblique to the given line* 

Const. Join CD (Fig. 5.) and let CD produced meet AB in 
*>. Pake B£=sa mean proportional between BD and B n 



} 



G Strong's Problems. 



Through the points C, D, E, describe the circle CDE, 

which shall be the circle required. 

Demons, For since BE = mean proportional between 
BD and BC, BE*= BD. BC. Now since the circle passes 
i hrough the points C, D, E, and BD, BC = BE 2 , the straight 
line BA touches the circle. (Euc. III. 37.) Q, E. I. 

Cor. to Case I. If the point D should fail m EC pro- 
duced, bisect the distance between the two points, and the 
proof is as before. 

Problem IV. 



Let two straight lines and a point which does not lie at 
■the intersection of those lines, be given in position, it is re- 
quired to describe a circle through the given point to touch 
the two given straight lines. 

Case 1. When the given point lies in one of the given 
straight lines. 

Construction. Let AB, AC 
be the given straight lines, and D 
the given point in one of the lines. 
Let the lines produced if necessa- 
ry meet at A. Bisect the angle 
BAG by the straight line AE. 
Through D draw ? DE at right an- 
gles to AC, cutting the bisecting 
line in E. From E as centre with 
ED as radius describe a circle : 
which shall be the circle required. 

For draw EF at right angles to AB. 

Demons. The angle FAE = angle DAE and angle 
AFE x=s angle ADE and the side AE is common to both 
the triangles AFE, ADE. Therefore EF = ED. There- 
fore a circle described from E as centre with ED as radius, 
will pass through F. Now EF and ED are at right angle 
to AB and AC. Therefore the circle touches AB and AC 
in F and D. And (by Const.) it passes through D. 

E.L 

Case II. When the point is upon neither of the fines. 

Const. Let AB, AC (Fig. 6.) he the given straight linos, 
and D the given point. Let AB, AC, produced if necessary, 
meet in A. Bisect the angle BAG by the straight line AE. 








Strong's Problems. 51 

Through D draw DE at right angles to AE. Produce DE 
until EF = ED. Through the points D, F, describe a cir- 
cle to touch the line AB.* And this shall he the circle re- 
quired. 

Demons. For suppose the circle EGH to touch the line 
A.B in the point G. Through G draw GL at right angles to 
AB, and cutting the line AE in L. Because GL is drawn 
at right angles to the tangent AB, it passes through the cen- 
tre, and since AE bisects the chord FD at right angles it 



O"- "'» 



likewise passes through the centre. L must therefore be the 
centre. From L draw LII perpendicular to AE. Now, 
since angle LAG = angle LAH,and the angle AGL = an- 
gle IiHA, and AL is common to both triangles, ] jG = LH. 
The circle, therefore, passes through the point H. And sine- 
LH is at right angles to AC, the circle FGH touches the 
line AC. But (by Construction) it touches AB, and pass, 
through the point D; FGH is therefore the circle required. 

q. E. i. 



Problem V. 



It is required through two given points to describe a cir- 
cle which shall touch a circle, given in position and magni- 
tude. 

Case L When one of the given points is in the circum- 
ference of the given circle and the other either within or 

O 

without the given circle. 

Const. Let AB (Fig. 7.) be the given circle, B the point 
in the circumference, and C, (or C - ) the point without (or 
within) the given circle. — It is required to describe a circle 
such, that it shall pass through the points B, C (B, C") and 
touch the given circle. Join BC. Bisect BC in D. Take 
F, the centre of the circle AB. Join BF. Through D, draw 
DE at right angles to CB, meeting BF produced in E. Join 
CE, and with E as centre, and radius BE, describe the circle 
CB ; then will CB be the circle required. 

Demonstration. Because CD = DB, and the angle CDE 
angle BDE, and DE is common to both the triangles CDE, 
BDE, CE = BE. Therefore the circle described from E as 
centre, with radius BE passes through C. It ia also manifest 

* Problem II. 

VW. TI No. J. 






58 



Sirong*s Problem 






'& 



that it touches the given circle. For draw LX touching i&e 
given circle in the point B. Then FB will be at right angles 
to LX. Now LX being at right angles to BE at the point 

B, which is in the circumference of the circle CBM, must 
touch this circle at that point. Therefore since both circles, 
AB, CBM, touch LX at the same point B, they must touch 
each other at that point. 

In like manner by using the letters C # , D% E # , &c. for 

C, D, E, &c, the demonstration will apply to the case, 
where the point is within the circle. 

Case II. When the two points are either without or with- 
in the given circle at unequal distances from the centre. 

Const. Let ABD (Fig. 8.) be the given circle, and C, E T 
the two points without the circle. It is required to describe a 
circle through those points which shall touch the given cir- 
cle.- — Take any point X within (or X- without) the given 
circle 

through the points C, E, X, describe a circle. — (Prob. I.) 
Let this circle cut the given circle in the points B, D. Join 



which is not in the same straight line with CE. And 



BD ; and through the points C, E, draw CE meeting BD ex- 
tended in F. Through F, draw FA, touching ABD in A. 



Because the straight line FD cuts the circle 

FA 2 . 






(E. III. 17.) 

Demonst. 
ABD, and the straight line FA touches it, FD. FB 
But FD. FB = FC. FE. Therefore FC. FE = FA a . Let 
therefore, a circle be described through (Prob. I.) C, E, A. 

Now this circle meeting FA in A, and FC. FE equaling 
FA 2 ; FA must be a tangent to C AE, at the point A. Since, 
therefore, both the circles, ABD, CAE, touch the straight 
line FA at the point A, they must touch each other at that 

point. 

In like manner, by using, C # , E # , he. for C, E, &c. this 
demonstration is applicable to the case where the points arc 
within the given circle. 

Case III. When the two points are either within or 
without the given circle at equal distances from the centre. 

Construction. Let AB (Fig. 9.) be the given circle, and 
C, D, the given points without (or C-, D% within) the given 
circle at equal distances from the centre. Join CD, CH, 
HD. Bisect CD in E, and join EH. Let EH cut the cir- 
cumference of the given circle in A. Through the points A 



i 






Strong's Problems. 5i) 



t> 



C, D, describe the circle ACD, which shall be the circle 
required. Through A draw FG perpendicular to EH. 

Demons. Because CE = ED, HC = HD and HE is 
common to the triangles HED, HEC, the angles CEH, 
DEH are equal, being opposite equal sides. Therefore 
HE is perpendicular to DC. Now because CD is a chord in 
the circle CAD and is bisected at right angles by AE, AE 
passes through the centre of the circle. But FG is at right 
angles to EA, and EA passes through the centre of the cir- 
cle CDA ; therefore FG touches the circle CDA in the 
point A. But (by Const.) FG touches the circle AB in the 
point A. Therefore the circles CDA, AB, touch each other 
at the point A. — Q. E. I. 

In like manner by using the letters C # , D", &c. for C, D, 
&c. the above demonstration is applicable to the case where 
the points are within the circle at equal distances from the 

centre. 

Scholium. As CD, GF are both at right angles to EH 

they are parallel to each other. Therefore the construction 

in Case II, failing, Case III is necessary. 

Note I. When one of the points is within the circle and 
the other without, the problem becomes impossible ; for 
then the circle which passes through those points will cut 
the given circle, which is against the Hypothesis. 

Note II. All the cases of this problem (except the first) 
admit of two solutions : as is manifest from the above con- 



struction. 



Problem VI. 



It is required to describe a circle to touch two given 
traight lines and a given circle. 

Case I. When the two given straight lines are parallel 
and the given circle lies between them, or cuts one or both 
of them. 

Const. Let AB, CD (Fig. 10.) be the two given straight 
lines, and MI the given circle. Draw EF parallel to AB 
and distant from it, by a line = radius of the given circle. 
Draw also GH parallel to CD and at a like distance from CD. 
ft is here to be noted that if EF fall between the given lines 
GH must likewise. Through Q the centre of the given 

circle describe the circle QNS touching EF, GH in N, S, 



60 Strong's Problems. 

respectively; — Join ON. Let ON cut AB in L. Then with 
O as centre and OL as radius, describe a circle XLP ; 
which shall be the circle required. 

Demons. For ON by the nature of the tangent is per- 
pendicular to EF, and therefore to AB, which is parallel to 
EF. Now since XPL passes through L, and ALO is a 
right angle, XPL must touch AB in the point L. In like 
manner it may be proved to touch CD in P. But it like- 
wise touches the given circle. For, join QO the centres of 
the two circles. Then OQ and ON being radii of the circle 
QNS are equal. Suppose the line QO to meet the given 
circle in X. Then (by Const.) QX = NL. Therefore 
OL = OX. Hence the circle LP passes through X. And 
if at the point X a perpendicular were erected-, it would be 
a tangent to both circles nt the same point X. The circles 
therefore touch each other at the point X. Wherefore 
XLP is the circle required. 

Case II. When the two given straight lines intersect 
each other, and the circle is given in any position. 

Construction. Let AB, CD {Fig. 1 1.) be the given straight 
lines and SN the given circle. It is required to describe a 
circle to touch AB, CD, and the given circle. Draw EO. 
OG, parallel to the two given lines and respectively distant 
from them by a line = radius of the given circle. — Let N 
be the centre of the given circle. Through N describe a 
circle NZ touching the lines EO, OG in the points F, F ; 
of which circle lei M be the centre. Join MF. Let MF 
cut AB in X. Then from M as centre with radius MX, 
describe a circle. And this shall be the circle required. 
Join MN intersecting the circle S V in S. 

Demonst. For NM, MF being radii of the same circle 
are equal. Rut NS = XF (by Const.) therefore SM 
MX. Therefore the circle MW passes through the point 
S. Now MXF being perpendicular to EO, and EO being 
parallel to AB, it is likewise perpendicular to AB. There- 
fore AB is a tangent to the circle SXW. In like manner we 
may prove that CD touches SXW. Now, if from the point 
S a perpendicular be drawn to NM, it will be a tangent to 
both circles at (he same point. Therefore the circle SXW, 
SV touch each other in S, whence SXW is the circle re- 
quired. 

By using NM + NS for MN— SN and MX+XF for 
MX — XF, the above demonstration is applicable where 



Strong 1 s Problems. 61 

the required circle is to circumscribe the ghfen circle. See 
Fig. 12. 

Note. In case I. where the given lines are parallel, it' 
ihe given circle and one of the given lines be on opposite 

ides of the other line, then the Problem becomes impos- 
sible. 



Problem VTL 



To draw a straight line touching two circles given in mag- 
nitude and position. 

Case I. When the touching line does not pass between 
their centres. 

Const. Let AF, BC (Fig. 13.) be the two given circles. 
Join their centres. Take CE= AB— BD, if AC> BD, 



and with CE radius and C (the centre of the given circle 
\F) centre, describe the circle EX. From D the centre of 
the other circle, draw DE touching the circle EX in E. 
Join CE, and produce CE until it meet the circle AF in 
the point A. At the point A draw the tangent AB and pro- 
duce it to the circle BG. Then shall the line AB likewise 
touch the circle BG. 

Demonstration. For, ED being a tangent to the circle 
EX, the line CE drawn from the centre to the point of con- 
tact will be at right angles to ED. — For the same reason 
EC produced is at right angles to AB. Therefore ED, AB 
are parallel. BD, therefore, being drawn from the centre D 
perpendicular to AB ; ABDE will be a parallelogram, and 
EA, BD will be equal. But EA = radius of ihe circle 
BG. Therefore BD equaling radius of circle BG, the point 
B falls in the circumference of BG. And AB is at right 
angles to BH the radius of the circle BC in B. AB must 
therefore be a tangent to the circle BG in the point B. But 
AB is likewise a tangent to the circle AF in A, (b Const.) 
therefore AB is the tangent required. 

Case II. When the touching line passes between the 
centres of the two given circles. 

Const. Let the two circles (Fig. 14.) be AB, DE. 
From O the centre of the circle DE, draw OF = radii 
circle AB + radius circle DE, and with OF as radius describe 
the circle GF. From C the centre of the circle AB draw 
CF touching FG in some point as F. Let the line joinin 









6 J Strong's Problems. 

O, F cut the circle DE in D. From D draw DA parallel 
to FC. From C draw CA parallel to OF and let it cut 
DA produced in A. Then will DA be the tangent re- 
quired. 

Demonstration. For because CF touches the circle FG 
and from O the centre of FG, OF is drawn to the point of 
contact, the angle OFC is aright angle. But DA is paral- 
lel to FC and is therefore perpendicular to OF. Hence it 
touches DE. And AC being parallel to DF is at right an- 
gles to DA. 

Moreover the figure ACFD is a parallelogram, and there- 
fore AC = DF. But DF — radius of the circle AB. 
Therefore A is in the circumference of AB. Now, the an- 
gle DAC has been proved a right angle. Wherefore DA 
touches the circle AB in the point A. But it likewise 
touches the circle ED. AD is therefore the tangent re- 
quired. — Q. E. I. 

Cor. to Case I. When the circles become equal, that is, 
when BD = AE, EC disappears. And BA is manifestly 
parallel to DC the line joining the centre of the two circles. 

Cor. to Case If. When the circles become equal, that 

is, when OD = AC, OF ±= 20D, therefore OC = 20X, 
X being in the middle of the line OC. 

Note. That this problem is impossible in both Cases, 
when one circle lies wholly within the other ; in Case II, 
when one circle cuts the other. 



Problem VIII. 



It is required to find a point, from which any straight 
iines being drawn, cutting two circles given in magnitude 
nd position shall cut off similar segments. 

Case I. When the point does not fall between the two 
circles. 

Const* Let BD and PE {Fig. 15.) be the two circles. 
Draw BPA touching the circles in B and P (Prob. VII. 
Case I.) and produce this tangent, to meet FG (which joins 
die centres of the given circles) in some point as A. From 

"'* Both the cases of this Problem admit of a very simple construction, 
which is independent of the 7th. A line joining the extremities of any two 
radii drawn parallel to each other, "will intersect the line joining tl centre 

■rodueed, in Case I.) in the point required. — Edit. 



> 






Strong's Problems. 63 

A draw any line AC, cutting the circles in C, H, N, O. Tin 
segments CBH, NPO are similar, and likewise the remain- 
ing segments CDH, NEO. 

Demonst. For draw FB, GP to the points of contact of 
the tangent, and they will be perpendicular to it and conse- 
quently parallel to each other ; draw also FC, FH, GN, 
GO. And suppose the line AC cuts BF, PG in Q, R. 
Now BF, PG being parallel, the triangles ABF, APG, as 
also the triangles AQF, ARG are similar. Whence 



AQ : AK : : QF : RG, and AQ : AK : : QB : PR. There- 
fore QF : RG : : QB : PR ; alternately QF : BQ : : RG : 
PR ; by Comp. FB : QF : : PG : RG, that is, FH : QF : : 
GO : GR ; (substituting for FB and PG their equals FH 
and GO.j Now the angles FHQ, GOR are each of them 
less than a right angle (standing on arcs less than a semi- 
circle) wherefore (Eucl. VI. 7) the angles FQH and GRO 
being equal, the triangles FQH, GRO are similar, and the 
angles QFH, RGO are equal. In like manner it may be 
shown that the angles CFQ, RGN are equal. Whence the 
angle CFH s angle NGO. Therefore their halves CDH, 
NEO will likewise be equal. Therefore the segments CDH, 
NEO are similar, and likewise the segments CBH, NPO. 
(Euc. Def. B. 3.) Wherefore A is the point required. 

Case II. When the point falls within the two circles. 

Fig. 16. Const. Let AFN, HBK, be the two given cir- 
cles. Draw (Prob. 1. C. 2.) the tangent BA cutting the 
line DE (which join the centres of the given circles) in C. 
Then will C be the point required. 

Demonst. For through C, draw any line FCH, cutting 
the circles in F, G, H, I. Join EA, DB, which being per- 
pendicular to AB, are parallel to each other. The angles 
LCE, DCM being vertical are equal. For the same reason 
ACL = angle MCB. Therefore the triangles ACL, MCB, 
as also the triangles LCE, DCM are similar. Therefore 
AL : MB : : LC : CM and LE : MD : : LC : MC, whence 
by equality, AL : MB : : LE : MD ; alternately, AL : MB : : 
LE : MD ; by compos. EA or EG : LE : : DB or DI : DM. 
Now the angles LGE, DIM are each of them less than a 
right angle ; therefore (Euc. VI. 7.) the triangles LEG, 
DIM are similar, and the angle LEG = angle IDM. In 
like manner it may be shown that the angle FEL = angle 
MDH. Therefore the whole angle IDH — whole angle 



64 Strang's Problems. 

FEG. Wherefore their halves FNG, HKI are equal. 
Consequently FNG, IKH are similar, and likewise the seg- 
ments FAG, IBH. Therefore a point C is found as re- 
quired. — Q. jG. I. 

Cor. I. By a similar construction, similar segments may 
be cut from spheres given in position and magnitude by a 
plane, as is manifest from the solution of this Problem. 

Cor. II. When in Case I. the circles approach to equality, 
the point A becomes infinitely distant, and the line AC be- 
comes parallel to AI, which passes through the centres of 
the circles. 

Cor, III. When in Case II. the circles become equal, 
the point C (as in Case II. Prob. VII.) is equidistant from 
the centres of the circles. 

Cor. IV. In Case I. the points C, I, M, O, are in the 
circumference of a circle. For ZFCI = ZGNL and ZGNR 
= ZFCH, therefore the whole angle ICH= whole angle 
LNO. But ZLNO + ZOML=two right angles, therefore 
ZlCH + ZOML— two right angles. Therefore the remain- 
ing angles CIM, COM = two right angles. Therefore the 
points C, I, M, O, are in the circumference of a circle. 
In like manner H, K, L, N are in the circumference of a 
circle. Therefore the rectangle AM. AI = AC. AO, and 

also AK. AL = AH. AN. 

Cor. V. Because (in Case II.) the segment t/FAG is 
similar to the segment IBflLr, the angle IHLr = GFy and 
the angles at C being vertical are equal ; therefore the tri- 
angles C^F, CRr are similar. But the triangle CrI js sim- 
ilar to the triangle CELr. For the angles Irx+IHx =t\vo 
right angles ; and Ira? +• Ire = two right angles : taking from 
both, the common angle Ira?, there remains CrI = CHr, 
and the angle at C being common to the two triangles the} 
are similar. Hence CFy and CHa? being similar and like- 
wise CHx and CrI, CFy is similar to CrI. Therefore CI : 
Cr : : Cy : CF. Therefore CI. CF == Cr. Cy. There- 
fore the points I, r, F, y are in the circumference of a circle. 
fn like manner it may be shewn that the points G, 2, H, x 
are in the circumference of a circle. 



(To be continued.) 






Mr. Farey* s Letter on musical Intervals, $>-c. 95 



HARMONICS. 



rr 



different modes of 



some remarks, in com- 



f pered D 



mendation of Professor Fisher's Proportionally-tern- 



■commu- 



nicatedto the Editor by Mr. John Farey, Senr. Mineral 



>/ 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAN. 



Sir* 



JLjLAVING perused the two first numbers of your Ameri- 



>f 



by observing 



the distinguished rank which two different subjects hold 
therein ; one of which has, through a long period, been to 
me a favourite source of amusement, while relaxing from my 
professional studies and practice, under the other of these 
branches of knowledge. 

The Essay on Musical Temperament by Professor Fish- 
er, w T irh which your work commences, has been to me, a 
rich treat, for which I beg to tender that Gentleman my 
best thanks, and to declare, that I have before met with 
nothing like it in point of utility, in an attentive perusal of 
nearly every thing which has been printed in the English 
language, on the subject of Musical Temperament, and as 
to the correct and practically useful views, which are therein 
taken of the subject. It is with the hope of drawing a more 



•s 



* Remark. — The following communication w r as received 
soon after the fourth and last number of this work was pub- 
lished : and it is regretted that no earlier opportunity has 
occurred, of giving it publicity. We give it entire in the 
present Number, that we may present in one view the opin- 
ion oi Mr. Farey (one of the few competent judges) re- 
jecting Prof. Fisher's original speculations on this curious 
subject. 

Vol. IL....N0. J. f> 



88 Air Farcy's Letter on musical Intervals, fyc. 

extended attention to what Professor Fisher has done, that 
I am principally induced to make the present communica- 
tion ; relying with lull confidence, on the candour of Pro- 
fessor F* and others of your Readers, who may interest 
themselves in this curious subject, for excusing the freedom 
of the remarks I may make. 

The practitioners of Music, both Professional and Ama- 
teur, almost universally, as also a great majority of the Teach- 
ers and Composers of Music, and even many of the Writers 
of " Treatises" (as they are here technically called) on the 
theory and practice of Composition and on Tuning, are 
well known to have been so very generally unacquainted 
with, or so inattentive to, any of the correct methods of de- 
fining, measuring and calculating the musical Intervals which 
occupied their attention, as to have in no ordinary degree 
excited the surprise of every one, who has compared these 
many able and ingenious Individuals, with the cultivators 
of nearly every other of the branches of Science and polite 
or useful Arts amongst us ; into which happily correct 
notions and nomenclatures, and accurate notations and 
modes of calculating, every thing which comes within the 
definition of quantity, is either introduced and established^, 
or is now in rapid progress towards this desirable end. 

I was first led to make the above remarks, on the occa- 
sion of the establishment of the Choral Fund in this Me- 
tropolis, almost thirty years ago, and while I acted as its 
first Secretaiy, Librarian, he. which brought me into ac- 
quaintance with numbers of the most eminent of the Charac- 
ters alluded to ; with many of whom, and the successors, 
alas ! of too many of them, I have continued to cultivate 
this acquaintance, and as often as opportunities offered, have 
conversed with them on the subjects, to which I am now 
alluding : from all which, and the concurrent experience of 
all such of my Acquaintances, as unite a knowledge of 
Mathematics with that of the principles of Music, I have 
long been convinced, that the chief cause of the evil I am 
deploring, has arisen from the very unnatural manner, ex- 
cept to Mathematical adepts, in which the ratios of the 
lengths of strings define musical Intervals, with a view to 
comparing or calculating the magnitude of such Intervals : 
and it is the same, with regard to the number of vibrations 
or pulses, made in a given time, by the sonorous body, or 



Mr. Farei/s Letter on musical Intervals, $*c. 67 

excited in the air, for yielding different sounds ; because ii 
is the ratios, only, of these, that can be applied to the com- 
paring or calculating of musical Intervals ; involving, in 
all such cases, the unnatural and laborious substitution 
of the multiplication of vulgar Fractions, in the place of 
simple addition, and the substitution of division of vulgar 
Fractions, in the place of simple subtraction, of the Inter- 
vals under consideration : a consequence of which is, that 
the smaller the Intervals are, the larger do the numbers ex- 
pressing them become, and the more difficult of conception 
and the more laborious, does the expressing or calculating 
of them become ; and hence it can excite no wonder, that 
nearly all who may not have been induced to cultivate 
some acquaintance with Mathematics, for its own sake, have, 
as Musicians or Tuners, been so bewildered and disgusted, 
at the very outset of their attempts to understand this im- 
portant and fundamental part of their subject, as to have 
given up the pursuit ; being content to remain ignorant of 
that which was presented to them by the professed Writers 
on the subject, in so unnatural and forbidding a form. 

It is observable, that the small Intervals above alluded to, 
as occasioning the chief stumbling block, are not merely 
such as curiosity only, and not utility, requires to be 
brought into review, but they concern each and every one of 
the Intervals which are considered, when we attempt to 
speak of the Temperaments of the Musical Scale : and hence, 
it has been next to impossible, that the mere Arithmetician, 
who proceeded to add and subtract Intervals according to 
the unnatural plan above mentioned,* could complete the 
calculation, or understand the true nature, of any one of the 
various modes in which the musical Scale may be attemper- 
ed, or even comprehend the untempered Scale itself, in so 
much of its generality as the same is now actually exhibit- 
ed, on the Euharmonic organs of Mr. Li on, and always 
has, although almost unperceived, been practiced, by the 
correct Singer, the Violinist, and a few other Practitioners 

* That most indefatigable Calculator, the late Mr. M ladnke Overend, 
proceeded in this way, and brought liis labours to no useful conclusions, ex- 
cept in the discovery of three smaller Intervals than any that had before 
been mentioned by Authors, and of some few other new Interval?, which 
are somewhat larger, as I have foil J explained in Mr.Tii loch's Philosophical 

Magazine, in Vol 28. p. 140 






Us 31r. Farcy's Letter on musical Intervals, tyc. 

on Instruments which are perfect, as to their capability of 
yielding any degree of sound whatever, which either theory 
or the judgment of the ear might require. 

Since the period of the sublime invention of Logarithms, 
and their general diffusion in Tables of the present form r 
such have opened new and great facilities to the mathemat- 
ical calculators, on the subject of the musical Scale and it? 
Temperaments ; but it has been almost in vain, that appeals 
have been made to the mere Musician or Tuner, on the 
utility and the easy application of these measures of Ratios, 
because the original difficulty has as often recurred, viz, the 
want of apparent and natural connection, between ratios and 

musical Intervals. I have on various occasions* attempted 
to remove this difficulty, by shewing, that the reciprocal 
common Logarithm of any Interval, correctly expresses 
the decimal relation which that Interval bears, to the concord 
called the major Twentyfourth, or XXIV (or 3VIII + III) 
whose Ratio is -j 1 ^ and its reciprocal logarithm is 1 0000000; 
but the difficulties with this class of Persons have in no de- 
gree tyeen removed, by endeavouring to explain to them, 
that the reciprocal of a logarithm answers to the substitution 
of division in the place of multiplication; (or vice versa;) and 
in the present case, that the change of ^or -9, as the tabular 
index of the common logarithm of the fraction j\, to I •, 
answers completely to the tuning or considering of aXXIVth 
downwards, instead of upwards, between its terminating 
Sounds. 

When all the decimal places of figures beyond the fifth, 
had been arbitrarily rejected, and the recip. log. so abridged, 
multiplied by 100000 (as was done first, I believe, by Dr. 
Robison) in order to obtain measures for the various Inter- 
vals of the scale, and its Temperaments, I have not found 
these further deviations from any visible natural connection, 
between the arbitrary numbers so obtained, and the musical 
Intervals they are made to represent, to have the least ten- 
dency towards gaining the attention and ; ent of the Mu- 
sicians and Tuners whom I have conversed with; but the 
reverse of it, in more than one instance ; in one of which 
cases it has been urged to me, thus : " If the logarithmic 



See the " Edinburgh Encyclopaedia," < fced by Dr. Brewstc vol. VII. 
p. 3Jj vol. XI. p 508, and in several other parts of th truly valuable WorP 



Mr. Farcy's Letter on musical Intervals, tyc. 69 

measures of ratios admit of being thus modelled at will, 
Low are we any longer to place confidence in those Writings, 
which speak always of the Concords, and the other Inter- 
vals of the scale derived from them, as being rigidly measur- 
ed by ratios, in small whole numbers, involving no prime 
larger than 5 ?" To this, it may not be unseasonable for 
me now to add, that in making the above mentioned re- 
jection of the sixth and following places of recip. logs., 
although so great an error as f\ths of the fifth unit figure 
is not necessarily committed, in any of the Concords w r ithin 
the Octave, (or in the major or minor Tones, or the major 
Semitone, which are usually termed their elements,) yet in 
the major Comma, the error is unavoidably T 5 oths, in the ex- 
pression for the Interval, which so often happens to be the 
unit of the Temperaments : and although it may be said, 
that even this is but the T7 -J- -th part of a comma, yet this is 
sufficient to shew the want of a natural foundation for this 
mode of representing Intervals ; however useful to the Math- 
ematician, as approximations, the same may with truth be 
contended for, as has been done by Professor Fisher, in 
your 17th page. 

Notwithstanding it is found thus difficult to define, or to 
assign intelligible measures to musical Intervals, owing to the 
remoteness of the analogy by which such are connected 
with the ratios of Numbers, the most evident analogies con- 
nect many of these Intervals with each other, and shew them 
to be quantities capable of addition and subtraction : thus, 
no one with the least ear for music, will dissent from th« 
truth and conclusiveness of the experiment, performed on 
an Organ or Piano-forte in his presence, of tuning, perfect 
(and without any beatings) 1st, a major Fifth upwards from 
a given note, (as C) to G, and then a minor Fourth upon 
this, or Gc, that then the compound interval Cc, is a trm 
Octave ; 2dly, if the Hid CE, and on it the 6th Et\ b< 
tuned, he will agree, that the very same Note c has been 
arrived at, as before ; and 3d1y, wiw i the 3d CEb , and then 
the Vlth E& c are tuned, he will still agree, that the same 
note c is again arrived at; proving ck Ay, that either of 
these three pairs of Intervals, make up, together, the same 
sum of Intervals, viz. an Octave. 

So in like manner, if the perfect Octave Cc be first tuned 

v m rds, and then either the above six concords tuned 



70 Mr. Farey's Letter on musical Intervals, tye. 

downwards from c, another one of these concords, which is 
called its complement, will in every case result or remain 
(true, and without any Beats, as all experiments prove) as 
the difference, between the lower Octave note C and the 
lowest note of such subtracted concord. 

It has been, therefore, with some propriety, that the ma- 



ences of 



ftning Intervals, as the sums or dijfi 



the very frequent use of the major Tone T (having the ratio 
), of the minor Tone t ( T \), and of the major Semitone S 
(}|), as degrees or leaps in the Scale of melody, have led 
these Writers almost unanimously to adopt those three Inter- 
vals, as the terms of their Notation of Intervals, in general : in 
which manner, for example, the above seven Concord? 
beginning with the smallest, are expressed as follows, viz. 
T + S, T+t, T + t+S, 2T + t+S,2T+t+2S,2T + 2t 

4-S, and 3T+2t+2S; which answer to the Literals, 
E^ , E, F, G, A& , A and c, respectively. If now we omit 
V * , and supply the six remaining discords, and also the 
lower octave note, for completing, in this notation, the 
Douzeave which Mr* Liston calls the Original Scale, (p. 28 
of his "Essay on perfect Intonation,") they are as follows, 

viz. C-o, C#=T-S, D=T, F£=2T + t, G#=2 T^ 
2 t, Bt) =2 T + 2 t+2 S, and B^3 T + 2 t+S. 

Those who may proceed no further than to the con- 
sideration of the scale of 12 notes, which is defined above, 
without proceeding to supply the other intermediate notes, 
which become necessary in extending the modulation, (as 
r. Liston has done,) may remain in a great degree igno- 
rant of the great defect of this particular mode of Notation : 
rising, not from any defect in its principle, as has been ob- 
served above, but merely from the largeness of its terms, 
T, t and S ; which occasion negative signs so frequently to 
occur, and connecting such varied multiples of these terms, 
as almost certainly to bewilder and disgust most of those 
who may attempt to follow Mr. Liston, through the large 
folding Tables inserted in his Essay. I have conversed 
with more than a score of Musicians, who had previously 
perused Mr. L.'s Essay, but not one of whom had got over 
the stumbling-block last mentioned. — One of these Gentle- 
men, having more perseverance than others, observed to me 




£ 






Mr, Farey's Letter on musical Intervals, fyc. 1\ 

nearly as follows : — If, said he, I want to know whether, 
in Mr. Liston's Scale, cD Is a higher or a lower note than 
his B# ; I find these Notes defined in his Tables, bj 3T 
+ 3t, and 2 T + 2 t-f 3 S, respectively : but my not being 
able to carry in my head the recollection of the exact com- 
parative magnitudes of T, t and S (whose relations in de- 
cimals of either of them, I understand to be inierniinate, as 
to places of figures, such never ending, or circulating) I am 
unabie to perceive which of these quantities is the largest: 
if, continued he, I suppose the first to be the largest, and 
deduct the last from it, as algebraists do, I obtain T-f t 
3 S : but here again, from not being able readily to j er- 
ceve whether T + t is larger than 3 S, I am left in doubt, 
until after a calculation of some considerable labour, for 
deciding whether I have made a wrong or a right supposi- 
tion. Again, said he, if I want to know whether Mr. L.'s 
B'£k is higher or lower than his c ; his expressions for them, 
respectively, are, 4 T+2 t, and 2 T + 3 t+2 S ; but such 
are not fitted for conveying at sisrht the information wanted : 

if I take their difference, as before, I find it to be 2 T — t 

2 S, which leaves me under similar difficulties, as in the 
first case. 

Long before Mr. Liston published his Essay, or I had 
heard his name mentioned by any one, I had provided a 
remedy for the inconvenience above stated, in the Notation 
to which Professor Fisher has referred, in your 18th page : 
founded on the same principle as above, but using three 
toery small Intervals, for the terms of my Notation, derived 
from the Manuscripts of Mr. Overend, already mentioned, 
and which had been marked by him £, f and m ; but which 
Intervals, or any others, he had not adopted or used as a 
dotation ; they merely stood amongst a multitude of his 
isolated results. 

The largest of my Terms 2 (or the Schisma), is the ver\ 
ame small Interval 2 T — t— 2 S, which is mentioned 
above ; it occurs also, between ten others of the adjacen 
notes in Mr. Liston's Scale of 59 notes ; and it is the small- 
est Interval which can ever occur, in the calculation of even 
far more extended Euharmonic or untempered Scales, thai 
[hose of Mr. Liston's Essay, as I have since fully shewn, 
in the Phil. Mag. vol. 39, p. 419, and vol. 49, p. 362, fae, : its 
ratio is 2 ,5 + 3 3 x5; my second Term f (or the lesser 



i 



72 Air. Farcy's Letter on musical Intervals, tye. 



Fi 



value — 9 T + 7 t+5 S, and its 



ratio is 3**4*2" x5 2 ; and my third Term m (or the most 
Minute) is = _21 T+10 t + 22 S, and its ratio is 3* 4 x 
5 1: -~2* 61 . 

Complicated and appalling as these diatonic expressions 
and ratios may appear at first sight, to many, the Intervals 
2, fand mare, nevertheless, strictly founded in Nature, 
and will as truly and as correctly represent musical Intervals, 
in every possible case, as the Ratios composed of the prime 
integers 2, 3 and 5, or any notation by Intervals, can do : 
and witfi the important advantage, in no other way so well 
attainable, of an increasing series, throughout, in each of its 
terms, as the Intervals increase in magnitude, which are 
thereby expressed ; and yet, without negative signs, in any 
case that can be of the least use. They have other material 
advantages over any other notation by means of Intervals 
that has been proposed : yet these I shall not here enlarge 
on, but proceed briefly to mention, as follows : 

The Octave, or \, is in this notation, of the value 612s 
+ 12f-f 53m, the major Twelfth (or VIII + V) or *, is 
9702 + 19f-f 84m, and the major Seventeenth (or 2VIII+- 
III) or 1, is =142l2 + 28f+123m : which three expres- 
sions, in terms of 2, f and m, answer to the three prime 
integers 2, 3 and 5, and will therefore serve for reducing 
any diatonic Interval whose Ratio is given, into this nota- 
tion, by merely adding either of these expressions, as ofteH 
as its corresponding integer is multiplied into the denomi- 
nator of the Fraction (or largest number of the Ratio) and 
subtracting such expressions, as often as such integers, re- 
spectively, are found multiplied in the numerator of the ' 
fraction. The following examples will, I hope, make the 
application of this rule easy to any one. 

1st. If the ratio given, be that of the major Fifth, or f, 
we have only to take 970S + 19f+ -84m, and deduct from 
it612s + 12f+53m, and the remainder, or 358s +7f+ 
31m, is the notation of V, as required. 2nd. If the major 
Third or *£* be given, we must take 1421 s + 28f-f 123m, 
and from it deduct the double of the first expression, or 
1 2242 +24f+ 103m, which htt s 197£-f 4f+17m, for 



the notation of III. 3rd. If the major Comma be given, 
its ratio is £$, or 2 4 X5-4-3*, and we must first take 4 times 
the second expression, or 3S802+ 76f+336m ; and next, 






r 



Mr. Farey's Letter on musical Intervals, fyc. 



7.; 



4 times the first expression, or 2448s+48f+212m, and 
add it to the third expression, making 38692 4-761 + 335m, 
and then deduct this last, from the multiple first found in 
this case, and the remainder is llz-fm, the notation of c. 
Further examples may appear unnecessary here ; yet it 
will be proper to add, that if the calculations by this rule 
are gone through, which are indicated above, by the ratios 
answering to s, to f, and to m, respectively, they only, will 
be found to result, respectively ; or, the truth of the whole 
may be demonstrated in various other ways, as is shewn in 
the " Edinburgh Encyclopedia," vol. IX. p. 275. 



TABLE I. 



Lite 
rals. 



c 

B 
Bt> 

A 

G 

Ft? 
F 

E 
Eb 

D 



A<> 

D 
C 



* 

a 



Ratios. 



New Notation. 

2 + f+m 



Numerals. recip. Logar. 






i 



l-i-2 
84-15 
94-16 
34-5 

164-25 
24-3 

324-45 
3-J-4 
4-^-5 
5-^6 

8-^-9 



612 12 53|*"I» or Octave. -3010299,96 



C# [128 -^-135 
C 



14-1 



555 11 48 
508 1 44 
451 9 39 
394 8 34 
358 7 31 
301 6 26 
254 5 22 
197 4 17 
161 3 14 
104 2 9 

47 1 4 





54-S 
94-10 
154-16 

804-81 



327684-32805 

450283905 Sic. 

| 450359962 tic. 
292297733 Lc. 
29230032 7~£cT 



I 



1 I 



2 



I 



415 8 36 

93 2 8 

57 1 5 

11 1 

1 

1 



1 

! - - n — 

3 



i 



VII 

7 
VI 

Ext. rfV 

V* 
IV 

4 
III 

3 
II (or T) 

1 



6 



II (or t) 

2 (orS) 

c 



-p. 



f 



m 



4 



•2730012,72 

•2498774,73 
•2218487,50 
•1938200,26 
•1760912,59 
•1480625,35 
•1249387,37 
•0969100,13 
•0791812,46 
0511525,22 
•0231237,99 
•0000000,00 

" : 2041 199,83 
•0457574,91 
•02802S7,24 
•0053950,32 
•0004901,07 

•0000733,5o' 



0000038,53 



5 



Vol. II No. I. 



10 



74 Mr. Fartffs Letter on musical Intervals ^ tyc. 

In the work last quoted, vol* XIII, p. 41, the 59 note 
of Mr. Liston's Scale will be found expressed in the nota- 
tion that has now been described ; from which I have ex- 
tracted, and placed in Table L the 12 notes of his original 
Scale already mentioned herein. 

The seven list lines of the above Table have been added, 
in order to include the concords of minor Sixth, the minor 
Tone, the major Semitone and the Comma; and the Schi$>- 
ma, the lesser Fraction, and the most Minute. This Tab! 
can hardly need further explanation : I will therefore pro- 
ceed to some further remarks. 

The expressions in col. 3 of the above Table, accurately 
express the values of the Intervals in cols. 4 and 2 : and 
such is the peculiar and natural connection, between the 
rates of increase upwards in the Table, for each of the term 
S, f and m, that whatever result or truth appears conjoint!; 
from the three terms, after any process of adding or sub- 
tracting Intervals in any manner, has been performed, the 
same result or truth appears also, from each of its terms 
separately : there being here, no carrying or borrowing (in 
whole numbers, at least) from one column to another, as in 
common Arithmetic. Thus, independently of the other 
two columns 2 and m, the f column, in every result of ope- 
rations performed with these expressions, as giving a rough 
value in artificial Semitones, or 12th parts of the octave : 
every like result in the m column will give a considerably 
more accurate value, in the artificial Commas of Nicholas 
Mercator, or 53d parts of the octave, very nearly : and 
every result of like operations in the 2 column, will give 
rigidly accurate results, in all such Enharmonic or untem- 
pered calculations as are alluded to above, and will approx- 
imate to the truth, abundantly sufficient for nearV even 
practical purpose of Harmonic , being extremely near to the 
612th parts of the octave, and to the 11th pai sofifte 
major comma. 

"When Tendered Systems are to be calculated, fractional 
parts of the major comma, cxpre ed in Sehis , may be 
joined with these artificial commas without at all disturbing 
the consistency of their results : thus, if the Isoton ale 
of equal Seraitom m were required to be calculated, the flat 

temperament of the Vth is known to be e ly near 

to T jth of a major comma, which is 2, and the true Vth 












v 



Mr. Farcy's Letter on musical Intervals, fyc. 76 

being 358s, 3572 is the Isotonic fifth; 12of which, or 4294s, 
prove to he just equal to 7x6122, as should he the case. 
Jf all the three columns of my notation had been here used, 
a greater degree of exactness only equal to m, or the T? J ? th 
part of a comma, would have been gained thereby. 

Again, if a Mean-Tone Douzeave were required to be 
calculated, where }c is the flat Temperament of the Vth ; 
358— 2- J , = 355| is its tempered fifth : which multiplied by 
11, gives 30Q7|S, and this taken from 7VIII or 4284s, 
leaves 376! .-z, or V + 18-^2, as the wolf fifth of this system 
(usually G#eb) as is well known, although 1 now perceive 

that I have inadvertently called it 21s, in the Phil. Mag. 
vol. 36, p. 45. 

1 can now proceed to the main object of the present Let- 
ter, viz. to shew" how the Notes of Professor Fisher's pro- 
portionalty-tc?j ercd Douzeave, in your 195th page, may 
be expressed in these artificial commas (and decimals of 
them) with greater accuracy, than in the 5-pIaee recip. logs. 
in which they are now expressed ; and in which state, I 
have hopes of this new Scale of Intervals, deduced with so 
much ingenuity and labour by Professor F. attracting, in 
this country at least, a somewhat greater share of attention 
trom the practical Musicians and Tuners, than, in its present 
logarithmic denomination, it seems to me likely to obtain, 
for reasons which have already been given herein. 

By beginning at the bottom of the Table in page 194, 
and progressively adding together the numbers therein, the 
value of each Note of the Douzeave will be had in 5-place 
recip. logs. ; B for instance, being -2720S ; let this be sub- 
tracted from the value of B in the last column of my first 
Table, and the difference will be found = -0009212,72 ; and 
this difference we must convert into Schismas and decimals 
by dividing by the value of 2 in the Table, or by -0004901 -07; 
and thus we set 1 •87972, as the flattening or deduction to 
be made from 555s, the artificial commas of B; which 
thereby becomes 553-12032, as in col. 2 of the Table II. 
following. By proceeding in a similar manner, the ten other 
artificial commas and decimals in this Table may be cal- 
culated.* 



>rc ready and correct mode, than by common di- 
ogomdric Logarithms (see I din. Encyc. vol. XIII, 
P- *72) or the logarithms of the recip, logs. : recollecting that 



It is a mot 

vision, to use L 



76 



Mr. Farcy's Letter on musical Inierwls, fyc 



\ 


1 


TABLE II. 






Y~ j»ti 


?rvals of the Scale, in 

I Artificial corn-l Numerals j 


|| Temperaments, of the 
Vths | Illds 1 3ds 


[Literals 


J 


1 mas, or 2s 1 \ 


Zst> 1 2s# | Sst> 


C 


612-0000 


VIII 








B 


5531203 


VII 


2-9 


w 13-8 


3.0 


B*> 


512-6776 


7 


2-2 


1-4 


w 22-7 


A 


454-1447 VI 


2-8 
\v#7 • 9 


l>0-2 31 


G w 


397-9991 Ext.#V 


w 170 


5-9 


355-2420 


V 


2-2 


0-9 


3-6 


r « 


296-2000 


IV 


1 3-3 w 19-5 3-1 


F 


256-5327 


4 


j 2-5 


0-6 w 19-5 


E 


197-3246 


III 


2-2 


3-7 


31 


E* 


151-8974 3 


#2-8 


6-3 w 16-7 


D 


99-0776 


II 


2-9 


01 


3-6 


c« 


38-9328 


I 


m-i 


vv 20-6 


2-6 


c 


0-0000 


1 


2-8 


0-3 


91 








-23-8 


+ 84-2 


-96.0 


1 


1 


1 3 | 


+ 11-8 -0-2 


1 1 


2 I 


| 4 | 5 


1 6 



The three first columns of the above Table can need no 
further description ; except mentioning, that in case the Ts 

3*6902910, is the constant log. log. for reducing 7-place recip. logs, 
to logs, of Sckismas ; and such is likewise the constant addend for 
reducing Schismasto recip. common logs. In the above example 
the log. of 921272 is 3*9643878 ; from which take the constant 
log. log. 3-6902910 (or log. of 4901*07) and 0-2740968 remains, 

whose number is 1-879742 as above. 

In this manner also, may ratios involving other primes larger than 
5, be reduced to my notation : if for example, the false minor 
Third I mentioned in your 195th page, were given : the Tabular 
recip. log. off (or log. of £) is -0669467,90, which falls short of E& 
in my 1st Table, by -01 224344,56 ; from whose log. take the con- 
stant log. log* of 2, and we find the number answering to the remain- 
der to be 241)6282 J and therefore « =136-03722 -f3f+ 14m ; 
where, for the purposes of Temperaments, the first of the two last 
terms, or the Fs, may always be neglected, as not affecting the re- 
sults, and so may the last term or the m% and the artificial commas 
only be used, unless sometimes, and where extreme accuracy is 
wanted, as will be further shewn. 



Mr. Farey's Letter on musical Intervals, fyc. 



77 






and m's are wanted, they are the same as in Table I ; and 
in order to obtain the numbers in the remaining columns, 
octaves must be stated above col. 2, for the Notes c#, d, eb, 
e, f and f#, by adding 612s to each of the corresponding 
notes, from C# to F#. 

It must be recollected, (as is shewn in Table I.) that the 
three perfect concords whose Numerals stand at the heads 
of cols, 4, 5 and 6, are 358s, 1972 and 1612 respectively : 
and the mode of obtaining the numbers in these three last 
columns, will then be made evident, by two examples, viz. 
1st, in order to calculate the Temperaments of the Vth 
above B ; from the value of its upper note f # or 908-2000, 
take the value of B or 553-1203, and the remainder is 
355-07972, which being less than 3582, shews the Tem- 
perament to be flat, as is expressed at the top of the co- 
lumn, and the difference of the two last numbers is 2*92032, 
the Temperament required, but only the two first of these 
figures is entered in the Table, for reasons which will ap- 
pear in the Note which is annexed.* 

* Rather more exact results than the Schismas and tenths which 
are set down in Table II, might be obtained, by multiplying Pro- 
fessor Fishers Temperaments, in his Xllth Table, by 0-0204037 ; 
and this method may be used for checking my Table. The rea- 
sons why only the first place of decimals of 2s are set down in my 
Table are, because this is a sufficient degree of exactness for the ar- 
ranged Table of Temperaments and remarks thereon, which I in- 
tend further on ; and because, when more places of decimals are re- 
quired to be true, some corrections must be made, for the nvs that 
are overlooked in the above calculations, by artificial commas* 

The Ps or second terms of my Notation, do not occasion error* in 
any of these calculations; nor do the nfs do so, in the Tempera- 
ments of 8 of the Vths viz. on C, E, F, F#. G, A, B>or B; or in 
6 of the 1 1 Ids, viz. on C, D, Eb , E, F or G; or in 5 of the 3ds, 
viz- on C, E, G#, A or B. The corrections of the Xth Tempera- 
ments are as follows, viz. those on C#, D, and Eb require to be 
altered m (or -007862s) viz, the Temperaments that are #, to be 
decreased, that which is b, increased ; and the wolf on G# re- 
quires to be increased 2m (or -0157242.) The Illds Tempera- 
ments require correcting thus; viz. those on C#, FtJ, A and B&, 
to be altered m : the # Temperaments to be increased, and the b 
one decreased; and the Temperaments on G# and B, require to b«* 
increased 2 m. And in the 3ds column, the Temperaments oh 



78 Mr. Farey's Letter on musical Intervals, fyc. 

2dly. We will suppose that I was at first at a loss to recol- 
lect, which is the note in the upper octave, that ivnits the 
major third above B ; I have, for removing this difficulty, 
only to add 197 to 553, which gives 750s ; and to observe 
that this is the nearest to e'^, which is 763*S974s ; from this 
therefore, I must take B or 553*1203, and 210-7771 re- 
mains ; which exceeds 197, by 13*77712, and shews thi 
last to be the sharp Temperament of this major third wolf. 

Besides distinguishing those Temperaments in col. 4. 
which differ from the title thereof, in being sharp, instead 



o* 



l 



wolf; the 



same remark applies to col. 5, as to the temperament of the 
Jlld on A being flat, and to the four major third wolves, and 
also to the three minor third wolves, in col. 6. I have at 
the bottom of the columns, added up the sharp and flat tem- 
peraments, in order to shew that the Sum in col. 4 i 

1202; in col. 5, = + 84*02; and in col. 6, =— 96-0s ; 
these f being general properties of all Douzeave systems: 
which, if my knowledge and memory correctly serve me, J 
was the first to publish, in the Phil. Mag. Vol. 28, plate 5, 
and to demonstrate in Vol. 36, p. 43. 

The order of the several concords, as to their degrees ol 
harmoniousness, measured by their Temperaments, to the 
nearest tenth of a Schisma, or T Vo °f a comma, are as fol- 
lows : 



Ctt, D, Fji, G and Bb, require to be altered m, and those on Eb 
and F, require correcting 2 in ; all of these, by increasing the 
Temperaments. 

One example must suffice ; in the Text, the Temperament ol 
the wolf Hid on B, has already been found 13-77712, which it nov 
appears, is to be increased -01572, and made 13-79282. This 
trouble might have been lessened, if the correctional Table X. hao 
been calculated at first in Schismas and decimals, by applying lh» 
numbers in Table IX, to the numbers of an Isotonic Douzeave. 
composed of multiples of 512. 

t When the corrections of the Temperaments, on accont of 
the m's, are made, the casting will stand thus, viz. — 23*7527 
+ 1 1 *7448, =12-000792 j + 84-2669 —'2040, =84-06292 ; and 

96-07082, which accord with my d* rminations in the Philo- 

phical Magazine. 






/ 






Mr. Farey's Letter on musical Intervals, fyc. 79 

TABLE HI. 



iflds on (and 6ths below) D 01, A 0-2, C 0.3, F 0-6, li 
t>-9, Bb 1-4, E 3-7, Eb 6-3 j B 13-8, G# 17-0, F# 19-5, ami 

CtJ 20-6. 

Vths on (and 4tha below) C# 1-1, Bb 2-2, G2-2, E 2-2, 

F 2-5, G 2-8, Eb 2-8. A 2-8, B 2-9, D 2-9, F# 3-3 ; and 

C-J7-9. 



■* 



3ds on (and Vlths below) C# 2-6, B 3-0, Ft? 3-1, E3-1, 

A 31, D 3-6, G3-6, G#5-9, C 9-1 j Eb 16-7, F 19-5, and 
Bb 22-7. 

It will be seen from Professor Fisher's Table in p. 32, 
that a very decided majority of organ pieces, in the majoi 
mode, are .set in G and D : and a no Jess marked majority of 
those in the minor mode, in A and D ; and it is on this 
account that I have drawn a black line, to separate the 
minor thirds in the above Table : the Vths are placed in 
the middle line, for more ready comparison with the HTds 
above and the 3ds below ; and the wolves are separated by 

semicolons. 

I beg now to congratulate Professor Fisher on the happy 
result of his ingenuity and labour, in calculating this Dou- 
zeave : viz. as to the very near agreement exhibited above, 
with what I understand to be the present practice of all the 
best Tuners of organs ; I mean, as to the exceedingly 
small Temperaments of that very important concord the 
major Third, in the five most important Keys, viz, G, IX 
C, F and A; as to the very moderate temperament of this 
concord, in the Keys Bb and E ; and as to thfe four Hid 
wolves, (which are, alas ! inseparable from a Douzeave 
Sc,dc 5 ) falling in those Keys, where all judicious Tuners 
have be n us d to throw them ; and the least of these 
wolves fills in the Kev of B, which oftenest occurs. The 
only thing which strikes me as an unlooked-for anomaly as 
to the Illds, is, the Temperament on Eb, being so consider 
abl as more than half a comma. 

With regard to the fifths, considered with relation both to 
the major and minor mod ;, in the three important Keys G, 
F and E, the Temperaments are less than in the Mean-Tone 
system (or 2fs,) now so generally used on the organ: in 
the three other important Keys D,C and Fj\ the Tempera- 






HO 



Mr. Farcy's Letter on musical Intervals, fyc* 



meats are but a trifle greater than the Temperaments in 
use ; and the Vth wolf falls in the same Key, and is con- 
siderably less than half of the usual quantity ; owing to two 
others of the fifths being in small degrees sharpened, which 
seems a great and important novelty. 

As to the minor Thirds, the two most important Keys, A 
and E, have Temperaments which but very little exceed 
those in use, and in neither of the three next most important 
Keys D, G and B, does the Temperament one-third ex- 
ceed those of the Mean-Tone system ; and lastly, the three 
3d wolves fall in the three Keys, to which the practical 
Tuner assigns them ; agreeably to what is stated in my Tem- 
perament Theorems, Phil. Mag. vol. 36, p. 42 : the 11th 
Scholium to which defines the chief properties of the 
Equal-harmony Douzeave of Professor Fisher,, in his 3d 
proposition. 

I beg leave to remark, that I have long been impressed 
with the importance and desirableness of what Professor 
Fisher has now performed for the Musical world, as far at 
least as Organ Music is concerned, as will be seen by refer- 
ence to the work last quoted, vol. 26, p. 176 ; and vol. 27, 
p. 319 and 320. 

I am not aware that any one before me, had published 
the accurate and very simple mode of calculating Beats, which 
Professor Fisher has rather too briefly mentioned, at the 
bottom of page 181 : many years ago, I deduced it as a 
corollary from the 202d proposition of Emerson's Algebra, 
whose Theorem I have quoted in the Edinb. Enc. Voh III, 
p. 369, and there first published my Theorem. 

In a future communication to you, I wish much that Prof. 
Fisher would mention the Temperament, or else otherwise 
define the system, which he has entitled the French one, in 
page 198: and also say, whether at the top of p. 31, he 
does not mean #Vtli on C, and #VIth on F ? 

I regret exceedingly that the calculations for Table IV, 
in pa^e 34, were abridged of their three last places oi 
figures, particularly the two first of these, and earnestly re- 
quest, that Professor Fisher will yet supply these, through 
the medium of your pagi , and he will still further oblige. 

Sir 
Your obedt- humble servt. 

JOHN FAREY Sem, 
Hotaiand Street, London, 30. April, 1819. 



Medical Chemistry. 



81 



P.S. 



I regret very much, to find the Geological Ob- 



servers in your vast and interesting country, so very com- 
monly to omit stating bearings and distances, from known 
Towns, as well as nearest distances and bearings from known 
Streams, as the means of more pefectly fixing the localities 
of their particular observations, and conveying an idea of 
the same to Readers here and elsewhere, who can have no 
other helps than Maps, and those perhaps, not on the larg- 
est scale, or latest construction. It is an equal source of 
disappointment and regret, that the direction and degree of 
Dip, is not invariably mentioned, wherever Rocks or Strata 
are observed. Incomparably the most simple and useful 
mode of denoting the latter, is, by the proportion of the 
measure of level, to one of perpendicular fall : as for in- 
stance, Dip NE 1 in 5, or SW 1 in 2, &e. ; and <f. 5 or ^ 2 * 
may on Maps, denote the same things, as I have long prac- 
ticed. I hope Mr. Editor, that you will join me herein, 
and not fail to reiterate the request, that Observers of Stra- 
ta, of useful Minerals, in particular, like Coal, Limestone, 
Freestone, Ironstone, Gypsum, Clays &c. will always in- 
clude the above particulars, in their descriptions sent for 
your work. 



MEDICAL CHEMISTRY. 



PRUSSIC ACID. 



rt. VII. Abstract and translation of By. F. Magekdie's 
late publication on Prussic Acid — by the Editor, with re- 
marks. 




HE memoir of Dr. Magendie of Paris, presented to the 
academy of sciences of that city, Nov. 17, 1817, on the 
uses of the Prussic acid in certain diseases, particularly in 
Phthisis Pulmonalis, was published, soon after, in English, 
in the Journal of the Royal Institution of London, and is 
generally known in this country. The subject is one which 

Mr. Farey's marks in his MS. are arrow heads ; nor characters of nearer 
resemblance were at hand. 

Vol. II No. 1. 11 




Medical Chemistry. 



could not fail deeply to interest society at large, as well & 
the faculty of medicine. As far as I am informed, these re- 
searches have not been so extensively prosecuted in the 
United States as could be desired,* — partly from the diffi- 
culty of obtaining the acid, which is po where sold in the 
shops, and which can be prepared only by a practical chem- 
ist ; and partly, in all probability, from negligence and in- 
credulity. Having received from Paris, a recent publica- 
tion by Dr. Magendie, on this subject,f containing many 
additional facts, ascertained by himself, and by various other 
enlightened men, in different countries ; and, not having 
met with any translation of, or abstract from it, I have 
thought, that I could not do better, than to present the sub- 
stance of this new memoir to my readers, partly by trans- 
lation and partly by abstract, and analysis. — For obvious 
reasons, I have not drawn any thing from the first memoir 



of Dr. Magendie, which he has republished in due connex- 
ion with his present work; still, it will be useful to remem- 
ber, that the conclusions which he drew at that time, from 
his experiments, on prussic acid were : 

1. That pure prussic acid is eminently poisonous and 
altogether improper to be used in medicine. 

2. That, diluted with water, it can be advantageously 
used for the cure of nervous and chronic coughs. 

3. That it may be useful in the palliative treatment of 
phthisis, by diminishing the intensity and frequency of tin 
cough — moderating the expectoration and favouring sleep. 

4. That there is some reason to hope, that it may be- 
come useful in the curative treatment of phthisis pvlmonalis. 
especially when it has not yet passed its first stage* 

* Some favourable results were obtained by my late lamented friend Dr. 
E. D. Smith, Professor of Chemistry fee in the college of South Carolina; 
and, being published in the newspapers, deservedly excited a good deal of 
attention. A few partial trials in phthisis and asthma have been made by 
some of the faculty in New-Haven and generally with favourable results: 
I am not informed how far the subject has been prosecuted in our larger 
cities. It may be respectfully suggested to the faculty that on account of the 
peculiarly volatile and decoinpo hie nature of prussic acid, particular atten- 
tion is necessary to ascertain, whether the acid used is of sufficient strength : 
it should have very decidedly the odour of peach blossoms, but more in- 
tense, so as to be rather oppressive, if much of the vapour gets into the nos- 
trils. 

t Recherches physiologiques et cliniques sur lemploi de TAeide Prus- 
sique on Hydro — cyanirjne, dans le traitement des maladies de poitrine et 
particulierement dans celui de la Phthisie pulmonale, fee— Pans, 1S19 



t 






•Medical Chemistrij. 83 

This able and enlightened physician then goes on to ob- 



serve 



"In publishing these researches, almost three years ago, 
my principal object was to attract the attention of practi- 
tioners to a subject which appeared to me worthy of inter- 
esting them. 

" My wish has been accomplished even beyond my hopes* 

" The medical faculty of Paris have placed the Prussic 
acid in the number of remedies recommended by the new 
Codex ; and many physicians, both French and foreign, 
lave not only repeated but have greatly extended my ex- 
periments." (Observations.) 

" It is therefore with pleasure and gratitude that I pro- 
ceed to record the results obtained by my brethren. 

Dr. Fontanelles in a pamphlet published in 1817 at Mil- 
Ian, expresses himself thus :" 

" I have obtained wonderful results from the prussic acid 
prepared according to the process of Scheele, upon four 
children of the same family affected by the whooping cough : 
I put three drops of the acid into an ounce of distilled water, 
and caused this mixture to be given every two hours by a 
poonful at once ; the children themselves, frankly stated to 
me, that having commenced the use of this remedy in the 
morning, they did not experience at night, those paroxysms 
of coudiins;, which had threatened to suffocate them : — that 
they slept well, and that on the fourth day from their be- 
ginning the use of this liquid, the whooping cough disap- 
peared from two of them, and from the other two a few days 
after." 

The experiments of Dr. Fontanelles were suggested by 
reading Dr. Magendie's memoir. Dr. Manzoni at Padua 
in an augural thesis, states various interesting observations, 
derived chiefly from the practice of Dr. Brera. A woman, 
aged twenty-nine years, of a sanguine sthenic and irritable 
temperament, was brought to the clinical institution at Pa- 
dua, without having received any relief, although advanced 
to the seventh day of a very severe pleuro-peripneumony. 
Ten ounces of blood were drawn — and a little time after, 
eight more ; thirty drops of prussic acid were given in an 
emulsion of gum arabic, during the day, and twelve more in 
the night ; the following day, the urine became copious and 
full of sediment ; after this the expectoration dimini ed 



S4 Medical Chemistry. 

t 

the respiration became more easy—the cough less wearing 

the pain in the side gradually ceased, and in a few days, 
by this mild and simple treatment, the patient became quite 
well. 

Dr. Manzoni, in the same thesis, assures us that the pro- 
fessor derived the most signal advantage from the use of the 
prussic acid in bronchial inflammation ; in catarrhs, and in 
phthisis. A man, thirty-four years old, rapidly verging 
towards the tuberculous state of phthisis, by taking the prus- 
sic acid, in emulsion of gum arabic, had his purulent ex- 
pectoration both ameliorated and diminished, and his life* 
(before very wretched) prolonged. 

Two women with chronic catarrh, attended by copious 
and purulent expectoration, in a short time, by the use of 
the prussic acid, found the matter changed into simple mu- 
nis and left the clinical institution almost in perfect health. 

In professor Brera's private practice many similar cases 
occurred. Among others, the following memorable instance 
is cited. A noble lady, affected by a commencing phthisis, 
was seized with such a copious bleeding at the lungs, (he- 
rnoptysie) that in a short time she was at death's door ; 
bloodletting had been resorted to in vain, when Dr. Brera 
prescribed under the form of pills, one hundred drops of the 
prussic acid, to be taken in the course of the night ; this, as 
he expresses it, miraculously arrested the bleeding. The 
use of the prussic acid, in doses of from thirty to fifty drops, 
in twenty-four hours, continued for five days, restored thi; 
lady to perfect health without leaving the slightest trace of a 
pulmonary affection.* 

Dr. Brera, by the use of prussic acid, with the leaves of 
the atropa belladona, succeeded in curing perfectly a schir- 
rous affection of the womb, complicated with a syphilitic 
affection. 

In another case, a noble lady at Padua, aged twenty-sev- 
en years, of an irritable temperament, placed herself under 
the care of Dr. Brera. She had a chronic uterine affection, 

* Dr. Mageodie very justly condemns tbe administration of f lie prussic acid 

hi pills, because, from its excessive volatility,*; specially at an elevated tern 
perature, much of it must be lost; this fethc reason why this lady could 
take with impunity (or rather appear to take) one hundred drops, for had 
he really taken this quantity it might have been fata) It is much better to 
put the acid into some liquid vehicle, water — mucilage of gumarabic, or 
almost any simple fluid 



i 



Medical Chemistry. 85 

marked by extreme pain and great beat ; (" au food de V ute- 
rus et par un ecoulement mucoso — purulent par le vagin. 
LS ouverture du col presentait au toucher une chalcur plus 
forte que la chaleur naturelle et un assez grand nombre d' 
illegalities ; les menstrues se montraient sans regularite,") 
with the fever, there was uterine colic, constipation, and he- 
morrhoidal tumours, which had been of considerable stand- 
ing. On the twelfth day of the disease, this lady was sei- 
zed with a violent (and with her) an unparalleled uterine, 
hoemorrhage ; w r hich proved uncontrollable by any of the 
common means. If the bleeding diminished in a degree, 
the pains of the uterus, and of the piles, became intolerable; 
and on the contrary, if these pains were assuaged, there w r as 
great reason to fear that she would sink under the hoemorr- 
hage. In this trying crisis, Dr. Brera gave ten drops of 
prussic acid, in the form of pills, every hour, and directed 
that they should be continued till they had produced a 
marked effect upon the vital powers. Scarcely had twenty 
drops of the acid been given, when irregular palpitations, 
great anxiety, and vertigo were experienced. The acid 
was then discontinued, and a simple infusion of chamomile 
substituted. Soon after, the skin, which to that time had 
been dry and hot, became covered with an abundant per- 
spiration — the hoemorrhoidal and uterine pains ceased — the 
bleeding stopped — the bowels became free — the urine abun- 
dant and healthy, and all the other numerous and distressing 
affections disappeared; mild injections of the prussic acid 
were used towards the termination of the disease. It re- 
sults from the observations of Dr.'s Brera and Borda, who 
in 1810 made much use of this acid in sthenic diseases, thai 
it is one of the best things to calm the movements of the 
heart — to diminish febrile irritation, and to encounter the 
most severe inflammations. Observations of this kind have 
been much multiplied in Italy. At Padua, most diseases 
are much complicated by worms, (vers lombricoides,) in 
the intestinal canal, which are very promptly expelled, and 
even while still alive, by the use of the prussic acid. 

The experience of Dr. Granville in England is cited by 
Dr. Magendie. Dr. Granville mentions eases of advanced 
consumptive patients, in whom the prussic acid produced 



/ 



r 



sensible amelioration, but without effecting a cure. A youn 
man and woman, however, who attended the gratuitoi< 



86 



Medical Chemistry. 



consultation of Dr. Scudamorc, exhibited every appearance 
of confirmed pthisis ; they had a worrying cough — emacia- 
tion — frequent pulse — night sweats — debility — purulent ex- 
pectoration, and that particular form of the nails, which 
commonly accompanies these symptoms. The Dr. gave 
them both the prussic acid in the dose of ten drops a day, 
and soon had the pleasure of seeing them restored to per- 
fect health, in which condition, after the lapse of eight 
months, the young woman called to thank her physician. 

Several cases are cited of English patients, affected with 
hectic fever, and sympathetic cough, who were greatly re- 
lieved by the prussic acid, and some of them appear to have 
been cured. The cases, although interesting, are too long 
to be detailed in this abstract, and the symptoms arose from 
different causes. In one case, a hectic fever, with cough, , 
&c. grew out of a long continued inflammation of the liver, 
attended with tubercles and adhesion ; in another it arose 
from miscarriage and grief; in a third, from a schirrous af- 
fection of the ovarium ; in a fourth, from typhus fever, end- . 
ing in delirium ; and in a fifth, (a lad of ten years old,) i: 
came on without any obvious cause. The two last cases 
were of a very desperate character, and yielded to the use 
of prussic acid, when all other means had failed.* 

Asthma of six years standing, in a man of advanced age. 
was greatly aggravated by cold dampness or exercise, and 
was replaced by a constant dry cough whenever the asthma 
was assuaged ; the disease was augmented by food and de- 
prived the patient of sleep, and was attended by a swelling 
of the limbs, and chills and fever at evening ; this formida- 
ble complaint, with all its concomitant maladies, was so 
much relieved by prussic acid, that the patient acquired a 
degree of comfort to which he had long been a stranger; 
he could go up stairs without inconvenience, and constantly 
arrested the progress of his complaints by a recurrence to 
the prussic acid, whenever they menaced a return. 

In colds and catarrhs especially where, by neglect, alarm- 
ing or troublesome symptoms were supervening, the prussic 
acid appears to have been very useful and in most cases en- 
tirely effectual. 

In one case a woman, five months advanced in her eighth 
pregnancy, and during the five months affected with a vio* 

* Vid Rerhprelu kc par. Rla jondi^ Portenivjfcc. PP- 33 to 38 



■ 






Medical Chemistry. 8* 

lent convulsive cough, attended by extreme irritation, was 
entirely relieved by the prussic acid, without sustaining the 
lightest inconvenience from her peculiar situation. 
Dr. Granville's own children, four in number and th 
youngest an infant at the breast, were all attacked by the 
whooping-cough, which soon became very violent with th 
usual attendants of suffocation, vomiting, tears, extreme ten- 
ion of the blood vessels of the head, -evere head ache, 
deprivation of sleep, &c. In one week they were all cured 
entirely by the exclusive use of the prussic acid. 

Dr. A. T. Thomson in a communication to Dr. Granvilli 
says : " the diseases in which I have prescribed the prussic 
acid are catarrhal affections accompanied by cough, and in 

chronic coughs." — ■" I have used it with very great succes 
in catarrhal affections which actually reign epidemically in x\v 

part of the country where I live. The disease begins b\ 
chills, which are soon followed by a febrile excitement, 
sneezing, hoarseness and thirst, and a hard cough which 
comes by paroxysms, is more frequent during the night and 
deprives the patients of sleep ; the tongue is furred, the 
bowels costive and expectoration very difficult. Since I 
have used the prussic acid I have rarely had recourse to 
blood letting, although it has been indicated by the pulse, 



but I have been on my guard knowing the action exerted 
by the prussic acid upon the circulation. I commonly be- 
gin by purging the patient, then I give the acid dissolved in 
distilled water, or in a simple almond emulsion ; I take car* 
to proportion the dose to the age and strength of the individ- 
uals, gradually increasing it till the cough has ceased- 1 
begin with adults by giving them every two or three hours, 
two drops in a spoonful of the vehicle. For children be- 
tween four months and one year, I have prepared the fol- 
lowing formula. 

R. Prussic acid, 2 drops. 

Distilled water, 9 fluid drachms. 

Syrup of tolu, - - 1 fluid drachm/ 

Mix them, and give two small tea spoonfuls every three 
hours. 

The strongest dose in which I have ever administered 
this acid, has been twenty-four drops (min) in a day for an 
adult, and six drops (min) for a child. The first and the 
most speedy benefit derived from the use of the prassic 






88 



Jlledic a I Ch e m Is try . 



acid in catarrhal affections, is to procure sleep, and to di- 
minish the frequency of the paroxysms of coughing. The 
next day, we find the pulse less quick and hard, and by de- 
grees the cough becomes less violent. I have not observed 
that it produces expectoration, but it certainly diminishes 
the cough, and renders it less laborious. The intestinal ca- 
nal is gently excited, so that I have rarely been compelled 
to give purgatives a second time. By the moderate use of 
certain stimulants, we easily obviate the languor which 
sometimes in feeble and aged subjects, follows the use of 
the prussic acid ; and when the cough is alleviated, we can 
certainly remove the debility by the use of the ammoniacal 
tincture of iron, dissolved in brandy and water. 

Among the particular cases mentioned by Dr. Thomson, 
are some sufficiently remarkable. — A man of thirty-seven 
years of age, habitually very healthy, and of a plethoric 
habit, had been for several weeks tormented with a very 
wearing cough, which almost deprived him of sleep; the 
paroxysms became constantly more and more frequent ; 
his throat was much affected — he had a great hoarseness, 
with a short and wheezing respiration ; after a cathartic, he 
took the prussic acid every two hours — dose, two drops in 



twelve drachms of water. 



Immediately he gained sleep 

became 



his cough abated — expectoration became easy — the pulse 
grew soft, and in three days all the symptoms of the disease 
were appeased. 

A lady, aged forty years, of a sanguine and irritable tem- 
perament, and naturally gay, had been for two years labour- 
ing under the pthisis trachealis. Having the first year de- 
rived no benefit from medicine, she neglected the com- 
plaint the second year, and took medicines only when the 
symptoms were aggravated. The disease was marked by 
a laborious cough — a perception of dryness in the throat, 
with danger of immediate suffocation, and a general inflam- 
mation and swelling of the back part of the mouth. These 
symptoms, accompanied by fever, and great irritability, 
never entirely ceased ; they diminished at intervals, espe- 
cially in summer, but returned with increased violence with 
every exposure to cold. She was advised to quit England 
tor warmer climates, but this was not executed. She grew 
worse — her pulse was small, quick, irregular, and varying 
with the state of her mind. She had palpitations, and very 


















Medical Chemistry. 



89 



little repose, and that much disturbed. Her physician hap- 
pened to come in (Jan. 26,) while she was in a violent par- 
oxysm of coughing, resembling croup, and with imminent 
danger of suffocation ; her pulse as before, the back part of 
the mouth very much inflamed, and furrowed, as it were, 
with large vessels, injected with blood. 

Having been purged, prussic acid was administered in 



the following prescription : 

R. Prussic acid, 

Rose water, 

Syrup of popies, 

Mix them, and take a 
hours. 



large 



12 drops. 

half a fluid ounce. - 
3 fluid drachms, 
tea spoon full every two 



The next day the patient was much better ; had enjoy- 

for several months, without cough or 



ed a better night th 



perception of heat or oppression in the breast, and the pulse 
were more regular, and more moderate and full. The 
prussic acid was continued four days, each time augmenting 
the dose two drops. The fourth day nausea occurred, and 
the symptoms being much better, the remedy was discon- 
tinued. From that time she remained perfectly well, had 
no relapse, and considered her restoration as almost a mir- 
racle, and believed herself perfectly cured. The writer 
dates on the 26th of February, and says, that in his view 
she still needs much care, and a particular regimen, and 
that the disease, if not entirely removed, is arrested in its 

progress. 

A military gentleman being affected every winter with a 
spasmodic cough, experienced effectual relief from the use 
of the prussic acid, and being called by the service to an- 
other country, took a phial of it with him, as his best re- 
source on a recurrence of the complaint. 

A gouty patient, troubled with a violent dyspepsia, was 
attacked by the epidemic catarrh, and was relieved by the 
prussic acid. 

Dr. Kerkaradec, of Paris, relates his experience in the 

use of the prussic acid. 

In one case of nervous cough, in a patient of forty years 
of age, it was ineffectual, probably because it was given in 
very trifling doses, and often omitted by the patient, but it 
does not appear that it did any harm. 



No 



12 






90 Medical Chemistry. 

In another patient, in the last stage of consumption, it 
was given in very small portions, but it appeared rather to 
aggravate the cough, and its use was abandoned ; the pa- 
tient died soon after : it does not appear that in this case it 
accelerated the death, which seems to have occurred be- 
cause the disease had run its course. It does not seem to 
be useful in the last stage of consumption, but, perhaps it 
would be difficult to point out any thing else that is. 

Dr. Kerkaradec relates another case, of a child of seven 
years, which for five months was afflicted with a dry cough, 
constant and very wearing, attended by pain in the left side 
of the chest, by fever, &c. The usual remedies were ap- 
plied for three months, without success, when the whoop- 
ing cough supervened in a violent degree, and after running 
on three months, was spontaneously cured. The dry 
cough then returned, and after a month more, was found to 
be constant ; the pain in the side recurred, and the left side 
of the chest gave a bad sound ; the tongue was white — the 

appetite gone the bowels were constipated— enlarged, 

and somewhat sensible to the touch ; there was a constant 
quickness of pulse, considerable fever, a tendency to drow- 
siness, and a severe pain in the head. The usual remedies 
were applied with some mitigation of the symptoms, but the 
cough constantly preserved its peculiar character. The 
prussic acid was then administered, twelve drops in three 
days, taken by spoonfulls once in two hours. (" La dose 
fut d'une cuilleree a cafe toutes les deux heures." (At 
the end of three days, the cough began to diminish, and 
three potions more, into which there entered fifteen drops 
of the medicine, completed the cure, and at the end of seven 
months there had been no return of the complaint. 

A little girl three and a half years old had a whooping 
cough of five months standing — the fits of coughing were 
very violent, and at least twelve in a day, producing mu- 
cous expectoration, with a great deal of blood ; the disease 
was assuaged by leeches applied to the left side of the chest, 
where they were indicated by the sound ; the blood ceased 
to appear, and the cough was 1< s frequent, and less violent. 
The prussic acid, twelve or fifteen drops, administered in 
the usual manner,* in potions, removed the cough after I wo 
potions, and in twelve days it wholly disappeared. 

* Viz. where twelve were employed before. 






Medical Chemistry, 91 

The little brother of this child, nine months old and at 
the breast, was immediately relieved from an incipient 
whooping cough by the same means. 

A child of four and a half years was affected for five 
months, by a whooping cough, for the cure of which all the 
common remedies and especially the syrup of ipecacuana 
had been applied in vain. Fifteen drops of the prussic acid 
were then administered in the course of three days ; this 
remedy was then discontinued for four or five days, on ac- 
count of a febrile excitement which lasted that length of 
time; it was then resumed and the cough disappeared in 
five days more ; it sometimes recurred at distant intervals, 
owing to wet weather, but bathing caused it finally to dis- 
appear. 

i A lady of twenty years of age, of a plethoric habit, but 

enjoying perfect health, and with regular habits in all re- 
spects, (" et la quantite, de sang evacue tous les mois etait 
abondante") was, without any obvious cause seized with 
acute pains in the stomach, followed by a cough, which oc- 
curred in violent paroxysms but without any appearance 
of whooping cough. Being of a gouty family, and hav- 
ing in her childhood had some gouty affections, she was 
treated accordingly but without benefit; her sufferings, 
and her cough continued, and she lost her bloom and her 
flesh, and was very apprehensive of a consumption. She 
took twelve drops of prussic acid, a day, in solution of gum 
arabic and after a few days the cough diminished ; she then 
took twenty-one drops a day, for some time and was entirely 
relieved from her cough, and recovered very good health. 
The pains in her stomach are of rare occurrence and not 
severe. 

In summing up this mass of evidence, Dr. Magendie ob- 
serves, that the remarkable accordance, between the obser- 
vations of distinguished men in various countries of Europe, 
appears to be an irresistible proof in favour of this new med- 
icine, and of its perfect innocence, even in large doses, ad- 
ministered with prudence but without unnecessary timidity. 

He remarks, that since the publication of his first me- 
moir, he has been much occupied in the administration of 
the prussic acid, especially in cases of pulmonary phthisis; 
that he hag neglected no opportunity to administer it in the 
first stages of this disease, but that be has given it to many 



■ 

92 Medical Chemistry. 

in various stages ; that in some instances he has seen it in 
common with all other remedies, completely fail, and the 
unhappy patients pursue their downward progress to the 
grave : that on the contrary, in a great number of instances, 
he has seen a sensible amelioration in the most distressing 
symptoms ; the cough has become less frequent ; the ex- 
pectoration more free, and the sleep more prolonged. 

"It is (adds Dr. Magendie,) with satisfaction easily un- 
derstood, that I have seen the symptoms of phthisis com- 
pletely cease in eight (seven ?) different circumstances ; in 
three children from four to six years, in a young woman of 
fifteen, in another of twenty, in a young man of twenty five, 
and in an old man of sixty-six ; and it is with the most anx- 
ious solicitude, that I have waited their state of health, for 
the purpose of learning, whether the evil is really arrested, 
or only suspended in its progress. Time only can decide ; 
I can only say that the two ladies whose cases were reported 
in my first memoir, and whose cure is of four years stand- 
ing, continue to enjoy perfect health." 

With respect to the dose, Dr. Magendie remarks, that as 
the effect of the prussic acid is very different in different in- 
dividuals, it is necessary to begin with a moderate dose ; 
but there is no danger in encreasing it provided its effects 
are not manifested, and that he has, many times, gradually 
augmented the dose to half a drachm in twenty-four hours 
without producing the slightest inconvenience. 

As to the preparation of the acid, Dr. Magendie finding 
that the acid of Scheele is of variable strength, prefers thai 
prepared by the process of Gay Lussac, which consists in 
decomposing the prussiate of mercury by muriatic acid and 
collecting the acid in a cold receiver. This acid is to be 
diluted with six times its volume or eight and a half time? 
its weight of distilled water. 

Remark. As the preparation of the acid of Gay Lussac 
is not without danger to the operator, on account of its ter- 
rific energy, even in vapour, it is presumed that having once 
ascertained how much of Gay Lussac's acid, a given weight 
of Prussiate of Mercury will afford, it will be sufficient to 
place at once in the receiver, eight and ;i half parts of water 
and thus obtain a diluted and much less dangerous acid. 

1 have found very unpleasant effects even from breathing 
the vapour of the prussic acid when I have prepared it after 






Medical Chemistry. 



93 



ihe process of Scheele and my assistants have been much 
incommoded with vertigo, nausea and even swooning.* 

Dr. Magendie gives the following formulas for the exhi- 
bition of the acid. 



Pectoral Mixture. 



R. Prussic acid medicinal, 
Distilled water, 
Pure sugar, 

F. S. L. 



1 drachm, 
1 pound, 
1 \ ounce, 
Take one table spoonful in the morning and 



one in the evening when going to bed. 

v Pectoral Potion. 



R. Infusion of ground ivy, 
Prussic acid, (medicinal) 
Syrup of marsh mallow, 



1 drachm, 
15 drops, 
1 ounce, 



h 



F. S. L. Take a potion by spoonfulls, once in three 



ours. 



Sirup cyanique, or Prussic Syrup. 

R. Syrup of sugar, perfectly clarified, 
Prussic acid, (medicinal) 

Mix them exactlv. 



1 pound, 
1 drachm, 



This syrup is used to add to the pectoral potions and as 
a substitute for the other syrups. 

I have procured for the use of medical friends, direct!} 
from Dr. Magendie several vials of Prussic acid, such as he 

* A bottle containing probably an ounce of the prussic acid of Scheele 
being accidentally knocked from the table, in my laboratory and broken 
the vapour exhaled (although the liquid was instantly covered with ashes 
and swept into the fire) affected me powerfully, and particularly at r hi m\ 
muscular and intellectual powers seemed almost prostrated ; an assi ant 
was ill in the evening and in a similar manner ; the next morning he swoon- 
ed on rising from bed and fell upon the floor — he remained very feeble al- 
though without pain for several days, but gradually recovered by using mild 
lioaulanU; (aqua ammonias, wine, kc) his pulse was very feeble and 
small, and his nervous and muscular powers very greatly enfeebled. 

As it appears to be one of (he great prerogatives of the prussic acid to 
prostrate muscular and nervous ,-y, it may be asked whether in case oi 

hirnea and luxations it might not be useful in overcoming the muscular re- 
sistance which often opposes their reduction, and. whether it may not an- 
took the fatal ri^or- of sna«m even in Ittaons itsc 









94 Grisivold on Submarine Explosion. 

employs, and although this fluid is liable to decompose, and 
to become weak, especially by careless keeping, these vi- 
als appear to have arrived in good order ; the acid remains 
colourless, whereas it is coloured if decomposed* It was 
made in Paris, by M. Robiquet. 

Dr. Alfred S. Monson, upon whose skill and care every 
degree of reliance may be placed, will supply practitioners 

with this acid, manufactured by him corner of York and 
Elm streets, New-Haven. 

N. B. The vials should be kept close stopped and in a 
dark and cool place ; they should be opened as little as 
possible, should be labelled poison, and the undiluted liquid 
by no means tasted ; they should be kept where none but 
discreet persons can have access to them. 

Gentlemen who use the prussic acid are invited to trans- 
mit their reports of its effects for publication in ibis Journal; 
they shall be published either in extenso, or by abstract, and 
analysis as may appear best. 



PHYSICS, MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, AND THE ARTS 



SUBMARINE NAVIGATION. 



Art. VIII. Description of a Machine, invented and con- 
structed by David Bitshnell, a native of Saybrook, at 
the commencement of the American revolutionary war, for 
the purpose of submarine navigation, and for the destruc- 
tion of ships of war ; with an account of the first attempt 
with it, in August 1776, by Ezra Lee, a sergeant in the 
American army, to destroy some of the British ships then 
lying at JYew-York. Communicated by Charles Gris- 

wold, Esq. 



TO PROFESSpR SILLIMAN, 



Sir. 



Lyme, Conn. Feb. 21sl. 1820 







T is to be presumed thai every person who has paid am 
attention to the mechanical inventions of this country, or 






Griawold on Submarine Explosion. 95 

has looked over the history of her revolutionary war, has 
heard of the machine invented by David Bushnell, for sub- 
marine navigation, and the destruction of hostile shipping. 
I have thought that a correct and full account of that novel 
and original invention, would not be unacceptable to the 
public, and particularly to those devoted to the pursuit of 
science and the arts. 

If the idea of submarine warfare had ever occurred to 
any one, before the epoch of Bushnell's invention, yet it 
may be safely stated, that no ideas but his own ever came 
to any practical results. To him, I believe, the whole merit 
ol this invention is unanimously agreed to belong. 

But such an account as I have mentioned, must derive 
an additional value, and an increased interest from the fact, 
that all the information contained in the following pages, 
has been received from the only person in existence pos- 
sessed of that information, and who was the very same that 
first embarked in this novel and perilous navigation. 

Mr. Ezra Lee, first a sergeant and afterwards an ensign 
in the revolutionary army, a respectable, worthy, and elder- 
ly citizen of this town, is the person to whom I have allu- 
ded ; to him was committed the first essay for destroying a 
hostile ship by submarine explosion, and upon his state- 
ments an implicit reliance may be placed. 

Considering Bushnell's machine as the first of its kind, 
I think it will be pronounced to be remarkably complete 
throughout in its construction, and that such an invention 
furnishes evidence of those resources and creative powers, 
which must rank him as a mechanical genius of the first 
order. 

I shall first attend to a description of this machine, and 
afterwards to a relation of the enterprise in it by sergeant 
Lee ; confining myself in each case, strictly to the facts 
with which he has supplied me. 

Yours, &c. 

CHARLES GRISWOLD. 



Bushnell's machine was composed of several pieces of 
large oak timber, scooped out and fitted together, and its 
shape my informer compares to that of a round clam, h 
was bound around thoroughly with iron bands, the seams 
*ere corked, and the whole was smeared over with tar, so 










96 



Grisivold on Submarine Explosion. 



as to prevent the possibility of the admission of water to 
the inside. 

It was of a capacity to contain one engineer, who might 
stand or sit, and enjoy sufficient elbow roam for its proper 
management. 

The top or head was made of a metallic composition, 
exactly suited to its body, so as to be water-tight ; this 
opened upon hinges, and formed the entrance to the ma- 
chine. Six small pieces of thick glass were inserted in this 
head, for the admission of light : in a clear day and clear 
sea-water, says my informer, he could see to read at the 
depth of three fathoms. To keep it upright and properly 
balanced, seven hundred pounds of lead were fastened to 
its bottom, two hundred pounds of which were so contrived 
as to be discharged at any moment, to increase the buoy- 
ancy of the machine. 

But to enable the navigator when under water, to rise or 
sink at pleasure, there were two forcing pumps, by which 
water could be pressed out at the bottom ; and also a 
spring, by applying the foot to which, a passage was formed 
for the admission of water. If the pumps should get de- 
ranged, then resort was had to letting off the lead ballast 
from the bottom. 

The navigator steered by a rudder, the tiller of which 
passed through the back of the machine at a water joint, 
and in one side was fixed a small pocket compass, with 
two pieces of shining wood, (sometimes called foxfire,) 
crossed upon its north point, and a single piece upon the 
last point. In the night, when no light entered through the 
head, this compass thus lighted, was all that served to guidf 
the helmsman in his course. 

The ingenious inventor also provided a method for de- 
termining the depth of water at which the machine might 
at any time be. This was achieved by means of a glass 
tube, twelve inches in length, and about four in diameter, 
which was also attached to the side of the machine : this 
tube enclosed a piece of cork, that rose with the descent 
of the machine, and fell with its ascent, and one inch rise 
of the cork denoted a depth of about one fathom. The 
principle upon which such a result was produced, and also 






the mechanical contrivance of this tube, entirely es 



caped 









Grisivold on Submarine Explosion. 



07 



the observation of Mr. Lee, amidst the hurry and constant 
anxiety attendant upon such a perilous navigation. 

But not the least ingenious part of this curious machine, 
was that by which the horizontal motion was communicated 
to it. This object was effected by means of two oars or 
paddles, formed precisely like the arms of a wind-mil], 
which revolved perpendicularly upon an axletree that pro- 
jected in front ; this axletree passed into the machine at a 
water joint, and was furnished with a crank, by which it 
was turned : the navigator being seated inside, with one 

hand laboured at the crank, and with the other steered by 
the tiller. 

The effect of paddles so constructed, and turned in the 
manner stated, by propelling or rather drawing a body after 
them under water, will readily occur to any one without 
explanation. 

These paddles were but twelve inches long, and about 
tour wide. Two smaller paddles of the same description, 
also projected near the head, provided with a crank inside, 
by which the ascent of the machine could be assisted. 

By vigorous turning of the crank, says my informer, the 

machine could be propelled at the rate of about three miles 
an hour in still water. When beyond the reach of danger, 
£>r observation of an enemy, the machine was suffered to 
float with its head just rising from the water's surface, and 
while in this situation, air was constantly admitted through 
three small orifices in the head, which were closed when a 
descent was commenced. 

The efficient part of this engine of devastation, its maga- 
zine, remains to be spoken of. This was separate and dis- 
tinct from the machine. It was shaped like an egg, and 
like the machine itself, was composed of solid pieces ol oak 
-cooped out, and in the same manner fitted together, and 
secured by iron bands, &c. One hundred and thirty 
pounds of gun powder, a clock, and a gun lock, provided 
with a good flint that would not miss fire, were the apparatus 
which it enclosed. This magazine was attached to the 
back of the machine, a little above the rudder, by means of 
a screw, one end of which passed quite into the magazine, 
and there operated as a stop upon the movements of the 
clock, whilst its other end entered the machine. This 
screw could be withdrawn from the magazine, by which 



Vol. II No. I. 



13 



98 



Griswold on Submarine Explosion 



the latter was immediately detached, and the clock com- 
menced going. The clock was set for running twenty or 
thirty minutes, at the end of which time, the lock struck, 
and fired the powder, and in the mean time the adventurer 
c fleeted his escape. 

But the most difficult point of all to he gained, was to 
fasten this magazine to the bottom of a ship. Here a diffi- 
culty arose, which, and which alone, as will appear in the 
ensuing narrative, defeated the successful operations of this 
warlike apparatus. 

Mr. Bushnell's contrivance was this — A very sharp iron 
screw was made to pass out from the top of the machine, 
communicating inside by a water joint ; it was provided 
with a crank at its lower end, by which the engineer was 
to force it into the ship's bottom : this screw was next to 
be disengaged from the machine, and left adhering to the 
ship's bottom* A line leading from this screw to the maga- 
zine, kept the latter in its destined position for blowing up 
the vessel. 



I shall now proceed to the account of the first attempt 
that was made to destroy a ship of war, all the facts of 
which, as already stated, I received from the bold adven- 
turer himself. 

It was in the month of August, 1776, when Admiral 
Howe lay with a formidable British fleet in New-York bay, 
a little above the Narrows, and a numerous British force 
upon Staten Island, commanded by General Howe, threat- 
ened annihilation to the troops under Washington, that Mr* 
Bushnell requested General Parsons of the American army, 
to furnish him with two or three men to learn the naviga- 
tion of his new machine, with a view of destroying some of 
the enemy's shipping. 

Gen. Parsons immediately sent for Lee, then a sergeant, 
and two others, who had offered their services to go on 
board of a fire ship : and on Bushnell's request being made 
known to them, they enlisted themselves under him lor 
this novel piece of service. The party went up into Long 
Island Sound with the machine, and made various experi- 
ments with it in the different harbors along shore, and after 
having become pretty thoroughly acquainted with the mode 
of navigating it, they returned through tKe Sound : but dur- 


















9 












Griswold on Submarine Explosion. 99 

ing their absence, the enemy had got possession of Long- 
Island and Governor's-Island. They therefore had the 
machine conveyed by land across from New-Rochelle to 
the Hudson river, and afterwards arrived with it at New- 
York. 

The British fleet now lay to the north of Staten-Island, 
with a large number of transports, and were the objects 
against which this new mode of warfare was destined to act; 
the first serene night was fixed upon for the execution of 
this perilous enterprise, and sergeant Lee was to be the 
engineer. After the lapse of a few days, a favorable night 
arrived, and at 11 o'clock, a party embarked in two or three 
whale boats, with Bushnell's machine in tow. They rowed 
down as near the fleet as they dared, when sergeant Lee 
entered the machine, was cast off, and the boats returned. 

Lee now found the ebb tide rather too strong, and before 
he was aware, had drifted him down past the men of war; 
he however immediately got the machine about, and by 
hard labour at the crank for the space of five glasses by 
the ship's bells, or two and a half hours, he arrived under 
the stern of one of the ships at about slack water. Day 

had now dawned, and by the light of the moon he could 
see the people on board, and heard their conversation* 
This was the moment for diving : he accordingly closed up 
overhead, let in water, and descended under the ship's bot- 
tom. 

He now applied the screw, and did all in his power to 
make it enter, but owing probably in part to the ship's cop- 
per, and the want of an adequate pressure, to enable the 
screw to get a hold upon the bottom, his attempts all failed; 
at each essay the machine rebounded from the ship's bot- 
tom, not having sufficient power to resist the impulse thus 
given to it." 

He next paddled along to a different part of her bottom, 
but in this manoeuvre he made a deviation, and instantly 
arose to the water's surface on the east side of the ship, 
exposed to the increasing light of the morning, and in im- 

* It yet remains a problem, whether the difficulty here spoken of will 
ever be fully obviated Mr. Fulton's torpedoes were never fairly brought 
to the test of experiment, though he and his friends entertained perfect 
confidence that they would not be found defective in any of their opera- 
tions. 



■* 






100 Griswold on Submarine Explosion 

minent hazard of being discovered. He immediately made 
another descent, with a view of making one more trial, but 
the fast approach of day, which would expose him to the 
enemy's boats, and render his escape difficult, if not impos- 
sible, deterred him ; and he concluded that the best gene- 
ralship would be to commence an immediate retreat. 

He now had before him a distance of more than four 
miles to traverse, but the tide was favourable. At Gover- 
nor's-Island great danger awaited him, for his compass 
having got out of order, he was under the necessity of look- 
ing out from the top of the machine very frequently to 
ascertain his course, and at best made a very irregular zig- 
zag track. 

The soldiers at Governor's-Island espied the machine, 
and curiosity drew several hundreds upon the parapet to 
watch its motions. At last a party came down to the beach, 
shoved off a barge, and rowed towards it. At that moment 
sergeant Lee thought he saw his certain destruction, and as 
a last act of defence, let go the magazine, expecting thai 
they would seize that likewise, and thus all would be blown 
to atoms together. 

Providence however otherwise directed it : the enemy, 
after approaching within fifty or sixty yards of the machine, 
and seeing the magazine detached, began to suspect a 
yankee trick, took alarm and returned to the island. 

Approaching the city, he soon made a signal, the boats 
came to him and brought him safe and sound to the shore. 
The magazine in the mean time had drifted past Gover- 
nor's-Island into the East river, where it exploded with 
tremendous violence, throwing large columns of water and 
pieces of wood that composed it high into the air. Gen. 
Putnam, with many other officers, stood on the shore spec- 
tators of this explosion. 

In a few days the American army evacuated New-York, 
and the machine was taken up the North river. Another 
attempt was afterwards made by Lee upon a frigate that 
lay opposite Bloomingdale : his object now was to fasten 
the magazine to the stern of the ship, close at the water's 
• dge. But while attempting this, the watch discovered ^ 

him, raised an alarm, and compelled him to abandon his 
enterprise. He then endeavoured to get under the frigate'* 
bottom, but in this lie failed, having descended too deep. 



This terminated his experiment 






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Doolittle on the Steam Engine. 101 



Art. IX. Remarks on the Revolving Steam Engine of 
Morey, by Mr. Isaac Doolittle. 



TO THE EDITOR OP THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, &C. 



Paris, 2Qth March, 1819. 



Dear Sir 9 



p 



HYSICS and mechanics, especially when relating to 



American inventions, being my favourite studies, I eagerly 
seized the new revolving steam engine, invented by Morey, 
as described in the second number of your Journal; and, 
although the drawings, and description of its movements are 
very imperfect, I believe I understand its principles. 

The idea is ingenious, but I fear it will prove less useful 
than brilliant, for reasons which I will endeavour to explain. 

And first it may be w proper to state, that the intensity or 
elastic force of the steam is altogether unimportant in the 
point of view in which I shall consider it ; it is indifferent 
whether it be fifteen pounds or five hundred to the inch 
area ; as I shall only examine what portion of the force ap- 
plied to give the alternating motion to the piston is actually 
employed in producing the rotary movement of the cylin- 
der, and what portion is lost to all useful purposes. 

The enclosed diagram, Fig. I.* is a vertical section of the 
machine, (as I understand it from the drawings) perpen- 
dicularly to the axes of rotation. 

The portion of the force which is employed in producing 
a rotary movement varies at every instant with the angle ol 
its application, and consequently has a maximum and a totn- 
irnum. Its effect also, constantly varies with a perpetual!} 
varying lever at the extremity of which it is applied, the 
effect has therefore also a maximum and a minimum. These 
last are the only points at which it would be necessary to 
examine the machine in order to appreciate its comparative 
merits ; but the points of maximum, depending on the two 
above causes, are not easily determined without having re- 

' The figures referred to by Mr. Doolittle <vi!! be fofttt^l on onp of tb* 

plates illustrating Mr. Sullivan's Steam Boat. 












102 



Doolittle on the Steam Engine. 



\ 



source to fluxions, with which I must own I am not suffi- 
ciently conversant, and if I were, I should perhaps prefer 
employing a mechanical or graphic solution, because I be- 
lieve a greater number of persons will be able to understand 
me. The method I employ, though not mathematically 
exact, is nevertheless sufficiently so for all practical purpo- 
ses. 

The cylinder in its revolutions describes a circle A. B. 



A. B 



I 



Fig. I. about the center c. through which center 



the piston rod must continually pass, whatever may be the 
position of the cylinder in the circle ; and the point of junc- 
tion of the pitman with the cross piece of the piston rod, 
describes, in the same time, the circle x. r. x'. (whose ra- 
dius is equal to the length of the pitman) about the center 
o. the distance between the two centers is equal to half the 
length of the stroke of the piston. 

When the cylinder, in its revolution arrives in A. or in A'. 
the two centres are in a line with its axis, and the whole 
force employed either to raise or depress the piston, is en- 
tirely lost, no part of it being employed to turn the machine 

these points, in the common engine, working with a crank 
and fly wheel, are called the dead points. The actuating 
force is here = o. 

If, about the centre c, and with a radius equal to half the 
stroke of the piston, we describe a circle o. n. n'. (fig. 2 and 
3.) and divide the circumference into, any number of equal 
parts, and if we draw lines to represent the piston rod in it 
several positions, always passing through the centre of this 
circle, and the divisions of its circumference continuing them 
when necessary, until they strike the circumference of the 
circle r. d. f. described by the extremity of the pitman, that 
point will be the point of junction of the pitman with the 
piston rod ; and a line drawn from the center of the latter 
circle to that point will represent the position of the pitman. 

One half of the circle, (taken in a line with the dead 
points) being an exact representation of the other half, it is 
unnecessary to occupy ourselves with a larger portion ; ifr 
then we divide the semicircle o. n / . p. into eight equal parts. 

quantity of force utilized at each of these 
points, we shall obtain a result sufficiently exact for our 
purpose. 



and find the 


















Doolittle on the Steam Engine. 103 

If we suppose the cylinder arrived in E. (fig. 2.) or in 
E'. (fig. 3.) and if, from any scale of equal parts, we setoff, 
from the point a., on the line representing the piston rod, a 
distance a. b. equal to two hundred, and consider this as 
the force constantly applied to drive the piston in the cylin- 
der, this force will resolve itself into two forces ; the one, a. 
e. parallel to the position of the pitman, which of course is 
entirely lost, being employed in fruitless endeavours to re- 
move the center piece, the other, a. m. in a line tangent to 
the circle r. d. f. at the point of contact, a. — by completing 
the parallelogram a. e. b. m. of which the primitive force a. 

b. is the diagonal, we have the measure of the forces re- 
spectively. 

But the force a. m. is oblique to the direction of the 
movement of the machine, and is therefore again decom- 
posed, the two forces resulting from this second decompo- 
sition, act, the one a. t. in a line parallel to the piston rod, 
and the other a. s. in the direction of the tangent to a circle 
whose radius is equal to that portion of the piston rod, com- 
prised between its junction with the pitman and the center 

c. of rotation, and parting from the point of junction; — In- 
completing the parallelogram a. s. m. t. of which a. m. is the 
diagonal, the side a. t. parallel to the piston rod, is the meas- 
ure of the force lost in the second decomposition, and the 
side a. s. represents the force virtually employed in this 
point in turning the machine. This force measured by the 
same scale of equal parts gives sixty-two. 

But it will at once be seen that the lever c. a. in fig. 2. is 
much longer than the lever c. a. in fig. 3. therefore, if the 
lorces were equal, the effects must be different, in inverse 
proportion to the length of the levers. And, to compare 
the effect of this machine to that of one working in the or- 
dinary way, we must reduce all the forces to a length of 
lever equal to that where they could be applied if the cylin- 
der stood still and turned the crank, instead of turning itself 
around it = this lever is represented by the distance between 
the centre c of rotation and the circumference of the circle 
n. o. n'. 

To find the equivalent of the force a. s. if applied at the 
point h. of the lesser circle (fig. 2.) say — force applied at 
the extremity of long lever c. a. is to length of short lever c. 
h. as h agth of Ion? lever c. a. is to force at the extremity of 
snort lover c. h. — in this construction. 



104 



Doolittle on the Steam Engine. 



62:66:: 125: 



,66X125 



133. 



In figure 3, the force being applied at a lever much short* 
or than that to which it is to be reduced, its effect at the 
extremity of the longer lever must be found by inverse pro- 



portion — thus 



66:62::11: 



.62X1 1 



6 6 



lOJsay. 



11. 



Making similar constructions in the other points of divis- 
ion, and reducing the respective forces to the same length 
of lever, we have the following series. 

Forces at the points of application. | Forces reduced to an equal leve 

62 133 



97 
124 
172 
158 
176 

62 





157 

135 

52 

32 

22 

11 





Dividing the sum by 8, the number of terms 
We have, for the mean force utilized 



8 | 542 



68 for 200 applied. 



In this calculation, as in all which precede, to avoid 
fractions, where there were any, I have uniformly added an 
unit in their stead, in order to give the machine " a fair 

chance." 

The mean force 68 is applied tangentially to the reduced 
circle, whose semi circumference is =207 — the force that 1 
have supposed applied is 200, and the stroke of the piston 
is 131. Therefore force applied is to force utilized ::200 
X 131:69x207 or as 26:14, nearly; then say 

26: 14:: 100:^^ 



54 



In the common crank the force applied is to the fore* 
utilized ::100:78, nearly. Therefore the effect of the new 
machine, is to the effect of the common crank, with the ap- 
plication of an equal force as 54:78 or ::9:13. 

We must observe also, that when the cylinder arrives m 
B or inB' (fig. 1.) the piston has performed half its stroke. 
If, therefore, we consider the pressure of the steam as a 
weight, and multiply that weight by the distance gon e 
through to find the quantity of force employed in givm 


















Doolittle on the Steam Engine. 



105 



motion to the machine, we have force expended in describ- 
ing the arc B'AB= force employed in describing the arc 
B, A', B'. — Therefore, besides the continual variation in 
the intensity of the force utilized, we find that a much greater 
portion of the force required for a revolution is spent in de- 
scribing the semicircle f. A. g. than in describing the semi- 
circle g. A', f. — and we must not forget that this is the por- 
tion of the revolution where the effect is greatest in propor- 
tion to the force employed ; therefore if the motion of the 
piston in the cylinder be uniform, the motion of the cylin- 
der in its revolutions must be irregular and vice versa. 
Add to this, that with the velocity which 



M 



another cause of irregularity in its movements, to eoun- 



proposes giving to this machine, the influence of the centri- 
fugal force ought to be taken into consideration — this force 
also not only varies with the dimensions of the machine and 
the weight of the piston, but is different at every instant, in 
the same machine, increasing as the piston recedes from the 
centre, and diminishing as it approaches ; augmenting the 
effect of the machine in the first instance and diminishing 
it in the latter ; more force is therefore developed in going 
from A through B to A', than in going from A' through B' to 
A 

teract these effects the machine should be made very heavy 
to serve as a fly wheel. ' • 

I have hitherto considered this engine without reference 
to its friction ; this, in certain points of its revolution, must 
be immensely greater than in the old engine, as will appear 
evident to the most superficial observer, on a simple inspec- 
tion of its construction. 

These are some of the imperfections which this engine 
possesses in addition to all those of the common one, and I 
can discover nothing in its favour but novelty. 

There is no doubt but it will turn, if it be not too much 
loaded, and its movements will probably produce an agree- 
able etFect, but I do not apprehend that Oliver Evans has 
any thing to fear from its rivality. 

You are at liberty to make what use you please of this 
communication. 






I am, sir, very respectfully, 






Your obedt. servt. 



Vol. II No. 1. 



I. DOOLITTLE. 



J4 



106 



Sullivan on the Revolving Engine. 






Art* X, Mr. Sullivan on the Revolving Engine ; in re 

ply to Mr. Doolittle.* 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIM AN 



• 



Sir, 

JL WAS so well aware of the inadequacy of my descrip- 
tion of Morey's Steam Engine in your second number, that 
I had already thought of offering a supplement, when you 
gave me an opportunity of reading the remarks of Mr. 
Doolittle, which I presume you will insert, preceding this 
further explanation. 

The invention was then quite in its infancy, and your 
American readers will require no apology for occupying a 
page of your Journal once more, with a subject perhaps in- 
teresting only as it relates to the developement of the re- 
sources of our country : this form of the engine being pe- 
culiarly adapted to canals and other inland navigation. 

Referring to the annexed plate and explanation, I will 
briefly attempt to answer the remarks of your correspon- 
dent. 

The objection that a part of the force is lost in producing 
a rotary motion, applies, I think with equal propriety to 
all engines communicating by the intervention of the crank 

as in all of them it must be considered as a varying lever. 

By loss of force must be meant the difference between the 
effect it would produce were its action always at right an- 
gles to the crank, and its indirect action, as it revolves. 

Professor Playfair estimates this difference as 7 to 11 
that is, a rotary motion is produced by the crank at the 
expense of T \ths of the power which the engine would have, 
could it be exerted directly upon its object, or load. This 
estimate of loss relates to atmospheric engines. 

Notwithstanding this however, it was considered a great 
improvement when Mr. Watt introduced the crank. It gave 
the steam engine to many more useful purposes ; though 

* Remark — The temporary suspension of the Journal offered me an oppo 
tunity of submitting Mr Doolittle's remarks to Mr. Sullivan's perusal, which 
gives these gentlemen the mutual advantage* of having their pieces appear 
together, instead of coming out hi different numbers — Editor 






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Sullivan on the Revolving Engine. 107 

some part of the force, was undoubtedly lost at ever)' stroke, 
in giving motion to the balance wheel necessary to equalize 
the movement. Whether the loss of force by a crank is 
actual or theoretical, may be a question. It is not one how- 
ever which applies to this engine so much as to others, be- 
cause it is moved by very elastic steam always operating in 

one or both of the two cylinders which compose this en- 
gine. 

Your correspondent deems this unimportant to the ques- 
tion he raises, — which I may answer more satisfactorily to 
your readers, by a quotation in point, from Dr. Young's Lec- 
tures. He is speaking of the use of the crank before men- 
tioned, as an improvement in the Steam Engine. 

" If the rotary motion of the Crank be equable, the pro- 
gressive motion of the rod will be gradually accelerated and 
retarded, and for a considerable space of the revolution the 
force exerted will be nearly uniform ; but if we attempt to 
communicate at once to the rod its whole velocity in each 
direction, as has sometimes been done, the motion would 
become extremely irregular, and the machinery would be 
destroyed by the strain. ' 

" On the other hand it must be observed, that force ap- 
plied to the machinery, may in general be divided into two 
forces ; the one employed in opposing the force, so as to 
produce an equilibrium only, and the other in generating 

momentum. 

" With respect to the first portion, a single crank has the 
inconvenience of changing continually the mechanical ad- 
vantage of the machine ; with respect to the second, its 
motion in the second quarter of its revolution is accelerated, 
instead of being retarded by the inertia, which this portion 
of the force is intended to overcome ; and from the combi- 
nation of these causes, the motion must necessarily be ren- 
dered very irregular. 

" (Gr^his may however be completely removed by em- 
ploying always cranks in pairs, one of them being fixed so 
as to make a right angle with the other." 



5 ilv ""& 



Here Dr. Young does not seem to think this supposable 
decision of force " lost to all useful purposes/' but incident to 
the nature of machinery — or remediable on the same prin- 
ciple by which steam, as a power, is applied by the double 
revolving engine. Whatever deduction is to be made then 



106 



Sullivan on the Revolving Engine* 






from the original power, arises from the friction of the ma- 
chine only — which point we will consider after a moment's 
attention to the nature of force. 

Force is known and measured only by its effects. 

If a machine is so constructed as to render gravitation, at- 
mospheric pressure, or the expansion of elastic fluids, ope- 
rative, continually ; then the machine will be more or less 
perfect, as it consumes on itself, the power from these sour- 
ces, in transmitting it to its object. 

But as in estimating these sources of power, time is a ne- 
cessary circumstance; the constant transmission of the power 
by the machine, will enter into the estimate of its quality. 
And if, as in the common steam engine, the atmospheric 
pressure is not constant, or if being so, the manner of convey- 
ing it is not constantly the same, it may be said to be a loss of 
power only because it is a loss of time, in which, were the 
machine otherwise constructed, the power might have been 

exerted. 

Your correspondent misleads the mind by the terms in 
which he states, that " he proposes to examine what portion 
of the force applied to give the alternating motion of the 
piston is actually employed in producing the rotary move- 
ment of the cylinder, and what portion is lost to all useful 

purposes " 

And he thinks, " when the piston is in a line with the 
two centres," (or is proped for the moment, by the fixed 
crank) " that the whole force employed to raise or depress 
the piston is entirely lost." 

We have anticipated the first point by reference to Young; 

and need only add, that it is unnecessary to investigate 
what is an already received and established rule, that the 
difference of advantage between a force acting constantly at 
right angles with the crank — and obliquely at a varying 
angle as usual, is as 7 to 11. 

As to the second, it may be said there could be no power 
in question, but through the intervention of the machine, 
and if the operation of the machine is suspended in the po- 
sition supposed, there can be no power to loose — but your 
correspondent carries his idea of the practical effect of the 
principle of resolution of forces to an extent, that militates 
with ^ome received principles of mechanics. , He assumes 
^s a given quantity 200. " This force will resolve itsell 


















i 



Sullivan on the Revolving Engine. 109 



i 



(equally) into two forces ; the one parallel to the positioi 
of the pitman, which of course is entirely lost, being em- 
ployed in fruitless endeavours to remove the centre piece." 

When two forces meet at an angle, they produce a third, 
nearly equal to both in the diagonal of a parallelogram, pro- 
duced from the two lines of their direction — and yet scarcely 
any thing is lost. 

We know too from the highest authority, " that if any 
body draws or presses another, it is itself as much drawn or 
pressed :" that " all forces act reciprocally," that " action 
and reaction are equal" — but it is not thence concluded in 
theory — and surely it would be contrary to practice to say, 
that any of the force is lost. 

When a boat is moved by oars, the force exerted on the 
extremity of the oar, reacts upon the boat. 

When a levef is applied to raise a weight, the whole force 
reacts from the fulcrum. 

When a gun is fired, the elastic air acts on the bottom 
and sides of the chamber, which do not consume the force, 
but react upon the ball. 

And in like manner the force derived from the steam (in 
this case) is returned from the fixed centre piece, as a basis, 
and through the intervention of the pitman gives revolution 

to the engine. 

An unqualified objection is made to this engine, on the 
score of friction. It is said, " the friction of this engine 
will appear evident to the most superficial observer, to be 
immensely greater than in the old engine." 

This manner of expression and of judgment appears to 
be equally unphilosophical. It supposes the friction of a 
machine greater, as it may seem to such an observer com- 
plicate. It seems to leave out of the question the estab- 
lished law of mechanics, that " friction is simply propor- 
tional to the weight or pressure, that brings the substance i 
concerned into contact, independently of the magnitude of 
their forces,— and that friction is a uniformly retarding 
force." 

On these principles an engine of equal power, that is not 
more than a third as heavy as others, must have the advan- 
tage of this difference in point of friction, the work and ad- 
justment being equally perfect. It cannot be denied that ft 
good adaptation of parts, make c a grteat difference in m*- 






110 



Sullivan on the Revolving Engine 



chines, and that oleaginous substances interposed lessen the 
friction essentially. All these things being equal, the law 
above stated applies, nor is there any particular portion in 
which it is peculiarly great. The most disadvantageous 
moment is, when the piston has reached the end of the 
stroke, and starts in the other direction : but it starts gently, 
and when in the other cylinder, the power to help it, is 

the substances in contact are a polished surface of 
iron and oiled hempen packing ; there cannot be much at- 
trition between these ; every other part of the engine is 
lubricated, and moves always the same way. 

The Rotary Valves seem the most subject to this 



greatest- 



moving up- 



objection at first view. Here are two surfaces 
on each other, one of iron the other of brass, both perfect- 
ly polished, and occasionally oiled ; they are kept to- 
gether by springs, elastic enough to preserve the contact ; 
for the tendency is to separate; there is little or no weight or 
pressure to cause friction between them and it cannot possi- 
bly be great. 

You have witnessed the operation of a large engine o\ 
this kind ; and must recollect with how little force of steam 

it moved. 

I believe nothing in mechanics is more difficult to esti- 
mate than friction, what is ever incident to machinery ; bur 
it should not be confounded with the obstacles to be over- 
come in the imperfections of work as well as of plan. 

Its unavoidable existence however, shews the expedienc} 
of reducing the steam engine to as light a construction a* 
possible, as well as to get rid of those massive member? 
which waste the original power on their own movements. 

Experience is our surest guide in mechanics, and perhaps 
the late Mr. Evans 5 heirs may have nothing to fear from 
what Mr. Doolittle calls the rivality of Morey's invention. 
But I can assure him of the fact, that the same boilers which 
once carried a twenty horse engine of Evans' in my first 
steam tow-boat, that could not be made to tow more than 
one boat, now applied to a small single revolving engine, can 
tow four boats faster than that one was carried and con- 
sume not half so much fuel. 

Dr. Young justly observes that the beauty of a contrivance, 
and the skill of the contriver depend, principally, on the sim- 
plicity of thp means, and the safety, and durability of the mp- 






















































Sullivan on the Revolving Engine. 1 1 1 

chine. Mr. Morey, who was one of the earliest experimen- 
talists of our country, in Steam Boats, deserves the praise 
this implies. I prefer his engine to carry on the inland navi- 

I gation in which I am concerned. Should a better engine 

be devised it will become my interest to adopt it. At present 

J I am perfectly satisfied. 

But it may be useful to shew what reason I have to be so, 
and why this engine is preferable in navigation. 

It will be recollected that it has long been a desideratum 
to give the steam engine a rotary movement. I do not 
know that it has heretofore been done in a form or manner 
sufficiently free from objection. 

The combination however, of two cylinders at right an- 
gles, has the same effect. They produce a continuity of 
the power, whatever that is ; and enable the engine to 
work with equable motion, without a balance wheel, objec- 
tionable in navigation on account of its weight, as well as 
cost. 

We are enabled by this form of the engine to give the 
power of steam to canal navigation, and shallow inland wa- 
ters ; to apply the power directly to the axis of the water 
wheel of the boat which is thus made the connecting axis of 
the engine. No form of the Steam Boat can be more sim- 
ple. 

The boats for this purpose have a peculiar form, which 
gives a recess or chamber at the stern, for the play of the 
wheel, or crank paddles of a peculiar construction, so that 
nothing encumbers the sides. 

The boilers when the boat is large, stand on or above 
the deck, covered from the air and weather. The whole 
body of the vessel being unincumbered and free for the use 
of loading or of passengers. - 

An important saving of expense may be made in conse- 
quence of the reduced size of the machine ; for its complete 
adaptation to the use of high steam admits of a great power, 



thus exerted in a small compass. Expense is also saved in 
the manner of attaching the engine to the boat or vessel, so 
as not to depend on the stiffness or firmness of the bottom ; 
the center of reaction being the centre of the engine. 

When this kind of engine shall be applied to steam bat- 
teries, it will be found capable of propelling them perhaps 
with more than usual velocity, and at much less expense : 



^^^^H 



112 



Sullivan on the Revolving Engine* 



but its great utility will be found in facilitating water car- 
riage on those rivers, which are at times shallow, and those 
which are rendered more extensively navigable by canals 
around their falls. 

I am, very respectfully, yours, &c. 



J. L. SULLIVAN. 



Boston, October , 1819. 



P. S. In the Hartford Boat, we used the Tar or Gas 
fire with good effect : but I am not able to state yet, precise- 
ly the proportion of saving. The men about the engine 
however, thought it equal to as much again wood as they 
used. 

When I have made some decisive trials I shall communi- 
cate the result. 






Remark. We understand that Mr. Sullivan and Mr. Mo- 
rey have in the investigation of the economy of the liquid 
fuel of steam engines, (or tar and steam fire,) made some 
discoveries and improvements which bid fair to be very use- 
ful and economical. They are in practice in a steam en- 
gine which carries the recently invented self directing lathe, 
which makes ships'-blocks, lasts and other irregularly form- 
ed articles. 






w 



rf the plates referred to in the preceding 

cation. 



Index to the annexed plate of the Revolving Steam Engine* 



a a a Boilers, 
b b Cylinders, 



c c Counterpoise, (not absolutely necessary as tlie cyliaders 

counterpoise each other.) 
d d Frames holding the cylinders, &c. 



e e 

hh 



• • 



i i 

kk 



Axes on which the frames rotate. 
Fixed cranks or centers, 

The pitman or bar, 

Cross pieces, 
The Piston rods, 

The Ribs which preserve the parallel movement of tb 
rods. 



v^ 



1 I The rotary valves, 

m m The fixed counterpart to the rotary valve. 



t 

* 1 

i 

i • 






























Sullivan on the Revolving Engine. 113 

n n The springs which keep the valves together, 
o o The Throttle valve box and pipes leading steam to the cyl- 
inders, 
p p Pipes leading from the cylinders, 
r r The intermediate shaft, 

s The clutch box, to connect the shaft and wheel, 
t The clutch box lever, 

u u Cog wheels communicating motion — the reverse of this 

proportion is found in experience preferable, 
w w The main shaft, 
x x The safety valves, 
z z The gear and crank for the supply pump. 

*ig* 2. The inside or face of the valves shewing the grooves, 

3. The cross pipes and double passage cocks to produce th* 

back morion, 

4, Wheels wiih moveable floats, 

• >. The gas fire apparatus and pipes — not placed in this in- 
stance to the best advantage. The vessel sliotild be 
placed on its head. 

C. Profile of a Boat the boilers above deck, (see note b.) 

J. The stern view of the revolving engine applied to the axis, 

cranks and stern propellers, 

8. Outline of the apparatus attached to the stern, 
10. Profile of the stern with paddles. 

Note a. By proportioning the revolutions of the engine to the 
• lotion of the paddles or wheels so that the engine will ordinarily 
move moderately and the wheels fast ; we are able when the vessel 
has speed, either from the wind or steam, to superadd the power oi' 
this engine to her acquired momentum, so that the maximum of 
effect may be attained. If the engine has power to go too fast for 
the paddles thev mav be made to take more hold of the water 
and the reverse. 



Note b. It being desirable that boilers should be placed as much 
a-part from the loading and passengers as possible, the recently 
invented fuel will permit of arrangements very favourable to the 
economy of room. 

Note c. The advantages of a double engine are perhaps very 

mportant in boats of the largest class, bat a single engine applied 

to the stern propellers, is the most simple and lightest form of the 

engine; and is best adapted to those rivers of our country which 

■ow through alluvial land, and consequently make their channels 

Vol. II No. I. 15 



114 Gibbs on Dry Hoi. 

alternately close in with one shore or the other, as their winding 
course directs the force of the current. A steam boat therefore 
which has no external wheels or apparatus, will be less exposed 10 
accidents from the shore, the trees upon it, or from drift wood. 



FOR THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 



Art. XL Observations on the Dry Rot, by Col. Georgi 

Gibbs. 




HE late extraordinary decay of Timber, by a disease, 
termed the dry rot, in the commercial and military marine 
in Europe, has excited much attention, and called forth ma- 
ny schemes for prevention or cure. But I have not been 
fortunate enough to meet with any account of its cause, or 
any proposal for a remedy, which could satisfy me, still less 
the Gentlemen skilled in naval affairs. 

It appears, that this disease affects wood, whether dry of 
moist, though more in the latter case : that it has become 
more common within thirty years, and since that time large 
ships have been discovered to be entirely rotten on the 
stocks, before the preparations were made for launching 
them. 

Steaming the Timber has been tried in America, and 
found injurious; oil and paint are ruinous; and many oth- 
er operations have been recommended, some of which were 
found injurious, others ineffectual, others too costly for tri- 
al. All the ingenuity of the English mechanics seems to 
have been employed in scheeming and failing ; much mo- 
ney, and some lives, have been lost in these experiments. 

The Dry Rot has been ascribed to the use of green tim- 
ber, or wood not sufficiently seasoned or docked ; but, 
though docking timber is, to a considerable extent, impor- 
tant, yet it is found that this remedy is by no means sure, 
as ships with which this precaution, as formerly, has been 
tried, have been found at times subject to the dry rot ; so 
that in spite of every care, large vessels in Europe do not 
last half a long as formerly. 

lu the United States this disease is by no means as com- 
mon, although it gradually becomes more so. Our mer- 









Gibbs on Dry Rot. ] l 



a 



chant ships are at times troubled with it. Our ships of war 
being built of live oak, cedar, and locust, are less exposed 
to this evil. The live oak appears to be almost indistructi- 
ble, except perhaps by its contact with other species of 
wood, the juices of which, as in treenails,* may injure it. 
But the time is not far distant, when we must bewail this ca- 
lamity, or discover some preventive. 

The same evil attends the construction of modern built 
houses. The timbers of the roof of Westminster-Hall have 
been in place six hundred years, and I have examined in 
this country some which were placed one hundred and fifty 
years ago, and are seemingly uncorrupted and incorruptible. 
But no architect now would calculate on a durability of half 
the latter term. I have been informed that some of the 
floors in the new City-Hall, in New- York, though finished 
within only six years, have been removed on account of the 
dry rot. 

Considering these and other facts before the public, I 
have been led to believe, that the dry rot is owing to the 
nature of the wood, rather than to the deficiency of ordina- 
ry preparation. 

The wood of a tree consists of the heart and the albur- 
mm, or sap w T ood which forms the external concentric 
Layers. This last is the vehicle of the sap. In young 
trees, it extends to the centre, but as the tree grows, the 
heart becomes firm, and ceases to circulate the sap, and 
this process continues during the life of the tree. In aged 
trees the sap wood forms only a small part of the timber, 
till at length a process similar to ossification in the old age 
of animals takes place, and the tree dies for want of nourish- 
ment. 

The durability of heart, and the pernicious effects of sap 
wood, are well known ; but as timber bears a high price, 
workmen content themselves with taking off the coloured 
sap wood, without regarding the remaining part in the tim- 
ber. An oak tree, at the "age of eighty years, is generally 
«>f a size fitted for timber for large vessels. But if we com- 
pare this tree to one of the same size, but two hundred 
years old, we shall find the real proportion of sap wood and 
heart very different in the two specimens. Now if we con- 

# Trunuels ? 50 pronounced by the ship carpenters.— Editor. 



116 



Gibbs on Dry Rot. 



sider the enormous consumption of wood during the Jasi 
century, in large and small vessels, in houses, and in all the 
objects which add to the comforts of society, both in Eu- 
rope and America, we may justly suppose that few old 
oaks can be supplied in Europe, and that the number in 
America is continually diminishing. 

We are therefore justified in believing, that the dry rot 
in vessels and houses, in its present extension, is owing to 
the use of young timber, to which architects have had re- 
cource, in consequence of the destruction of the old forests. 
It is perhaps impossible to prevent the danger, but it ma} 
be in our power to guard in a great measure against it. 
And it is of so much importance, that I fee! less reluctance 
in offering my opinion on the subject. 

The object of every process for the preservation of tim- 
ber, must be to extract the water o( the sap, and to destro} 
the absorbent power of the wood, and chiefly of the sap 
vessels. The different uses for which the timber is intend- 
ed, will of course cause some difference in the mode of its 
treatment. For this purpose, I suggest with diffidence the 
following processes, some one of which may probably be 
used in everv situation: 

The first method is suggested by a very common usage 
of charring posts which are to be placed in the ground. 
This method is of very ancient date, it having been used 
both by the Grecians and the Romans ; and the piles so 
used either for bridges or foundations of temples, are now 
frequently found in a state of complete preservation, after a 
lapse of two thousand years. But the use of this method 
must necessarily be very limited. 

Another method may perhaps be tried with success, and 
without greater expense than many that have been resorted 
to without avail : I mean the use of smoke. This would 



the water of the sap, and earbooi 






111 



some 



evaporate 
measure the wood. 

A third method is the application of lime, either in solu- 
tion or as air slacked. The first would act like the muriate 
of soda in sea water, in the docking of timber, but from 
chemical affinity, much more powerfully. It might be ap- 
plied to timber in most situations. I understand that when 
the steam frigate was built in New-York, a quantity of pot- 
ash was poured into the centre d^eacfa timber, [Between 












^ 



Gibbs on Dry Rot. 1 1 1 

contiguous timbers ? Ed.] But it is the surface, and not 
the heart of the wood which first decays. This alkali, like 
lime, could not fail of being useful when properly applied. 
Air slacked lime, filled in between the timbers, would keep 
a continual action on the neighboring wood, until the sap 
was extracted, and the wood in all its parts completely pen- 
etrated by lime. This, with the occasional use of a solu- 
tion of lime, would render the w r ood incorruptible, as well 
as incombustible, and the woody fibre, like the animal fibre 
in leather, being saturated, would increase in strength and 
durability. 



Siif'sirick, August, 1819. 



G. GIBBS 






* 

P. S. — Since the above was written, I have received 
from Col. Perkins, of Boston, some valuable information on 
the subject, which I will briefly state: — Several ships built 
at that port have been salted, or filled in between the tim- 
bers with salt whilst on the stocks, and after a lapse of ten or 
fifteen years the timbers have in every case, been found to be 
perfectly sound. A large ship belonging to him, which had 
been salted, (fourteen years old) required repairs, new decks, 
and new iron w r ork. Considering the age of the ship, it was 
important to examine the frame in every part. The ceiling 
was therefore ripped up, and a complete examination took 
place. The result was, that the timber and plank were 
found completely sound in every part. 

I accompanied this gentleman on board of a salted ship 
belonging to him, and now in this port. The timbers were 
not so close as usual in frames of vessels, and the salt was 
retained at different heights by wedges between the tim- 
bers, so that the salt in settling should not leave any con- 
siderable height vacant. It took five hundred bushels of 
salt for this ship, of five hundred tons ; and two years after 
being built, one hundred bushels were added to fill up 
the space of the salt dissolved. 

Another instance has been communicated to me by an 
intelligent officer of the Navy. The Argus U. S. brig was 
built at Boston in 1802, of green timber, was salted as 
above, repaired at the Navy-yard in New- York in !8I4, 
and the timbers found to be perfectly sound. 



118 



JMorey on Heat and high. 



I see no objection to this treatment, except from the great 
weight above, say 28 tons in a ship of 300. The expense 
is not material, but the iron work I should think would re- 
quire renewing oftener than in the other modes. Whether a 
dampness would be created injurious to the health of the 
crew of a large ship of war, to its provisions and amunition, 
or to the freight of valuable goods, requires further expe- 



rience. 



G. GIBBS. 



Art. XII. On Heat and Light ; by Mr. Samuel Morey* 

of Orford, A \ iv-Hampshire. 

[First Communication.] 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, &C 

Sir. 




F in the following experiments on light and heat, with 
remarks on the economy of burning water as an object of 
fuel, any thing can be found worthy of a place in your val- 
uable Journal, it will be perhaps more than I could reason- 
ably expect. 



Yours respectfully 



S.M. 



Water, it is well known, is composed of some of the best 
materials for producing light and heat ; but when formed 
by combustion, something which those materials did contain 
appears to be parted with, or is neutralized, which must be 
restored to render them again combustible. 

How shall that be effected, so as to render the proce 
easy and useful ? 

* I presume that no apology wiU be necessary for giving Mr. JVIorey 

raluaWe communications entire. They are the practical results of an in- 
genious practical man who as lie ingenuously states, *< having no preten- 
sions to science, no chemical or philosophical apparatus and little or no ac- 
cess 1o men of science, has spent much of his lite ki experiments/' Such 
results are often very Valuable, and perhaps, in some eases, not tlie less so, 
for having been ought without the direction of preconceived, theoretical 
vi< . — /■'■■ lor. 





















i 



Morey on Heat and Light. 1 1 9 

Electricity will restore it — May not the same or other 
materials, which furnish that electricity, at so very low a 
temperature, furnish it directly to the water, at a higher, 
though convenient one ? 

If water, in considerable quantities is thrown on oil or tai 



irf a state of inflammation, the flame is greatly increased, 
w r hich evidently arises from some effect which the oil has, 
in preparing the w r ater for combustion. 

If oil will, at or near the temperature at which it boils or 
takes fire, produce the same effect, we have only to pass 
the steam of boiling water, through oil at that temperature, 
to furnish a regular supply of fuel from the water — and, if 
only the Hydrogen is in the first instance given out for use, 
the Oxygen by mixing or combining with the oil, will un- 
doubtedly render it a drying oil, and more combustible, and 
ultimately assist in making the combustion the more perfect. 

Many experiments seem to justify these conclusions, 
some of which will be mentioned. 

If ever so small a drop of water, fall into oil kt a temper- 
ature near boiling, it evidently is decomposed, for the ex- 
plosive report is sharper than that of gun powder. 

If tar, containing a considerable proportion of water, is 
dropped on brick or metal, at a temperature which will 
rapidly evaporate them, the vapours burn with white shoot- 
ing streaks, much flame, and without smoke, while the wa- 
ter lasts. Inflamed drops of tar, burn, while tailing, with a 
red flame and much smoke, but on reaching boiling water 
the smoke instantly disappears, and streaks of a white flam* 
shoot up. 

If water in one cylinder be made to boil, and the steam 
be led to the bottom of another, containing rosin or tar, at a 
high temperature ; after passing up through it, the water to- 
gether with the vaporized portion of the rosin or tar, w ill, 
when the proportions are properly regulated, bum with an 
intense white flame and no smoke, much the greater part of 
which, appears (by alternately shutting the steam out. or 
letting it in,) to be derived from the water. 

So also if steam be led over the surface of tar in a cylin- 
der, and made to force out a small stream of it, through a 
pipe, into which a quantity of steam is also admitted, and 
made to mix intimately with it, they burn with a grett body 
of flame and intense heat, and without smoke provided the 
proportions are welt regulated. 



120 



Morey on Heat and Light 






? 



evi 



n- 



Again, if water in one cylinder be made to boil, and the 
steam be led to the bottom of another included cylinder, 
containing spirits of turpentine, the steam, when let out un- 
der a moderate pressure, carries off' with it a sufficient quan- 
tity of the spirit to burn with a pleasant white flame, free 
from smoke ; by increasing the pressure, the flame will be- 
come in part or wholly blue. Here as in many other ex- 
periments, I have noticed, that different coloured flame 
may be produced from the same materials — are the product 
of the combustion different ? 

If the steam of water, containing a small proportion of th* 
vapour of rosin be driven against iron, at or below a red 
heat, it burns with a pleasant blue flame, which will be ex- 
tended some way back into the column of the vapour, inter- 
mixed with innumerable sparks of very white flame 
dently particles of the rosin. 

If the vapours, when the proportion of rosin is very small, 
are made to pass between two plates of iron, at or near a 
red heat, they can be inflamed on the opposite sides ol 
the plates, and will then, sometimes, burn with an entirely 
blue flame, although the vapour cannot be inflamed, with- 
out the intervention of the plates. 

If the steam of boiling water, be led to the bottom and 
passed up through tallow at a high temperature, and thei 
through cold water to condense the vapour, the hardened 
tallow will float on the surface : and on applying a flame, il 
would sometimes, take fire, some distance before the flame 
reached it, at other times it would require, to be in contact 
a few seconds, always beginning to burn with a blue flame. 
and after the whole surface had been sometime enveloped 
in flame, and the heat was such, against one side of the top 
or rim of the vessel, as to cause the water below the oil on 
that side to boil, and pass up through the oil, the flame on 
this side would be chiefly blue. Does not this show that tin 
steam was on this side decomposed in passing through the 
inflamed tallow, and from its sometimes taking fire on the 
approach of a flame, it would appear clearly that there Wtf 
an evaporation of hydrogen, from the tallow, and when 
burnt with the same sized wick, it appeared to me to give 
three or four times as much light as other tallow, which 
pointed out as I thought, that it was rendered ia the procf ■-- 

highly combustible- 






• 



Morey on Heat and Light. 121 

If a given quantity of strongly compressed boiling water 
be suddenly discharged into about an equal quantity of oil 
or rosin, at or near the boiling point, they explode to every 
appearance as quickly and violently as gun powder, and 
would without doubt, be as fatal. In this case, an immense 
quantity of highly inflammable gas or vapor is formed in 



an instant, and apparently without any aid from caloric* 



[Except what is contained in the materials ? — Ed.] 

When sulphuric acid is mixed with water, it is well 
known that much heat is given out. If after standing until 
the mixture becomes cold, iron filings are then added, much 
hydrogen gas will continue to be formed for a long time, and 
much sensible heat will be again given out. We must here 
look, eertaiftly to some other cause, besides the caloric 
given out by the oxygen, in passing from a liquid to a sol- 
id slate. If a small quantity of spirits of turpentine be add- 
ed, it burns with a very pleasant white flame, and without 
smoke. Here again it is very evident the greater part of the 
bulk of the flame is furnished from the water, which in this 
case, is again directly reprepared for combustion, without 
the least expence of caloric. 

At present sir, I will not trouble you with an account of 
any more experiments in which I have thought that water 
was, and might be useful in producing light and heat ; I will 
only add one or two more, in which it is not concerned. 

If to tallow or linseed oil a small quantity of salt-petre he 
added, and the temperature raised to nearly that of the boil- 
ing point, the salt petre appears to be dissolved and held in 
solution by the oil ; they will evaporate together, and the 
mixture, or the vapour, will burn, wholly excluded from the 
atmosphere. If science will point out a mode of retaining 
the mixture when cold, I have thought perhaps it might be 
more extensively useful than the safety lamp. 

If the vapor of spirits of turpentine be made to pass 
through a tube, covered at the upper end with fine wire 
gauze, it burns with much smoke ; if a quantity of atmos- 
pheric air be allowed to mix with it, the smoke ceases, but 
*he flame continues white. If more still be added, the flame 
lessens and becomes partly blue. By adding still more and 
more, it will burn with a very small flame, entirely blue, 
and with a singular musical sound. If still more be added, 
the flame and every ray of light ceases, but that the com- 

Vol. II No. I. 16 



• 






122 Morey on Heat and Light. { 

bustion still continues, is certain, from the explosive deto 
nating noise or report, continuing to be distinctly heard. 
Orford, May 4th, 1819. 



L 



[Second Communication.] 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAN. 



Sir. 









_i\_S the use of a certain proportion of water for affording 
heat and light, has become more familiar, and some of the 
experiments being very simple, and such as may be easily 
repeated, I have thought I might be justified in submitting 
to your perusal some further remarks and experiments on 
that subject ; hoping you may there from select something 
which may find a place in the American Journal. 

I find, that, for common use, the most convenient mode is 
to evaporate the substance designed to afford light, or light 
and heat, provided it naturally contains a sufficiency of water 
to make the vapor burn with a white flame free from smoke ; 
or if not to furnish the supply by a small separate boiler : 
depending on the decomposition of the water in burning 
the vapor, to free it from smoke, as well as to increase the 
intensity of the light. This mode of furnishing light and 
heat for common uses, has many advantages, it appears to 
me, over that of forming and burning gas, some of which 
will be hereafter mentioned. 

If we observe mineral coal when the fire first reaches it, 
we shall perceive, that the vapor which first issues, burns 
with a white flame, free from smoke ; owing undoubtedly 
to the great proportion of water. So also it is with pitch- 
pine wood, or the fat knots, if the heat be not too great. It 
is curious to bbs&fire the effect in burning any kind of pine 
wood, which contains more or less of these knots. The 
streams of vapor are often pushed out to a considerable dis- 
tance, and burn with a very pleasant white flame. These 
knots burn for a long time, and will sometimes retain water 
enough to burn the vapor without smoke, until the whole of 










Moray on Heat and Light. 123 

the wood adjoining them has been converted into coal. 
These streams of vapor appear to me to be very different 
from those of the Carburetted Hydrogen, which are often 
seen issuing from burning wood after it has become nearly 
coal. Tlrese rarely, if ever, go out, and the flame follows 
them to the wood. Not so with those of the vapor : they 
are plainly to be seen issuing to some distance, and mixing 
generally with a proportion of air, before they will burn ; 
and they are often extinguished by puffs of too great a pro- 
portion of steam. The colour of these vapors, their deto- 
nating noise, their variously coloured flames — (blue, blue 
and white, white and intense white) we can now perfectly 
imitate at our pleasure with the patent lamp stove, by burn- 
ing tar, pitch pine, or mineral coal and water. 

One of the greatest difficulties which I have mef with, 
was from the inclination the tar or rosin manifests, to over- 
flow or run out, when heated to about the temperature of 
boiling water ; this disposition arises undoubtedly from the 
sudden conversion of the water, contained in every part of 
the tar, into steam. The best mode I have tried of obvi- 
ating the difficulty is, by filling the vessel only in part-^-say 
one quarter with tar, and then filling it with small or fine 
coal.* The effect appears to be, that the tar, as it becomes 
heated at the sides of the vessels, rises up and passes off 
laterally into the centre of the coal, in a geat measure out of 
the reach of the high temperature at the sides ; when the 
bubbles are broken, the vapor passes up through the coal, 
and the tar settles down, to repeat the same operation. This 
experiment may in some measure be easily tried by a common 
skillet. Fill it about one quarter with tar ; place live coals 
around it, and in a few minutes the tar will flow over : but, 
if previously fine coal be added so as nearly to fill the skil- 
let, it cannot be made to flow over with a common charcoal 
fire, unless urged by a strong blast. When the vapor rises 
pretty freely above the coal, and if a flame is applied, it takes 
fire and will continue to burn while the tar lasts. — If a piece 
of coal of some size be made a little concave and placed at 
the top in the centre, and a little water poured into it, it re- 
mains a considerable time, although enveloped in flame : 
^nd is evaporated without boiling. The flame around this 

* We take it for granted that charcoal is intended. — Editor. 



* 



124 



Morey on Heat and Light. 



water, while evaporating, is whiter and freer from smoke. 
If a tunnel be inverted over the coal, the vapor as it issues 
from it may be inflamed. At first, in consequence undoubt- 
edly of the great proportion of water given off by the tar 
and coal, it burns without smoke. When the flame becomes 
reddish, and there is much smoke, pour a little water into 
the tunnel as it stands j it is received on the coal without 
driving out or exploding the tar, as it otherwise would. The 
vapor may again be inflamed, and again burns without smoke. 
Much in this way, may be had a useful light and fire for 
cooking especially at sea, and for a great many other pur- 
poses. If the tunnel be flatted, or if the coal has been par- 
tially saturated with water, it burns with less 
sand 



i 



so obstinately to it, which in a great 



smoKe, and 
or ashes will prevent a loss by the side. Another 
great advantage derived from the coal, besides that of giving 
a more uniform steady fire, and preventing the tar's running 
over, is the g * * t quantity of water it absorbs* and that of 
the water's nr *ing 

measure, answers every purpose of a constant supply of 
steam from a separate boiler. Newly made and red hot 
charcoal will take up about three times its weight of water, 
which it will in some measure retain until nearly consumed. 
Sand, ashes, or fine clay answers well for mixing with the 
tar &c% If the latter be made into a paste with equal parts 
of spirits of turpentine and water, and cold lumps of it of a 
conical form be placed on a table, and a flame applied, the 
vapors burn without smoke for a short time ; if placed on a 
stove at a temperature something like that of boiling water, 
the flame continues much longer. If enclosed in a tin cylin- 
der, and the vapor be made to issue through small holes at 
the top, placed as before stated, or on a plate over a chafing- 
dish of coals, it burns with a very white light, free from 
smoke. If the cylinder be tight at the top, and the vapor 
be led from the inside at the top, down and through the 
bottom and there be made to issue in an oblique direction, 
and from a number of small openings, it will burn with a 
beautiful flame, and supports and regulates, very accurately, 
its own evaporation. The oblique direction carries the heat 
in part beyond the cylinder, when the evaporation is too 
great. 

Every effect may be produced in consuming the smoke, 
and giving an intense white flame, by using a certain pro- 






* 



t 



Morey on Heat and Light 



12b 



• 






portion of water intimately blended or mixed with these 
vapors, that can be from an excess of oxygen furnished by 
creating a very strong current of air, with a high flue. With 
water it is effected much more conveniently, and without 
carrying off any part of the heat from the room. Another 
advantage is, it carries along with it the whole of the tar and 
consumes it. For instance, if into a piece of a gunbarrel 
about six inches long, tar be made to flow regularly at one 
end, a quantity of steam let into the same end, and the iron 
kept at a temperature below or at a red heat, the vapors 
issuing through small holes at the other end, may be infla- 
med, and, if the proportions are right, will burn without 
smoke, and for aught that appears, may be continued while 
the supply lasts. But if the steam be shut off, and the tar 
contains no water, the small apertures and the barrel itself 
will in a short time, become filled with a coaly residium. 

Another advantage in using a proportion of water is, that 
tar or rosin is evaporated at a much lower temperature, 
which must be increased as the proportion of water decreases, 
in-order to furnish the same quantity of light. 

As I understand it, all the heat that is necessary to fur- 
nish the vapors of these substances, is a sufficiency to vola- 
tilize them : and this temperature must be nearly preserved, 
to prevent their condensing, until they issue through the 
apertures to be inflamed. A red heat is never necessary. 
The stove, or lampstove mentioned, and which I use, is so 
constructed, that after being once filled, it will supply the 
fire regularly and constantly for any defined length of time, 
without any further attention. For instance — if a cylinder 
of sheet-iron, say two feet long, four inches in diameter at 
top, and about five at the bottom, having a grate one or two 
inches from the bottom, be filled with charcoal ; an aper- 
ture being made one or two inches above the grate, the 
coal, ignited at the bottom, (the top being covered,) w 



ilJ 



hum only at the bottom, whether the air be led directly 
across the coal and taken from the opposite side, or made 
to pass down through the grate, and led away from the 
bottom. Nor does it make any difference, whether the air 
let in below or at the grate, passes up through the coal, and 
is let out at the top ; the quantity being regulated by a 
register, from a well known principle, it can burn only af 
the bottom. As the coal consumes then, it settles down 






12(5 



Morey on Heat and Light. 



and furnishes a constant and almost perfectly regular sup- 
ply ; so much so, that while evaporating the pitch pine or 
other substances for the light, it is hardly possible some- 
times to perceive any variation for hours. i 

The cylinder for holding the pitch pine or other sub- 
stance, is placed within or surrounds this. I find the best 
mode of letting out the vapor, is from a circular tube, on 
the principle of Argand's lamp ; sometimes, when much 
light is required, from a cluster of them ; and to furnish 
them with fresh, and very hot air, by a tube passing down 
and through the ignited coal and grate. This very hot air 
tends much to preserve the temperature of the vapor until 
inflamed ; and to increase the bulk of the flame, as well as 
its intensity. This tube requires a register also. And this 
kind of lamp, or lamp-stove, admits of a glass burner or flue, 
as conveniently as any other. 

, It will easily be seen, that thin sheet-iron on this plan, 
will give as regular and as durable a heat, as brick or stone 
of any thickness. If instead of putting in ignited coals at 
the bottom, two or three inches of them are placed on the 
top, the red heat o£ the coal passes down through the whole 
in a few minutes, leaving the coal black above, just as fast 
as it is ignited below, until it reaches the bottom, when it 
becomes stationary. After this process, there is no smoke 
from the coal, even if there was before. 

We can burn in this kind of stove or lamp, (which may 
be at the same time, for aught I see, extended to warming 
and cooking, as well as to the lighting of houses, manufac- 
tories, &c.) charcoal partially saturated with water or not ; 
or the steam may be furnished by a small tin plate, or other 
boiler, receiving its heat from the stove, and directing the 
steam to or near the bottom of the tar, &c. : tar, rosin, rough 
turpentine, or the spirit, or alcohol, or any kind of oil, fat, 
or tallow ; mineral coal, pitch-pine wood, and the knots, 
birch bark, pumpkin, sun-flower, flax, and other seeds; as 
well as many other substances : the result is, a pleasant or 
intense white flame, free from smoke. That substance 
which nature has the most generally distributed over the 
earth, and which too is the cheapest known or used for 
affording light, appears to be the best adapted for burning 
in these lamps : for it is equally safe, easiest managed, 
evaporates at a lower temperature, consumes a greater pro- 



Morey on Heat and Light. 



127 



portion of water in its combustion, contains the water within 



itself, and gives a brighter 



light 



w than common candles 01 

lamps, and without smoke or smell. — It is pitch pine wood. 
What this highly inflammable substance contained in this 
wood is, I know not ; undoubtedly it is well known to oth- 
ers. But it is certainly a very different one from the tar 
obtained from the same wood. The more volatile parts are 
evaporated at a temperature below that of boiling water, 
and burn well with three parts of the vapor of water : the 
flame then, however, is nearly blue. A kind of spirit may 
easily be procured from distilling this wood, which will be 
highly inflammable ; and which, I should think, can cost 
but a few cents per gallon, as it comes over most rapidly. 
It is with all its water well calculated to burn in these 
lamps. 

I exposed some of it to severe frost one night, and found 
nearly three-fourths of the lower part converted into a cake 
of ice. This was some of the first that came over, and con- 
sequently contained more water than it would afterwards. 
It was distilled by one of the lamp-stoves, exactly in the 
same manner as if I had filled it foi 
While distilling I often applied a fla 
found it always would take fire. Its appearance 
similar to brandy. One pound of the fattest part of the 
wood gives from eight to twelve or fourteen ounces of the 
liquor or spirit. It dissolves rosin, mixes and spreads well 
with paints, and appears to prepare wood as well for receiv- 
ing a coat of paint as oil. 

There is something singular in the vapor of pitch pine, 
when issuing through small apertures. The particles do 
not repel each other like other vapors ; but, if not inflamed, 
fhey issue, when under a moderate pressure, two or three 
inches without increasing their size at all : sometimes thes* 
jets extend eight or ten inches and apparently as fine as a 
hair, accompanied often, above the stream, with an invisible 



burning to give light. 

he vapor, and 

is ven 



v apor, which is known only by 



its burning 



with a blue 



flame, hardly visible. There is no doubt that on a scale of 
some magnitude this substance will afford abundance of heat 
for its own evaporation, much in the same manner as that 
mentioned for burning spirits of turpentine and water. The 
birch bark too is almost wholly converted into a liquid; 



128 Morey on Heat and Light. 

darker and thicker :* and as the bark of this wood appears 
to be as indestructible by time as charcoal, I know not why 
this too may not be useful for many purposes. Nothing 
can burn better than the vapor of this bark, but it requires 
a much higher temperature to evaporate it ; and as it is re- 
plenished by nature when taken from growing trees, by 
cultivating those trees for firewood, we at the same time are 



reaping an abundance of an excellent substance for light- 
When the piece of gun barrel mentioned is used, it makes 
the chief of the grate, the flame and the smoke, when there 
is any, and the air also, enter about two inches above and 
pass down through the grate. The bulk of the flame, when 
the steam is suffered to flow in, is nearly as three to one, 
and much whiter. A singular circumstance often attended 
this mode of proceeding, when it was employed in burning 
rosin and water. Instead of ashes I found potash only, or 
little else. So much was this the fact, that with a particular 
kind of coal, the grate would become, in about two hours, 
so choaked or coated, as obliged me to remove the fire. 

I give the result, (very nearly,) of experiments made on 
the evenings of the 22d, 23d, and 24th of March, with a 
lamp weighing two pounds and two ounces, the inner cylin- 
der of which is of two inches diameter at the top, and about 
two and a quarter at the bottom, and six long, besides about 
one inch tunnelled out at the bottom of the outer cylinder, 
which is seven and a half inches long, leaving a space be- 
tween the two about three-fourths of an inch in the clear. 
Which space will hold nearly one pound of the wood, and 
the inner one about two ounces of coal ; the residue of the 
coal is contained in a tin plate tube of the same size as the 
inner cylinder, and extended above it, with a register at the 
top, which is removed when the coal is put in. A tube 
leads the vapor up by the side of this to the top, where it is 

let out to burn in the manner gas would be, taking care to 

Into 

l I put 

thirteen ounces of fat wood, and three ounces of charcoal, 
having previously dropped down three or four pieces of coal 
that were burning. It burned nearly regularly for three 

•Than what? We presume than the liquor before mentioned as being 
distilled from wood.— Edit. 



have a high temperature preserved the whole length, 
this lamp, the 22d inst. at a quarter past six o'clock, 









f 












Morey on Heat and Light. 



129 



hours, when I retired, leaving it burning ; but the coal was 
nearly consumed. The next day I added more coal, and 
kept it burning from three to four hours more. The wood 
had lost in the whole time only about six or seven ounces, 
and gave on an average, as appeared to me, about the light 
of two candles. It was lighted again the next night at sev- 
en: I had put in three ounces o[ coal, and seven of wood, 
filling it up with dry ashes. It burnt till nine o'clock, giv- 
ing, I should think at least the light of six candles, but not 
without smoke : the wood lost five ounces. The next night 
at half past six it was lighted again, having eight ounces of 
wood and three of coal. It burnt with a most beautiful blue 
and white flame the first hour, inclining to a greater propor- 
tion of white towards the close. At the end of another half 
hour, it had become almost wholly white, and even intense- 
ly so, and so continued to half past eight, giving about the 
light of a candle : the coal had lost only one ounce, and the 
wood two* The next night, at half past six, I put in three 
ounces of coal : it burnt well, as the night before, two hours. 
The next morning I again filled it with coal, and it burnt 
with a small but intensely white flame about one hour and 
a half: the whole time without smoke. The wood had 
then lost three-fourths of its weight, or six ounces ; and had 
burnt in the whole about six and a half hours. 

It is said, that the water, if decomposed, can give out no 
more caloric than it receives. That is possibly correct, 
when applied solely to the combustibles, which decompose 
jt. But the process here is very different, as I understand 
it. The water is decomposed by the combustible. If the 
oxygen were again to unite with the same hydrogen, there 
is perhaps nothing gained. If it unite to an equal quantity 
of hydrogen or carbon, disengaged from the combustible, 
still, so far there is perhaps neither gain nor loss. But if the 
hydrogen of the water find an abundant resupply of oxy- 
gen from the atmospheric air, with which it is so intimately 
flexed and blended, the heat evolved during the recomposi- 
tion of the water, would be equal to the whole received 
during the decomposition : [plus what proceeds from the at- 
mospherical oxigen employed to burn the hydrogen ? Ed.] 
thereby doubling the quantity received from the combusti- 
ble in its decomposition. This would certainly follow, (as 
it appears to me,) if the vapors of water and oil were to 



v ol. II No. I 



17 



130 



Morey on Heat and Light. 



repel each other, so as to occupy twice or more the bulk 
of atmospheric air, than the vapour of the combustible would 
alone. Oil and water repel each other to a sensible dis- 
tance, when in a cold liquid state* When at the high tem- 
perature of the vapour, being so very volatile, and divided 
into such very minute particles, they are evidently repelled 
so as to occupy a much larger volume, and to mix with a 
much greater quantity of atmospheric air. It needs no ex- 
periment to know, that charcoal barely ignited will decom- 
pose water. How much more rapid and violent must the 
process be here, where there is an abundance of atmos- 
pheric air on every side to assist and increase the combus- 
tion and decomposition, as well as for furnishing on the spot 
an abundant resupply of heat. What electricity has to do 
in combustion, it is not for me to say : but, that it assists in 
repelling the particles into a greater space, I trust there is 
no doubt : and from its general well known energy and ac- 
tivity, it evidently does not remain passive. If we apply 
the moist wick of a candle to the flame of another to light 
it, it is not possible for me to distinguish the sharp cracking 
reports from those of electricity.* In nature's greatest 
Jabratory, for the formation of carbonic acid gas, the pro- 
cess is carried on at a temperature not above blood heat : 
that is by something like a thousand millions of human be- 
ings, besides myriads of animals, incessantly breathing. I 
know not, that life is necessary, at this temperature for that 
purpose. But from what source the whole of the sensible 
heat, evolved by combustion, during the formation of the car- 
bonic acid gas, or that evolved during the formation of water 
by the combustion of its component parts, as well as from 
many other processes, proceeds, I trust is as yet not fully 
known. It may therefore, for aught I know, be a fact, that 
much sensible heat, may be obtained by the decomposition 
and recomposition of water, if confined wholly to the com- 
bustible ; but when an equal quantity of water is again re- 
composed from the atmospheric air and hydrogen of the de- 
composed water, solely, the oxygen, I should think, could 
rid be lost, surrounded as it is, on all sides, by a highly in- 
flammable vapor. 

* May not this proceed from the decomposition ot the water and the sud- 
den conversion of some of it into steam as when drops of water fall into a 
kettle of bulling oil? — Ed. 



Morey on Heat and Light. 



131 






I add some of the advantages, (as they appear to me) 
which will and do result from obtaining light and heat by 
the decomposition of water, instead of forming permanent 
gas. 

1. We are not troubled with that disagreeable smell, 
which accompanies carburetted hydrogen gas, unless care- 
fully purified. 

2. We obtain all the light, necessary for ordinary purpo- 
ses, from the same combustibles, which are used for warm- 
ing the apartment. 

3. A stove supplied in this way requires less fuel for 
warming an apartment, than is demanded in any other mode 
with which I am acquainted, and less to warm and light the 
room at the same time, than to warm it only. 

4. The apparatus for furnishing this light is very cheap : 
so simple that any person can manage it : so light and por- 
table, that it may be placed on a table or on the mantlepiece, 
or carried about the house nearly as conveniently as a lamp 
and as the temperature need not be so high as a red heat, 
thin sheet iron must last a good while. 

5. The whole heat, evolved during the combustion, is 
retained in the room, without rendering the air unpleasant 
or unhealthy. Better judges, however, will decide as to the 
latter. 

6. The heat on ever so large a scale, will be nearly per- 
fectly uniform. Stoves in my house, made of brick on this 
principle, (the wood however is put in at the side) burn 
from nine o'clock at night until nine, ten, and eleven the next 
day : keeping the room entirely warm, during the coldest 
nights of the winter past.* 

Much however is yet to be learned in the small way. 
Different kinds of the fat wood, containing more or less wa- 
ter, require different degrees of heat to evaporate them so 
as to burn without smoke ; so also with common tar, con- 
taining more or less water. The vapour, at first, always 
commences burning with a beautiful blue flame, or nearly 
blue, trimmed with a bright white. So it is with rosin, min- 
eral coal, birch-bark, and pumpkin seeds. It becomes dif- 
ficult in some measure, after about two thirds of the volatile 

* The climate of Orford is severe— thermometer in the winter occasion- 
ally from 20 to 30° of Fah. below 0. Mr. Morey does wot state How it 
has been there during the late cold winter. — Ed 






132 Daniel A. Clark on Snow. 



parts of the substances are evaporated, to make them buru 
without smoke. It is however done by lessening the evap- 
oration. It would undoubtedly be better economy, in the 
large way at least, to attach a small boiler for furnishing a 

supply of steam. 

For manufactories or light houses, I see not a necessity 

of further experiments ; especially if the wood of the pitch 

pine be used ; wiiich will be much the cheapest substance. 

The wood is evidently of more value, pound for pound, 



than the tar made from it. 

I am respectfully, yours, 

Orford, March 28th, 1820. 



SAMUEL MOREY. 



Remarks.— Mr. Gay Lussac, of Paris, in the Annates de 
Chimie, &c. for June 1819, has commented on Mr. Morey's 
method of producing light and heat, and stated some ob- 
jections. It was my intention to translate this piece, and 



give it to 



Mor 



communications, but the accidental loss of the No. of the 
Annales de Chimie in question, puts this, for the present, out 
of my power. — Ed. 



Art. XIV. On some curious and singular appearances of 

snow and hail, by the Rev. Daniel A. Clark. 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAX 



Dear Sir, 




SPENT the winter of 1808 and 9 in the county of Morris, 
in New-Jersey, when and where I witnessed a phenomenon 
which perhaps may never have been observed at any other 
place or time since the creation of the world, and yet I am 
not able to say but the appearance in some parts of the 
world may be common. If you think it an uncommon 
event, and should judge it worthy of notice in your Journal- 
the following statement is at your service. 

There fell a deep snow I think about the middle of Janu- 
ary. When it had lain upon the earth several days, the 



Daniel A. Clark on Snow. 



13; 



•? 



of the size of a barrel and some even larger. 



weather being very cold, there passed over us one evening, 
a cloud, from which there fell a small shower of rain. Tli" 
cloud was suddenly carried off by a northern blast, which 
congealed the water in the very surface of the snow, and 
covered the face of the earth with ice. The moon was full 
and the evening very fine. When a sufficient time had 
elapsed to permit the ice to form, another cloud appeared, 
from which there fell a shower of snow to the depth, 1 
should judge of three fourths of an inch. Then the sk\ 
suddenly cleared, the cold became very intense and the 
wind blew a gale. Nature now began her sport. Particles 
of the snow would move on the icy crust from twelve to 
twenty inches, and would then begin to roll making a track 
upon the ice shaped like an isosceles triangle. The balls 
enlarged according to circumstances. I passed in the morn- 
ing under the south side of a long inclined plain, free from 
almost every kind of obstruction. In many instances the 
rolls had apparently descended the hill by their own gravi- 
ty, aided by the wind which commenced the sport, until 

they reached the bottom, or lodged in the path, and were 

Thus the 

whole creation as far as the eye could see, was covered with 
snow balls differing in size, from that of a lady's muff, to the 
diameter of two and a half or three feet, hollow at each end 
to almost the very centre, and all as true as so many logs of 
wood shaped in a lathe. 

I do not know the extent to which this Lusus naturae was 
observed, but I believe to no very great extent. The old- 
est men in the neighbourhood had never witnessed the like 
phenomenon, and all were filled with amazement at the 
pectacle which the fields exhibited in the morning. 

The exhibition depends on so many concurring circum- 
stances, that I suppose it may never have happened in any 
other case. The rain must fall suddenly and freeze sud- 
uenly, in order to prepare a smooth unbroken surface. The 
snow must fall to a given depth, in order to be shoved be- 
fore the wind, and must possess a certain degree of damp- 
ness in order to make it cohere as it moves. The wind 
must rise before the snow becomes fastened to the crust, 
a nd must blow very hard in order to commence and finish 
the curious process. And even then the balls had been 
small had not the declivitv of a hill promoted the opera- 
tion. 









134 Remarks on Atmospheric Dust. 

There was also, two years before, a fall of hail in the 
same countyy which was to me in some respects new, 
The hail stones were generally about one fourth or three 
eighths of an inch thick and of sufficient dimension in length 
and breadth to hide a shilling, and in many cases a cent, and 
almost every one perforated in the middle as if they had 
been held between the fingers, till the fingers by their ■ 
warmth had melted away the middle and had met. When 
the perforation was not complete, there was in every case 
an inclination to perforation. The storm was tremendous, 
but of short duration and took place in the heat of summer, 

I observed then and have many times observed since, 
that hail is usually accompanied by contrary winds which 
seem striving over our heads for the mastery. I wish sir, 
to ask you, is not the hail always produced by conflicting 
winds, which, in the place where they meet, force the at- 
mosphere above the freezing point, and cause the vapour 
to congeal ? And if this be the fact will not the hail be lar- 
ger or smaller as in proportion to the strength of the conten- 
ding tempests ? When the winds are strong will not the 
hail rise during the first periods of its formation, and con- 
tinue to rise while the stream of atmosphere which is set- 
ting upward can support its weight* and thus be kept the 
longer time above the freezing point and become so much 
the larger* The perforation in the case above mentioned 
was, I suppose, effected while falling, but by what means 

[ know not. The hail might have been strung like so many 
beads. 



Art. XV. 



Rafinesque. 



Dust 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAN. 



Sir, 




>EING a subscriber to your Journal, I observe, (Vol. I- 

\ r o. IV. p. 307,) an article from the ingenious and learned 

Mr. Rafinesqae, on Atmospheric Dusi I confess I can 

hardly agree with that gentleman in several opinions which 



i 






Remarks on Atmospheric Dust. 



135 



4 



fee there suggests, and if I am wrong in dissenting from him, 
science can never suffer from a free and liberal investigation 
into its principles* Many of the facts stated in the article 
referred to, are doubtless true, but, as I apprehend, attribu- 
ted to wrong causes. I am not disposed to question that 
dusty molecules are visible on the highest mountains, and 
on the ocean, but I think all the phenomena may be ac- 
counted for by supposing that they arise from the roads, 
fields, woods, and other matter on the surface of the earth, 
disengaged by various causes. A brisk wind will raise it 
directly from the earth, and waft it to a great distance, it 
being so exceedingly subtle and tenurious as that the at- 
mosphere will support it even in a perfect calm. Perhaps 
in our climate there is not a day in the course of fifty years 
m which there is not a sufficient bi 



float 



sometime in the 
course of the twenty-four hours, to set in motion what we 
call atmospheric dust. And occasionally immense quan- 
tities are raised. In the stillest times, vegetables and 
trees are constantly depositing decayed matter, and some 
part of this, before it reaches the earth, doubtless 
away on the air. But this, says Mr. R. "is only a conse- 
quence of the first" meaning that dust which it is the prop- 
erty of the air to deposit. Yet surely the clouds of dust, 
which are every where visible in a windy day, and that 
which is seen in a room when any extraordinary motion is 
produced, do not proceed from the atmosphere primarily. 
The only fact which he mentions, as tending in the least to 
invalidate the commonly received opinion on this subject, 
is, that dust is seen at sea. Now, whatever is supposed to 
be the origin of these molecules, certain it is that they are 
capable of floating a great while in the air, and of being car- 
ried to an immense distance. Is it absurd to suppose that 
the specific air which we once breathed sitting in our libra- 
ries, may now be floating 1500 miles off over the Atlantic ? 
Jf not, the dust with which it was charged here, may still 
accompany it there. Besides, the dust which is visible at 
sea, is visible only when the ship is nearly or quite becalm- 
ed ; and may it not then arise in a great measure from the 



deck of the ship? 

Mr. R. "calculates that 



from six to 



on an average, 
twelve inches are accumulated over the ground in one hun- 



dred 



years 



ii 



Taking his lowest estimate, six inches for 






136 



Remarks on Atmospheric Dust. 



one hundred years, the medium thickness of the deposit on 
the surface of the earth in 1800 years, will not be less than 
nine feet. But Mr. R. goes farther, and supposes that in 
former times the deposit must have been much more abun- 
dant than at present. So that I apprehend we should do 
his theory ample justice, by saying that the diameter of the 
earth is now, from this single cause, twenty-seven feet great- 
er than it was at the birth of our Saviour. But if we ex- 
amine the surface of the earth, we shall find there has been 
no such change. How happens it that rocks and stones are 
every where to be met with ? Are they made by a fortui- 
tous concurrence of atoms from aerial deposit? Do the 
minerals, so various in their primitive substances, in their 
kinds and composition, which are spread all over the sur- 
face of the earth, and which are collected and foim the 
cabinets 

pheric dust ? Has the atmosphere the property of depos- 
iting one substance here, and another there, so as to make 
one tract of country clay, another gravel, and another rocks, 
and all lying in the same vicinity f But without pursuing 
the subject farther, I think the ideas already suggested are 
sufficient to show that Mr. R.'s theory, instead of account- 
ing for any facts, is wholly irreconcileable with what we ev- 
ery where observe with respect to the operations of nature. 



of the curious, do they owe their origin to atmos- 



I am respectfully, your obedient servant. 



X. Y. Z. 



P. S. — Sir — If you think the foregoing remarks may 
deserve a place in your instructive Journal, please insert 
them. 

Boston, Oct. 1, 1819. 

Observation. — T have not the account at hand, and only 
advert from memory to the astonishing quantity of extremely 
fine, indeed impalpable dust, found not long since in the 
castle of Edinburgh, in Scotland, on opening an apartment, 
and a chest containing the Regalia of the ci-devant king- 

My impression is, that they had been closed ever 
since the union, viz. two centuries, and that the dust, in a 
form light as down, was several inches thick. Whatever 
theory of atmospheric dust be adopted, this fact is very 
curious, and well worthy of being more accurately stated 
and preserved. — Editor. 



dom. 



Dr. J. F. Dana on the existence of ? 37 



. 



FOR THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OP SCIENCE. 

Am. XVI. On the existence of Cantharidm in the Lyttn 
Vittata or Potatoe Fly ; by J. Freeman Dana, M. D 
Lecturer on Chemistry fyc. 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAN. 



Dear Sir, 




T appears from the experiments of Robiquet, mentioned 
by Dr. Thomson in the last edition of his System of Chem- 
istry, that a peculiar substance exists in the Meloe Vesica- 
torius. To this substance Dr. Thomson has given the. 
name Cantharidin, and it is supposed to be the peculiar mat- 
ter which produces vesication. 

It is well known that some other insects, beside the M. 
Vesicatorius, possess the power of blistering, and that this 
property belongs, in a remarkable degree, to the Lytta Vit- 
tata or Potatoe Fly, so common in this country. This in- 
sect, from the experiments of Dr. Gorham of Boston,* and 
of others, appears to possess vesicating powers in a higher 
degree even than the Spanish Fly, and it became an en- 
quiry of some interest to know whether it contained a sub- 
stance analogous to Cantharidin. 

I digested a small quantity, 110 grains of the Potatoe Fly 
in warm distilled water for several days, and the fluid of a 
dark brown colour was then decanted ; more water was then 
added, and the operation repeated until no farther action 
was exerted, and the last portion of water was poured off 
nearly colourless. The watery infusion had a pungent and 
rather a nauseous taste, and was evaporated by a very gentle 
heat until a dry extract was obtained ; this was of a dark 
brown colour, tough, and difficult to cut like urea, and was 
pungent to the taste, leaving an impression on the tongue 
which remained some time. The dry extract being di- 
gested in highly rectified alcohol was divided into two por- 
tions, one of which was dissolved by the spirit, the other 

* See (he Medical papers of the Sfassachnsetfs Medical Society, No. It. 
wt IF. p. 65; (and Dr. Nathaniel Dwigbt's Memoir.— Trans. of Cont. Acad 
v I part I. p. 99.— Erf.) 

Vol.11 No. ?. J 8 



< 



138 Cantharidhi in the Potatoe Fly. 

remaining at the bottom of the vessel in flocculi ; the clear 
alcoholic solution of an amber colour was poured into a 
retort, and the spirit drawn off by distillation ; a reddish 
brown substance remained which possessed some peculiar 
properties. It was very pungent to the taste ; when dry and 
warm it was brittle like rosin, and presented a rosinous frac- 
ture ; after remaining some minutes exposed to the air it 
became soft like wax, or more like sulphur when prepared 
for making sulphur casts, and gradually deliquesced nearly 
to the consistence of tar or treacle at 60° or 70° Faht. It 
was readily soluble in water, as might be inferred from it? 
deliquescence. 

This substance was put into a portion of pure sulphuric 
et v ■* ; at first no change appeared, but after a few hours 
the substance softened, and by agitation the ether acquired 
a yellow colour ; the ether was poured off and other por- 
tions added until they ceased to acquire colour. The sub- 
stance did not appear to be much changed in its properties 
by the action of the ether, but when dried and exposed to 
the air, it again softened and deliquesced. The etherial 
solution was concentrated to nearly one third its bulk, and 
was then suffered to evaporate spontaneously in the open 
air. The substance remaining after the dissipation of the 
ether was glutinous and of a light yellow colour ; very high- 
ly rectified alcohol was poured over it, and instantly as- 
sumed a yellow colour, while numerous minute crystalline 
plates appeared diffused through the liquid, and soon sub- 
sided ; the small crystals were washed in alcohol and dried ; 
they were in very minute quantity, white and pearly ; the 
quantity was so small, that their properties could not be as- 
certained ; they were placed on the tender skin between 
the fingers and soon excited itching and redness ; probably 
full vesication would hate been produced if a larger quan- 
tity had been used. 

It was proposed to repeat these experiments on a larger 
and more extended scale, that the properties of the curious 
substances above mentioned might be more fully ascertain- 
ed ; but it was impossible to procure a sufficient quantity of 
(he Fly in which numerous larvse were not busily employ- 
ed, and which probably caused the first infusions in water 
rapidly to putriiy and exhale a most offensive odour. 









•■ 



American Geological Society. 139 

I am disposed at present to believe, that the small crys- 
talline plates above obtained, consist of Cantharidin ; and 
that the above experiments are a strong confirmation of the 
idea that the vesicating property of insects depends on the 
presence of a peculiar substance which may possibly be 
proved to be a peculiar animal alkali. 

With real esteem, 

Your humble obedt. servt. 



Cambridge, June 10, 1819. 



J. FREEMAN DANA. 






INTELLIGENCE AND MISCELLANIES. 



1. American Geological Society. 

i\T the conclusion of our last number, we announced die 
formation of an American Geological Society and the pas- 
sage of an act of Incorporation by the Legislature of Con- 

nectictit, conferring the necessary powers. 

Agreeably to that act a number of gentlemen from differ- 
ent States, held a meeting on the morning of Sept. 6th, in 
the Philosophical Room of Yale College for the purpose of 
organizing the society. 

Col. George Gibbs was called to the chair, and the plan 
of a constitution was laid before the meeting by a committee. 

On the evening of the 7th, it was adopted, after undergo- 
ing various amendments. 

A copy is subjoined with a list of the officers elected for 
the ensuing year. 

Constitution of the American Geological Society. 

Art. I.—There shall be a President, eight Vice-Presi- 
dents, one Recording Secretary, three Corresponding Sec- 
retaries, a Curator and Treasurer, a Committee of Nomina- 
tion, and a Committee of publication ; all of whom shall he 
annually elected. 



140 



American Geological Society 



Art. II. — The Society shall consist of not more than 
one hundred members : — and of not more than twenty-five 
lioriorary, and forty corresponding members. 

Art. III. — Candidates for admission into the Society, 
must be proposed by the Committee of Nomination, and be 
chosen by three-fourths of the members present. 

Art. IV. — The annual meeting of the Society, for the 
election of Officers, shall he held on the Tuesday preceding 
the second Wednesday of September, at such hour and 
place as shall be agreed upon from time to time. 



Art. V. 



The other stated meetings shall be on the first 



acting Vice- 



Mondays in December, March and June : and all the meet- 
ings may be adjourned by the Chairman, for not more than 
seven days from the dates above mentioned. 

Art. VI. — Special meetings may be convened by reso- 
lution of the Society, or by public notice from the Presi- 
dent ; or, in case of his absence, from the 
President, which meetings shall be restricted to the special 
objects of the Society, without power to enact regulations, 
or admit members. 

Art. VII. — Five members, including the President, or 
one of the Vice-Presidents, shall form a quorum. 

Art. VIII. — Every member shall pay to the Treasurer 

an initiation fee of five dollars, and shall be subject to an 
annual payment of one dollar. 

Art. IX. — The Treasurer shall pay ho money from the 
Treasury of the Society without a vote for this purpose and 
an order signed by the presiding officer. 

Art. X. — The Sofciety shall be located, provisionally, at 
New-Haven. 

Art. XL — No alteration shall be made in the Constitu- 
tion, unless it be proposed in writing, at one of the stated 
meetings, previous to the annual meeting in September, and 
shall be decided by a majority of two thirds of the members 
present, at the said annual meeting. 

Art. XII. — In such points of order as are not noticed in 
this Constitution, the Society will conform to the established 
customs of other similar institutions. 






* 



American Geological Society 



141 



Officers. 



William Maclure, President. 

George Gibbs, 
Benjamin Silliman, 
Parker Clear eland, 
Stephen Elliott. 



D 



Curator. 



Vice- 



! P 



resi- 



Robert Gilmor, Jr. {dents. 

Samuel Brown, 

Robert Hare, 

[Vacant.] 

T. D wight, Port 

X W. Webster, 



A. M. Fisher, Treasurer. 



R. Silliman, 
G. Gibbs, 
P. Cleaveland, 



U 



Gc< 



or 



ge 



Gibb 



J. W. Webster, 
James Pierce, 



Committee 
of Nom- 
ination. 

Committee 
of Pub- 

liration. 



ffer, \ Corresponding Secretaries. 



E. Hitchcock, 

The stated meeting for December having been postpon- 
ed, a special meeting was held on the 26th of January, 
1820, in the new Cabinet of Yale College. 

Col. Gibbs, as first Vice President, took the chair. 

Professor Silliman presented a memoir of considerable 
extent on parts of the counties of New-Haven and Litch- 
field, in Connecticut. He gave a connected view of the stra- 
ta and formations from the old red sand stone, the green 
stone trap, and alluvial of New-Haven, through the succeed- 
ing clay slate, chlorite slate, and micaceous slate, to the 

Gneiss and Granite of the Alpine region of Litchfield coun- 
ty. 

The extensive beds of white granular marble which al- 
ternate many times with the mica slate and gneiss of Litch- 
field county, and afford inexhaustible materials for archi- 
tecture and the arts, were particularly noticed, as were the 
fine iron ore beds of Salisbury and Kent, and the spathic 
iron of Roxbury all of which are also situated in the gneiss 
and mica slate. Tremolite, garnet, staurotide, sappar, plu- 
mose mica stalactitical brown iron and graphic granite, oc- 
curred in fine specimens, in the tract described, and speci- 
mens of most of these were presented for the cabinet of 
the Society. 

The same gentleman presented specimens of massive 
fltior spar, recently discovered in the parish of New-Strat- 



t 






142 American Geological Society. 

ford, town of Huntington, Connecticut, by Mr. Ephraim 
Lane, four miles south of his mine which affords bismuth, 
tungsten,* &lc According to Mr. Lane, this vein is two 
feet in width ; and its immediate walls are white granular 
limestone which forms an extensive bed in gneiss. This 
fluor spar appears at two places, distant a fourth of a mile, 
and, when the snow is gone, will probably be found to form 
a gigantic vein. It has been observed only since the snows 
fell, and was first noticed in some fragments of lime stone, 
which had been quarried for burning. 

The vein is much penetrated by quartz, mica, feldspar, 
and talc, but, it has been hitherto examined only on the sur- 
face. It is principally massive and its structure foliated or 
coarsely granular, but it presents well defined cubical crys- 
tals. Its colours vary from white to deep violet and purple, 
and are, principally various shades of the two latter. But 
the most interesting circumstance relating to it is its splen- 
did phosphorescence. The light emitted when, it is thrown, 
in a dark place, upon a hot shovel, is the purest emerald green ; 
pieces of an inch in diameter become in a few seconds, ful- 
ly illuminated, and the light is so strong and enduring, that 
when carried into a room lighted by candles, or, by the 
diffuse (not direct) light of the sun they still continue dis- 
tinctly luminous and the light dies away very gradually as 
the mineral cools. This interesting property was exhibited 
to the members of the society. Is not this variety of fluor 
spar then the time chlorophane of Siberia ? 

Prof. S. presented to the Society specimens of the green 
serpentine marble found near New-Haven, and which, ac- 
cording to the opinion of Mr. Brongniart of Paris, is the 
verd antique marble. 

Col. Gibbs presented Smith's Geological Map of England, 
and various geological specimens ; among which were vari- 
eties of the granite rocks of Haddam, Connecticut. These 
rocks contain tourmaline, garnets, sometimes of very great 
size — beryls and crysoberyl, both massive and crystaliz^d. 
This being the only locality known in which the cryso- 
beryl occurs in place, the specimens are therefore very in- 
teresting. 



* 



See Vol. I, page 316 of this Journal 






• 






- 






American Geological Society. 143 

Mr. T. D. Porter presented some of the finest crystals of 
xed oxid of titanium that have been any where found ; the 
following memorandum accompanied them. • 

This titanium which I discovered in 1S18, exists very 
well crystalized, and in comparative abundance, in masses 
of quartz which are scattered over the surface throughout 
the counties of Amherst, Campbell and Bedford, about twenty 
miles above Richmond in -Virginia. Probably also it may 
be found in other counties contiguous to these, as the same 
rocks occur very extensively in all that quarter of the state ; 
but I never had an opportunity to make any examination 
except in those I have mentioned. 

Many of the specimens which I procured are superior 
both in size and in beauty, to any of the same species in the 
Cabinets which I have seen. A fragment of one crystal which 
I obtained, measures 1 T V in chesin diameter, and others are 
nearly as large. I have one specimen 3 r 9 o inches in length, 
and another more than 3} : both these are mutilated — the 
latter is broken off at each end, and was probably much 
larger ; it is of the size of one's finger. The larger sp 
mens are very liable to be thus injured, being exceedingly 
brittle. Their fracture is commonly foliated longitudinalh 
and vitreous in the other direction. Frequently they are 
completely penetrated by quartz in the same manner a 
the green tourmaline of Massachusetts is by the Rubellite. 

Like the different varieties of schorl, the greater part of 
the crystals were so compressed and striated, that their 
figure was very variable, oftener nearly cylindrical than of 
any regular prismatic form. I met with two or three spe- 
cimens which were four sided prisms, truncated on each of 
the angles, having their terminations broken off and with a 
single crystal of four sides, which like those of the specimens 
just mentioned, seemed to meet at right angles and termi- 
nated very handsomely by a pyramid, whose sides corres- 
ponded with those of the prism. Many examples of crys- 
talline termination were observed, but generally they were 
exceedingly irregular ; sometimes one of the terminal plane- 
was so large as almost entirely to obliterate the remainder. 
I believe I saw but two crystals with both ends perfect, 
among more than a hundred specimens which I collected. 

A large proportion of the titanium found here, exhibited 
that peculiarity of configuration which is so characteristic ol 






\ 



144 



Curious Geological Facts. 






this mineral termed gemculation. In some cases a crystal 
was bent at but one angle ; in others at many — and in others 
still, while the specimen was perfectly straight and smooth 
on one side, the opposite was marked by many flexures, a 
part only of the molecules, having apparently been subject 
to the law that determined to this angular form. Two spe- 
cimens fell in my way which had all the angles rounded, 
appearing as if they had suffered partial fusion* Instance^ 
of the reticulated variety were rare. 

The colour of the oxid, when taken from the interior of 
the masses in which it was imbedded, was a beautiful red, 
often accompanied by translucency ; but that more exposed 
to the weather was commonly opake and almost black. 

P. S. The Virginia titanium, although infusible by the 
common blow pipe, melts under the flame of the compound 
blow pipe of Prof. Hare, but is not reduced to the metallic 
state. 

The Society directed Cases to be procured to receive 
specimens which may be presented. 

In accordance with the above direction, provision is now 
made to preserve and display a collection as fast as it shall 
be formed. By permission it will be located for the present 
in the new apartment devoted to the cabinet of Col. Gibb^. 
and of Yale College. 



It is understood to be the wish of the Society, that its 
members and others would forward specimens illustrative 
of American Geology and Mineralogy. The names of the 
donors will be duly recorded, and their donations will be 
properly acknowledged. 

* 

2. Curious Geological Facts. 

In the Quarterly Review for Dec. 1819, No. 43, p. 52, 
the following very interesting fact is mentioned. It is in- 
troduced in giving an account of the quarries of marble 
from which the blocks are taken for the construction of the 
celebrated Break-water at Plymouth, in England : " The 
quarries are situated at Oreston, on the eastern shore oi 
Catwater; they lie under a surface of about twenty-five 
acres, and were purchased from the Duke of Bedford for 















Curious Geological Facts. I4f> 

£10,000. They consist of one vast mass of compact close- 
grained marble, many specimens of which are beautifully 
variegated ; seams of clay however are interposed through 
the rock, in which there are also large cavities, some empty, 
and others partially filled with clay. In one of these cav- 
erns in the solid rock, fifteen feet wide, forty-five feet long, 
and twelve feet deep, filled nearly with compact clay, were 
found imbedded fossil bones belonging to the rhinoceros, 
being portions of the skeletons of three different animals, all 
of them in the most perfect state of preservation, every part 
of their surface entire to a degree which Sir Everard Home 
says he had never observed in specimens of this kind before. 
The part of the cavity in which these bones were found 
was seventy feet below the surface of the solid rock, sixty 
feet horizontally from the edge of the cliff where Mr. 
Whitby began to work the quarry, and one hundred and 
sixty feet from the original edge by the side of the Catwa- 
ter. Every side of the cave was solid rock : the inside 
had no incrustation of stalactite, nor was there any external, 
communication through the rock in which it was imbedded, 
nor any appearance of an opening from above being en- 
closed by infiltration. When, therefore, and in what man- 
ner these bones came into that situation, is among the secret 
and wonderful operations of nature which will probably 
never be revealed to mankind." 

The perusal of the above brought to my recollection a 
fact if possible still more astonishing : it is mentioned by 
Count Bournon in his Mineralogy, and as that work has (I 
believe) never been translated, I will here give the passage 
entire. 

u During the years 1786, 7, and 8, they were occupied 
near Aix in Provence, in France, in quarrying stone for the 
rebuilding, upon a vast scale, of the Palace of Justice. The 
stone was a limestone of a deep grey, and of that kind 
which are tender when they come out of the quarry, but 
harden by exposure to the air. The strata were separated 
from one another by a bed of sand mixed with clay, more, 
or less calcareous. The first which were wrought presented 
no appearance of any foreign bodies, but, after the work- 
men had removed the ten first beds, they were astonished, 
*vlien taking away the eleventh, to find its inferior surface, 
at the depth of forty or fifty feet, covered with shells. The 
Vou IF No. I. 19 






146 Fossil B 



ones. 



stone of this bed having been removed, as they were taking 
away a stratum of argillaceous sand, which separated the 
eleventh bed from the twelfth, they found stumps of columns 
and fragments of stones half 



wrougnt. and the stone was 



exactly similar to that of the quarry : they found moreover 
coins, handles of hammers, and other tools or fragments of 
tools in wood. But that which principally commanded 
their attention, was a board about one inch thick and seven 
or eight feet long ; it was broken into many pieces, of which 
none were missing, and it was possible to join them again 
one to another, and to restore to the board or plate its ori- 
ginal form, which w r as that of the boards of the same kind 
used by the masons and quarry men : it was worn in the 
same manner, rounded and waving upon the edges. 

" The stones which were completely or partly wrought, 
had not at all changed in their nature, but the fragments oi 
the board, and the instruments, and pieces of instruments of 
wood, had been changed into agate, which was very fine 
and agreeably coloured. Here then, (observes Count Bour- 
non,) we have the traces of a work executed by the hand of 
man, placed at the depth of fifty feet, and covered with 
eleven beds of compact limestone : every thing tended to 
prove that this work had been executed upon the spot 
where the traces existed. The presence of man had then ^ 
preceded the formation of this stone, and that very consid- 
erably since he was already arrived at such a degree of 
civilization that the arts were known to him, and that he 
wrought the stone and formed columns out of it?' 

3. Fossil Bones found in red sand stone, communicated by 

Professor Nathan Smith. 

Mr. Solomon Ellsworth, Jun. of East-Windsor, (Conn.) 
has politely favoured me with some specimens of fossil 
bones, included in red sand stone. Mr. Ellsworth informs 
me that they were discovered by blasting in a rock for a 
well ; they were 23 feet below the surface of the earth, and 
18 feet below the top of the rock. Unfortunately, before 
Mr. Ellsworth came to the knowledge of what was going 
on, the skeleton had been blown to pieces, with the rock 
which contained it, and several pieces of bones had been 
picked up, and then lost. The specimens which I have 




; 



Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 147 

seen are still inclosed in the rock, but from their appear- 
ance, it is possible that they are human bones. Mr. Ells- 
worth states that the bones were found in a horizontal posi- 
tion across the bottom of the well, as he thinks nearly to the 
extent of six feet. It is to be hoped that the pieces of 
bones, when they are cleared of the rock which incloses 
them, will enable us to ascertain the fact whether they are 
human bones, or the bones of brute animals. Possibly by 
examining more of the fragments of the rock which have 
been thrown out by blasting, we shall find some bone that 
will be decisive of the genus of the animal to which they 
belong. Whether they are human or brute animal bones, 
•t is an important fact as it relates to Geology. 

JVote bji the Editor.— The rock in which these bones were found, was the 
old red sand stone of Werner, which, with superincumbent ridges of green 
«tone trap, forms an extensive region from the sea shore at New- Haven to the 
Mate of Vermont, and intersects the states of Connecticut and Massachusetts. 
This sand stone region, which is more than one hundred and ten miles long, 
and varies in breadth from three miles to twenty-tive, touches the primitive 
on both sides, and at the northern end, the boundary rocks being, generally, 
mica slate and clay slate. The discovery of bones, in such a formation, so 
nearly allied to the primitive, (and in fact the sand stone rock is very firm, 
and made up of large portions of quartz, feldspar and mica — the palpable 
ruins of granite, with no cement, but finer portions of the same blended with 
oxid of iron,) cannot but be considered as very interesting. The bones 
were evidently those of a perfect and considerably large animal— some of 
the ribs were preserved ; there was a long cylindrical cavity, which appear- 
ed to have been occupied by an os humerus remaining in the rock, with 
one of its condyles, and a portion of the sternum— of that part which is ter- 
minated by the ensiform cartilage. Other bones were so completely encas- 
\ ed in the rock, that it could not be seen what they were. Professors Smith, 

| Ives, and Knight, of the Medical Institution of Yale College, all admitted 

I the possibility that they might be human bones, but did not consider the 

I specimens as sufficiently distinct to form the basis of a certain conclusion. 

[ This is understood also to be the opinion oi Professor Mitchell; of New- 

York. 

! I. Documents and Remarks respecting the Sea Serpent ; 

communicated by Professor Jacob Bigelow, of Boston. 

Mr. SlLLIMAN, 

In the year 1817, an unusual marine phenomenon excited 
notice in the harbour of Gloucester, Mass. being one with 
which the mariners and fishermen of that place were unac- 
quainted. Its character and appearance have since been 
well known to the public under the name of the Sea Serpent. 






148 Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 

The accounts of this phenomenon given under oath by va- 
rious witnesses, also some accounts of previous appearances 
of the same kind, were collected and published by the Lin- 
naean Society of New-England, that the public might possess 
a fair and correct statement of what had been observed in 
regard to so interesting a subject. In the following year 
Capt. Rich of Boston, went on an expedition fitted out for 
the purpose of taking the Sea Serpent, and after a fruitless 
cruise of some weeks, brought into port a fish of the species 
commonly known to mariners and fishermen by the name 
of Thunny, Albicore or Horse Mackerel, the Scomber 
thynnus of Linnaeus, and which fish he asserted to be the 
same as that denominated Sea Serpent. This disappoint- 
ment of public curiosity was attended at the time by a dis- 
belief on the part of many, of the existence of a distinct ma- 
line annimal of the serpent kind, or of the dimensions and 
shape represented by the witnesses at Gloucester and else- 
where. In some of the scientific journals remarks have 
been published, in which the testimony of these witnesses 
is announced to be an " absurd story," attributable to a "de- 
fective observation connected with an extravagant degree of 

fear."* 

As the friends of science can have no object in view more 

important than the attainment of truth, it is proper to sub- 
mit to the public consideration some additional evidence in 
regard to the size and shape of this marine annimal which 
has come to light since the publication of Capt. Rich's letter 
on the subject. This evidence is partly the result of obser- 
vations made during the present year, and partly the con- 
tents of a communication made to the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences fifteen years ago, but which, having 
been mislaid, has not before been published. The reader 
will judge whether it is a " defective observation" which has 
produced a remarkable coincidence between witnesses in 
different periods and places, unknown to each other ; or 
whether it was an " extravagant degree of fear" which in- 
duced the commander of an American frigate to man his 

* See Thomson's Rnnals ("or Jan. 1819, a letter from Mr. Say of Philadel- 
phia. In the American Journal of Science vol. I. p. 260, is a note from the 
author, on the identity of ScvliopMs with Colnher constrictor. As thif 



gentleman probably received his knowledge on the subject from pa^e 40th 
«>f the Linn&an Society's report, it might have been decorous in htm to 
have noticed the source from which begot bis information. 






i 






Bigeloiv on the Sea Serpent. 149 

boats and go with his marines in pursuit of this unknown 
animal. ^ It may be proper to add that the original letters 
constituting the communication last alluded to, are in the 
hands of the corresponding Secretary of the Academy, where 
they may be seen. It is hoped that the unsuccessful ter- 
mination of Capt. Rich's cruise will not deter others from 
improving any future opportunities which may occur for 
solving what may now perhaps be considered the most in- 
teresting problem in the science of Natural history. 

(Copy.) Wiscasset, May 22, 1804. 

To the Honorable John Q. Adams, corresponding Secre- 
tary of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Sir, 

As one object of the Academy is to notice and preserve 
discoveries in Natural History, I am induced to communi- 
cate to the Society the following account of a Sea Serpent, 
which I have lately collected. 

It will probably be within the recollection of some per- 
sons conversant w T ith Navigation, that in the course of a few 
years past, there have been vague reports of an animal of 
this description having been seen in or near Penobscot Bay. 
But little credit however, was attached to the story, and no 
particular authentic account has yet been given to the pub- 
He on the subject. 

A few months ago I happened to hear related the story 
of one, which was seen in the Bay of Penobscot in 1802. 
And for my own satisfaction, I have been inquisitive relative' 
to the truth of the account, and to the general evidence of 
the existence of such an animal. The first correct informa- 
tion I received was from the perusal of a letter to Rev. Alex- 
ander McLean, from Rev. Mr. Cummings of Sullivan : 
which is enclosed, and marked A. and some remarks were 



M 



The account was 



liable to some objections, and not so particular as might be 
wished. I therefore wrote Mr. Cummings, and in reply, 
received a statement more in detail, which accompanies this, 
and is marked B 
I was aften\ 

commander of 



™rds informed, that George Little Esq. late 
the Boston frigate, saw a sea monsfpr similar 






150 Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 

to the one described by Mr. Cummings, in the time of the 
revolutionary war with Great Britian ; and as I was anxious 
for all the information that was to be had, I wrote him on 
the subject, and he forwarded the enclosed (marked C.) in 
answer to my letter. I have also the testimony of a Capt, 
Crabtree of Portland, an intelligent man, which is direct 
and positive* This is also enclosed and marked D. It was 
written in his presence and received his signature, as a cor- 
rect statement. 

All this evidence, I think cannot fail to establish the fact, 
that a large Sea Serpent has been seen in and near the Bay 
of Penobscot. The existence of such a Monster can no 
longer be reasonably disputed. But whether he constantly 
resides in that vicinity, or whether he coasts further south 
or north, during a part of the year, more particular informa- 
tion is necessary to ascertain. Nor is it known on what 
species of fish he subsists. By this communication I have 
it in view only to furnish evidence of the actual existence of 
the animal. It will probably operate in favour of further 
information, and lead to a particular history of this hitherto 

undescribed Serpent* 

I am, with great esteem, 

Your humble servant, 

A. BRADFORD. 



A. Sullivan, Aug. 17/A, 1803. 

My Dear Sir, 

With peculiar pleasure I comply with your request, 
though the urgency of my affairs must excuse my brevity. 
It was sometime in July 1802 that we saw this extraordina- 
ry sea monster, on our passage to Belfast, between Cape 
Rosoi and Long Island. His first appearance was near 
Long Island. I then supposed it to be a large shoal of fish 
with a seal at one end o( it, but wondered that the seal 
should rise out of water so much higher than usual ; but, 
as he drew nearer to our boat, we soon discovered that 
this whole appearance was but one animal in the form of a 
serpent. I immediately perceived that his mode of swim- 
ming was exactly such as had been described to me by 
some of the people on Fox Islands, who had seen an anim*d 









Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 151 

of this kind before, which must confirm the veracity of their 
report. For ibis creature had not the horizontal but an as- 
cending and descending serpentine motion. This renders it 
highly probable that he never moves on land to any consid- 
erable distance and that the water is his proper element. 
His head was rather larger than that of a horse, but formed 
like that of a serpent. His body we judged was more than 
sixty feet in length. His head and as much of his body as 
we could discover was all of a blue colour except a black 
circle round his eye. His motion was at first but moder- 
ate, but when he left us and proceeded towards the ocean, he 
moved with the greatest rapidity. This monster is the sixth 
ot the kind, if our information be correct, which has been 
seen in this bay within the term of eighteen years. Mrs. 
Cummings, my daughter and Miss Martha Spring were with 
me in the boat at that time, and can attest to the above de- 



scription. 



I continue yours in christian affection, 

ABRAHAM CUMMINGS. 

Rev. Alexander McLean. 

On my way to the Schooden not meeting with Mr. Cum- 
mings at home, I wrote him a few lines, requesting he 
would leave me an account of the sea monster, he saw last 
summer, if he should be from home on my return. The 
foregoing is his account which may be gratifying to you. 
Perhaps it may be of the same kind with the great Sea 
Snake, of which Pontoppidan, Bishop of Bergen, gives an 
account. One of the same kind was seen above thirty 
years ago, by the deceased Capt. Paul Reed, of Boothbay ; 
another was seen in Muscongus Bay in time of the Ameri- 
can war, two miles from the place where I lived then, and 
another soon afterwards off Medtmcook. These were all I 
ever heard of, seen on this coast, but I never could have 



Mr 



gives. 



A. McLEAN. 



B. Sullivan, Jan. ISth, 1804 



Rev. and Dear Sir, 



I can recollect nothing material which would render my 
description of that animal more convincing. I am not sure 



1U2 Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 

that this motion was ascending and descending ; all we can 
say is, it appeared so to us* (for he was seen not only by 
me, but by three other persons.) Perhaps his nearest dis- 
tance from us was ten rods. The sea was then very 
smooth, and very little wind, but still there was such a con- 
stant rippling of the water over his body, that I could not 
distinctly observe the magnitude or colour of any part but 
his head and neck. The degree of his rapidity I cannot 
explain. But certain I am that he had a serpent's head, of 
a colour as blue as possible, and a black ring round his eye* 
The head was three feet in circumference at least. Who 
ever saw fifty or sixty porpoises moving after each other in 
a right line, and in such a manner that those who formed 
the rear were no larger than haddock and mackerel, and 
none but the foremost shewed his head ? Who ever saw a 
serpent's head upon a porpoise or whale ? We saw him 
swim as far as from Long Island to the Cape before he 
disappeared. His head and neck all the time out of water. 
Now who ever saw a porpoise swim so great a distance 
without immerging at all ? Two young men on Fox Island, 
intelligent and credible, saw an animal of this kind about 
five years since, as they then informed me. They told 
me, that the serpent which they saw was about sixty feet 
long, and appeared to have an ascending and descending 
motion. A few years before, perhaps ten years since, two 
of those large serpents were seen by two other persons on 
that Island, as their neighbours informed me. About twen- 
ty years since, two of those serpents, they say, were seen 
by one Mr. Crocket, who then lived upon* Ash Point. 
This is the best information which you can obtain from 

Your Friend and Servant, 

ABRAHAM CUMMINGS. 

Rev. Alden Bradford. 

P. S. The head and neck of the animal were of the same 
colour. 



C Marshfiuld, 13M March, 1804. 

Sir, 

In answer to yours of the 30th of January last, I observe, 
that in May, 1780, I was lying in Round Pond, in Broad 

* lii^ real mofion might be horizontal. 
























Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 15Q 

Bay, in a public armed ship. At sunrise, I discovered a 
large Serpent, or monster, coming down the bay, on the 
surface of the water. The Cutter was manned and armed. 
I went myself in the boat, and proceeded after the Serpent. 
When w ' ' "n a hundred feet, the marines were ordered to 
fire on hiu, but before they could make ready, the Serpent 
dove. He was not less than from 45 to 50 feet in length ; 
the largest diameter of his body, I should judge, 15 inches; 
his head nearly of the size of that of a man, which he car- 
ried four or five feet above the water. He wore every ap- 
pearance of a common black snake. When he dove he 
came up near Muscongus Island — we pursued him, but 
never came up within a quarter of a mile of him again. 

A monster of the above description was seen in the same 
place, by Joseph Kent, of Marshfield, 1751. Kent said he 
was longer and larger than the main boom of his sloop, 
which was 85 tons. He had a fair opportunity of viewing 
him, as he was within ten or twelve yards of his sloop. 

I have the honor to be, sir, 

Your friend and humble servant, 



GEO. LITTLE. 



Alden Bradford, Esq. 



D. 

Capt. Crabtree, now of Portland, (late of Fox Islands, 
in the bay of Penobscot,) declares, that in the year 1777, 
or 1778, upon information of a neighbor, that a large Ser- 
pent was in the water, near the shore, just below his house, 
and having often been told by individuals that they had be- 
fore seen a similar sea-monster in that quarter, and doubt- 
ing of the correctness of their reports, was induced to go 
down to the water to satisfy his own mind — that he saw a 
large animal, in the form of a Snake, lying almost motion- 
less in the sea, about thirty rods from the bank where he 
stood — that his head was about four feet above water — that, 
from the appearance of the animal, he was 100 feet in 
length — that he did not go off to the animal through fear of 
the consequences, and that he judged him to be about three 
feet diameter. He also says, that before that time, many 
people, living on those islands, on whose reports he could 
depend, had declared to him that they had seen such an 

Vol. II No. L 20 



154 Bigclow on the Sea Serpent. 

animal — and that more than one had been seen by several 
persons together. 

Signed, ELEAZER CR ABTREE. 

The following documents have been already published 

in the newspapers, but, from their importance and recent 
origin, are now re-printed, in connexion with the prece- 



ding • 



From the Boston Daily Advertiser 

THE SEA SERPENT. 



The recent appearance of this animal at Nahant, in th< 
view of several hundred persons, has furnished, perhaps, 
more conclusive proof of Ins existence, than any that has 
before been made public. For the satisfaction of our read- 
ers, we have procured a copy of the following letter, which 
gives a very clear and intelligible description of his appear- 
ance and movements. We have heard verbal statements 
from a great number of gentlemen, all of whom agree in 
substance with what is here related. 



Copy of a letter from James Prince, Marshal of the Dis- 
trict, to the Hon. Judge Davis, dated 



Nahant, Aug. 16th, 1819. 



Dear Sir, 



I presume I may have seen what is generally thought to 
be the Sea Serpent — I have also seen my name inserted in 
the evening newspaper printed at Boston on Saturday, in a 
communication on this subject. For your gratification, and 
from a desire that my name may not sanction any thing 
beyond what was presented and passed in review before 
me, I will now state that which, in the presence of more 
than two hundred other witnesses, took place near the long 
beach of Nahant, on Saturday morning last. 

Intending to pass two or three days at Nahant, with my 
family, we left Boston early on Saturday morning. On 
passing the half-way house, on the Salem turnpike* Mt« 









Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 15 

Smith informed us the Sea Serpent had been seen the eve- 
ning before at Nahant beach, and that a vast number ol 
people from Lynn, had gone to die beach that morning, in 
hopes of being gratified with a sight of him : this was con- 



3 



firmed at the hotel. I was glad to find I had brought m> 
famous mast-head spy-glass with me, as it would enable 
me, from its form and size, to view him to advantage, if I 
might be so fortunate as to see him. On our arrival on the 
beach, we associated with a considerable number of per- 
sons, on foot and in chaises — and very soon an animal of 
the fish kind made his appearance. His head appeared 
about three feet out of water; I counted thirteen bunche 
on his back : my family thought there were fifteen — he 
passed three times at a moderate rate across the bay, but 
so fleet as to occasion a foam io the water — and my family 
and myself, who were in a carriage, judged he was fifty feet 
in length, and, at the extent, not more than sixty ; whether, 
however, the wake might not add to the appearance of his 
length ; or whether the undulation of the water, or his pe- 
culiar manner of propelling himself, might not cause the 
appearance of protuberances, I leave for your better judg- 
ment. The first view of the animal occasioned some agita- 
tion, and the novelty perhaps prevented that precise dis- 
> crimination which afterwards took place — as he swam up 

the bay, we and the other spectators moved on, and kept 
abreast of him ; he occasionally withdrew himself under 
water, and the idea occurred to me that his occasionally 
raising his head above the level of the water, was to take 
breath, as the time he kept under was on an average about 
eight minutes ; after being accustomecf to view him, we 
became more composed ; and his general appearance was 
as above delineated. Mrs. Prince and the coachman hav- 
ing better eyes than myself, were of great assistance to me 
|n marking the progress of the animal ; they would say he 
is now turning, and by the aid of my glass I saw him dis- 
tinctly in this movement ; he did not turn without occupy- 
ing some space, and taking into view the time and space 
which he found necessary for his ease and accommodation, 
I adopted it as a criterion to form some judgment of his 
length — I had seven distinct views of him from the Ion 



or 



beach so called, and at some of them the animal was not 



more than an hundred yards distance. After being on the 



156 



Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 



Thinking 



long beach about an hour, the animal disappeared, and I 
proceeded on towards Nahant ; but on passing the second 
beach, I met Mr. James Magee, of Boston, with several 
ladies in a carriage, prompted by curiosity to endeavor to 
see the animal, and we were again gratified beyond even 
what we saw in the other bay ; which I concluded he had 
left in consequence of the number of boats in the offing in 
pursuit of him — the noise of whose oars must have disturbed 
him, as he appeared to us to be a harmless timid animal. 
We had more than a dozen different views of him, and each 
similar to the other ; one however so near, that the coach- 
man exclaimed, " Oh, see his glistening eye. 55 
I might form some calculation of his length by the time and 
distance of each turn ; and taking an angle with my two 
hands of the length he exhibited, that is to say, from his 
head to his last protuberance, and applying the same angle 
to other objects, I feel satisfied of the correctness of my 
decision that he is sixty feet long, unless the ripple of his 
wake deceived me — nor my dear sir, do I undertake to say 
he was of the snake or eel kind, though this was the gene- 
ral impression of my family, the spectators, and myself. 
Certainly it is a very strange animal. I have been accus- 
tomed to see whales, sharks, grampuses, porpoises, and 
other large fishes, but he partook of the appearance of none 
of these. The whale and the grampus would have spouted 

the shark never raises his head out of water, and the por- 
poise skips and plays; neither of these has such appearances 
on the back or sucli a head as this animal. The shark, 
it is true, has a fin on his back, and often the fluke of his 
tail is out of the water ; but these appendages would not 
display the form, and certainly not the number of protu- 
berances, which this animal exhibited ; nor is it the habit 
of the shark to avoid a boat. The water was extremely 
smooth, and the weather clear : we had been so habituated 
to see him, that we were cool and composed — the time 
occupied was from a quarter past eight to half past eleven 

a cloud of witnesses exceeding two hundred, brought 
together for a single purpose, were all alike satisfied and 
united as to appearances, and as to the length and size of 
the animal ; but you must deduct the influence which his 
passage through the water and the manner he propelled 
himself might have as to the apparent protuberances on his 









l 









Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 157 

back, and the ripple occasioned by his motion on his real 
length, of all which you can judge equally well as and better 
than myself. I must conclude there is a strange animal on 
our coast — and I have thought an unvarnished statement 
might be • gratifying to a mind attached to the pursuit of 
natural science, and aid in the inquiries on a controverted 
question, which I knew to have interested you. I have 
ventured on the description, being also induced to hope, 
that if any thing of the marvellous is stated as coming from 
me, you will correct it. 

Accept the respects and attention of, 

Dear Sir, yours sincerely, 

JAMES PRINCE. 

Hon. Judge Davis, Nahant, Aug. 16th, 1819. 

Extract of a letter from Mr. Cheever Felch, Chaplain 
of the United States' Ship Independence of 74 guns, to 
the Editor of the Boston CentineL 



" Dear Sir, 



Gloucester, Aug. 26, 1S19. 






"Others having taken in hand to give some account 
of the Sea Serpent, I know not why I should not have 
the same liberty. Being on this station, in the United 
States schooner Science, for the purpose of surveying this 
harbor, we were proceeding this morning down the harbor, 
in the schooner's boat ; when abreast of Dallivan's Neck, 
William. T\ Malbone, Esq. commander of the schooner, 
seeing some appearance on the water, said — " there is your 
Sea Serpent" meaning it as a laugh on me, for believing in 
its existence ; but it proved to be no joke. The animal 
was then between thirty and forty yards distance from us. 
Mr. Malbone, Midshipman Blake, myself, and our four boat- 
men, had a distinct view of him. He soon sunk ; but not 
so deep but we could trace his course. He rose again with- 
in twenty yards distance of us, and lay some time on the 
water. He then turned, and steered for Ten Pound Island : 
we pulled after him ; but finding that he was not pleased 
with the noise of our oars, they were laid in, and the boar 
skulled. We again approached very near him. He coo- 
tinued some length of time, plying between Ten Pawn 



15S Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 

Island and Stage Point. Ashe often came near the Point, 
we thought we could get a better view of him there, than 
from the boat, of which he seemed suspicious. Mr. Mal- 
bone and myself landed ; and the boat was sent to order 
the schooner down, for the purpose of trying what effect a 
twelve pound carronade would have upon him. He did not 
remain long after we landed, so that I was unable to effect 
my intention, of ascertaining, accurately, his length, with 
my instruments. From my knowledge of aquatic animals, 
and habits of intimacy with marine appearances, I could not 
be deceived. We had a good view of him, except the very 
short period while he was under water, for half an hour. 
His colour is a dark brown, with white under the throat. 
His size, we could not accurately ascertain, but his head is 
about three feet in circumference, flat and much smaller 
than his body. We did not see his tail ; but from the end 
of the head to the fartherest protuberance, was not far from 
one hundred feet. I speak with a degree of certainty, from 
being much accustomed to measure and estimate distances 
and length. I counted fourteen bunches on his back, the 
first one, say ten or twelve feet from his head, and the oth- 
ers about seven feet apart. They decreased in size towards 
the tail. These bunches were sometimes counted with, and 
sometimes without a glass. Mr. Malbone counted thirteen, 
Mr. Blake thirteen and fourteen, and the boatmen about 
the same number. His motion was sometimes very rapid, 
and at other times he lay nearly still. He turned slowly, 
and took up considerable room in doing it. He sometimes 
darted under water, with the greatest velocity, as if seizing 
prey. The protuberances were not from his motion, as 
they were the same whether in slow or rapid movement. 
His motion was partly vertical and partly horizontal, like 
that of fresh water snakes. I have been much acquainted 
with the snakes in our interior waters. His motion was the 
same. I have given you in round numbers, one hundred 
feet, for his length ; that is, what we saw; but I should say 
he must be one hundred and thirty feet in length, allowing 
for his tail. There were a considerable number of birds 
about the Sea Serpent, as I have seen them about a Snake 
on shore. That there is an aquatic animal in the form of a 
Snake, is not to be doubted. Mr. Malbone, till this day. 
was incredulous. No man would now convince him, there 















* 



Bigelow on the Sea Serpent. 1 59 

was not such a being. The sketch or picture of Marshal 
Prince, is perfectly correct. I could not, with my own 
pencil, give a more correct likeness. 

With respect, 

Your obedient servant, 



VFajor B. Russell." 



CHEEVER FELCH. 



Dear Su\ 



Brookline, August 19, 1819 




1 very willingly comply with your request to state what 
I saw of the Sea Serpent at JYakant, on Saturday last, par- 
ticularly as I happened to see it under favourable circum- 
stances to form a judgment, and to considerable advantage 
in point of position and distance. 

got into my chaise about 7 o'clock in the morning, to 
come to Boston, and on reaching the long Beach observed 
a number of people collected there, and several boats push- 
ing off and in the offing. I was speculating on what should 
have occasioned so great an assemblage there without an\ 
apparent object, and finally had concluded that they were 
some Lynn people who were embarking in those boats on 
a party of pleasure to Egg Rock, or some other point. 

I had not heard of the Sea Serpent being in that neigh- 
borhood, and I had not lately paid much attention to the 
. evidences which had been given of its existence ; the idea 
of this animal did not enter my mind at the moment. 

As my curiosity was directed towards the boats to ascer- 
tain the course they were taking, my attention was sudden!; 
arrested by an object emerging from the water at the dis- 
tance of about one hundred or one hundred and fifty yards, 
which gave to my mind at the first glance the idea of I 
horse's head. As my eye ranged along I perceived at a 
short distance eight or ten regular bunches or protuberan- 
ces, and at a short interval three or four more. I was now 
satified that the Sea Serpent was before me, and after the 
first moment of excitement produced by the unexpected 
sight of so strange a monster, taxed myself to investigate bis 
appearance as accurately as I could 

My first object was the Head, which I satisfied myself 
Was serpent shaped, it was elevated about two feet from the 






160 Bigeloio on the Sea Serpent. 

water, and he depressed it gradually, to within six or eight 
inches as he moved along. I could always see under his 
chin, which appeared to hollow underneath, or to curve 
downward. His motion was at that time very slow along 
the Beach, inclining towards the shore ; he at first moved 
his head from side to side as if to look about him. I did 
not see his eyes, though I have no doubt I could have seen 
them if I had thought to attend to this. His bunches ap- 
peared to me not altogether uniform in size, and as he mov- 
ed along some appeared to be depressed, and others brought 
above the surface, though I could not perceive any motion 
in them. My next object was to ascertain his length. For 
this purpose I directed my eye to several whale boats at 
about the same distance, one of which was beyond him, and 
by comparing the relative length, I calculated that the dis- 
tance from the animal's head to the last protuberance I had 
noticed, would be equal to about five of those boats. I felt 
persuaded by this examination that he could not be less than 
eighty feet long ; as he approached the shore and came be- 
tween me and a point of land which projects from the eas- 
tern end of the beach, I had another means of satisfying my- 
self on this point. 

After I had viewed him thus attentively for about four or 
five minutes, he sunk gradually into the water and disap- 
peared ; he afterwards again made his appearance for a mo- 
ment at a short distance. 

My first reflection after the animal was gone, was, that 
the idea I had received from the description you gave of 
the animal you saw at Gloucester, in 1817, was perfectly 
realized in this instance ; and that I had discovered nothing 
which you had not before described. The most authentic 
testimony given of his first appearance there seemed to me 
remarkably correct ; and I felt as if the appearance of this 
monster had been already familiar to me. 

After remaining some two or three hours on the beach, 
without again seeing him, I returned towards Nahant ; and 
in crossing the small beach had another good view of him, 
for a longer time, but at a greater distance. At this time 
he moved more rapidly, causing a white foam under the 
chin, and a long wake, and his protuberances had a more 
uniform appearance. At this time he must have been seen 












Bigeloiv on the Sea Serpent 



161 



by two or three hundred persons on the beach and on the 
heights each side, some of whom were very favourably situ- 
ated to observe him. 

I am, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 



Col. T. H. Perkins. 



SAMUEL CABOT. 



It is almost superfluous to add, that Mr. Cabot and his friend Col. Perkins, 
are gentlemen of the first standing and consideration.— Editor. 

I, Hawkins Wheeler, of Fairfield, in the county of Fair- 
field, and state of Connecticut, mariner, commander of the 
sloop Concord, of said Fairfield, in her late passage from 
New- York to Salem, in the county of Essex and Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts, on oath declare, that during the 
said passage from New- York to Salem, to wit, on Monday, 
the 6th day of June instant, at about 5 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, the sloop being, as near as I could judge, 15 miles N. 
W. of Race Point, and within sight of Cape Ann, I was at 
the helm of the sloop, and saw, directly a-head, (the course 
of the vessel being N. W.) something that resembled a 
Snake, about 100 yards distant from the sloop, moving in a 
S. W. direction. The animal moved in that direction, till 
be had passed athwart the course of the sloop, and appeared 
directly over the weather bow, when he altered his course 
to S. E. At this time he had been visible about five min- 
utes, when he sunk, and in about six or eight minutes after, 
appeared again directly over the weather quarter, about the 
same distance from the sloop — he continued in that course 
about five or six minutes, when he sunk again, and I saw him 
no more- His motion was at the rate of about four miles an 
bour, when he passed ahead ; but after he appeared again 
on the quarter, his motion was less rapid. To the best of 
m Y j u dgment he was not more than 100 yards from the ves- 
se J — -the weather was good and clear — it was almost calm, 
with a light air of wind from the S. the vessel was going 
about two knots — I had a fair and distinct view of the crea- 
ture, and from his appearance am satisfied that it was of the 
serpent kind. The creature was entirely black; the head, 
which perfectly resembled a snake's, was elevated from four 
to seven feet above the surface of the water, and his back 
appeared to be composed of bunches or humps, apparently 

v ol. II No. 1. 21 












162 Bigetow on the Sea Serpent. 

about as large as, or a little larger than a half barrel; I think 
I saw as many as ten or twelve, but did not count them ; I 
considered them to be caused by the undulatory motion of 
the animal — the tail was not visible, but from the head to 
the last hump that could be seen, was, I should judge, 50 
feet. The first view I had of him appeared like a string of 
empty barrels tied together, rising over what little swell of 
the sea there was. What motion I could discern in the 
body of the animal was undulatory, but he evidently moved 
his tail under water, and the ripples produced by it indicated 
a sweeping motion, making a wake as large as that made by 
the sloop. 



E 



HAWKINS WHEELER. 

Then Hawkins Wheeler per- 
sonally appeared, and made oath that the foregoing affida- 
vit by bim subscribed, contains the truth, the whole truth, 



and nothing but the truth. Before me, 



»/ 



I, Gersham Bennett, of Fairfield, in the county of Fair- 
field, and state of Connecticut, mariner, on oath declare, 
that I was mate of the sloop Concord, Hawkins Wheeler, 
master, in her late passage from New-York to Salem, Mass, 
that on Monday, the 6th day of June inst. at seven o'clock 
in the morning, I was on the deck of the sloop, sitting on 
the hatches — the vessel was steering N. W* and was then 
about eighteen miles from Race Point — the man at the 
helm made an outcry, and said there was something along- 
side that he wanted me to look at. I looked, and saw 
something on the larboard side of the vessel, about twelve 
rods, certainly not exceeding fourteen, from the vessel, that 
resembled a serpent or snake. I immediately arose and 
went to the side of the vessel, and took a position on the 
rough-tree, holding on by the shrouds ; I there saw a ser- 
pent of an enormous size and uncommon appearance, upon 
the water ; his head was about the length of the anchor 
stock above the surface of the water, viz. about seven feet. 
I looked at the anchor stock at the time, and formed my 
ppinion by comparing the two objects. The weather was 
very clear and good, and the water almost calm ; and I had, 
I think, as good a view of the animal as if I had been with- 
in two rods of him. The colour of the animal throughout. 















Bigelow on the Sea Serpeiit. I Bi- 

as far as could be seen, was black, and the surface appeared 
to be smooth, without scales — his head was about as long 
as a horse's and was a proper snake's head — there was a 
degree of flatness, with a slight hollow on the top of his 
head — the eyes were prominent, and stood out considerably 
from the surface, resembling in that respect the eyes of a 
toad, and were nearer to the mouth of the animal than to 
the back of the head. I had a full view of him for seven or 
eight minutes. He was moving in the same direction with 
the sloop, and about as fast. The back was composed of 
bunches about the size of a flour barrel, which were appa- 
rently about three feet apart — they appeared to be fixed, but 
might be occasioned by the motion of the animal, and look- 
ed like a string of casks or barrels tied together — the tail 
was not visible, but the part which could be seen was, I 
should judge, fifty feet in length— the motion of the bunch- 
es was undulatory, but the wake of his tail, which he evi- 
dently moved under water, showed a horizontal or sweep- 
ing motion, producing a wake as large as the vessel made. 
He turned his head two or three times slowly round, toward 
and from the vessel, as if taking a view of some object on 
board. I went up on the rigging, for the purpose of taking 
a view of him from above ; but before I had reached my 
station, he sunk below the surface of the water, and did not 
appear again. 

GERSHAM BENNETT. 

Essex, ss. June 9th, 1819. — Then Gersham Bennett per- 
sonally appeared and made oath* that the foregoing affidavit 
by him subscribed, contains the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth. Before me, « 

THEODORE EAMES, Justice of the Peace. 

The substance of Pantopidatfs account of the Serpens mar- 
inus Magnus, contained in his History of Norway, pub- 
lished in 1747, (from a Boston Newspaper.) 

" The Serpens Marinus Magnus is a wonderful and terri- 
ble Sea monster, which deserves to be noticed by those who 
are curious to look into the works of the great Creator. It 
is usually in July and August he appears, and when it is 
calm" — " His head was more than two feet above the sur- 
face of the ivater and resembled that of a horse. Beside 






164 Revue Eacyclopedique, fyc. 

the head and neck, seven or eight folds or coils of the ani- 
mal were distinctly seen, and were about a fathom apart. 5 * 
This is the statement of a Capt. De Ferry and others, who 
saw the serpent with him. The account from others, who 
are said to have seen this monster of the deep, states, that 
when it was calm, it lay on the water in many folds ; and 
that there were in a line with the head some small parts of 
the back to be seen above the surface of the water when it 
moves or bends ; and that at a distance these appear like so 
many casks or hogsheads, floating in a line, with a consider- 
able distance between each of them. The historian adds, 
" that many other persons on the coast of Norway had seen 
the Sea Serpent — and thought it a strange question, when 
seriously asked, whether there were such an animal in ex- 
istence ; being as fully persuaded of the fact, as of the exis- 
tence of an eel or cod." 



Extract of a letter to the Editor, dated Boston, April 8, 1820. 

I have lately received a letter from Sir Joseph Banks, 
written by his own hand,* in which he expresses his full 
faith, in the existence of our Serpent of the Sea, and 
not only as it regards himself, but his friends, and he is 
grateful for every new communication I have given him on 
that subject, and writes with the same enthusiasm that he 
did several years ago although he is now very infirm. 



5. Revue Encyclopedique fyc. 



M 



lished works of which he is either author or editor. Among 
these interesting productions I can now notice only one, J 

and that briefly. I 

The " Revue Encyclopedique ou analyse Raisonnee des J 

productions les plus remarkables dans la literature, les sci* I 

©nces et les arts" published monthly, is a very able and in- | 

teresting performance, concentrating in a good degree the in- 
tellectual light of the world, and marked by much impartiality 

* Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society of London, the com- 
panion of Capt. Cookj is now at a very advanced age but still vigorous in 
his intellectual powers, and ardent in the promotion of every species of use- 
ful knowledge. — £rf. 






imerican Verd Antique Marble. 



165 




and decorum, which appear to be effectually secured by the 
simple expedient of having the names of the authors attach- 
ed to their respective pieces : this example is worthy of 
imitation and praise. — I trust I shall often draw on this 
work ; at present my limits permit me to extract only a 
single article. 

American Verd Antique Marble. 

" United States. — An excellent quarry of Marble has 
been discovered in the vicinity of New-Haven, province 
(town) of Milford. A traveller in Connecticut pronounces 
this marble to belong to the beautiful species which is in 
Europe called Verd Antique, and which is found only in 
the palaces of the great, and in cabinets of natural history. 
Indeed, says this traveller, it surpasses in beauty all that I 
have seen of this kind. It is a great advantage that this 
quarry furnishes very large blocks, and that it is inexhausti- 
ble." 

Mr. Brongniart of Paris, the celebrated mineralogist, in 
a letter now before me, speaking of the Milford Marble of 
which I sent him, among others, a polished specimen, says 
" it forms one of the ornaments of my cabinet, and is referred 
with great precision to my Ophicalce Veinee,"* (or verd 
antique marble.) Some persons in this country confounding 
the verd antique marble with the verd antique porphyry, have 
denied to the Milford marble its proper rank : a rank which 
truth requires me to say, has always been assigned it in the 
lectures here. It was discovered in 181 1, by a member of 
the mineralogical class, while I was out with them on an 
excursion for instruction and observation. The farmers had 
made stone walls of it for almost two centuries, without sus- 
pecting what it was. 

Professor Kidd of the University of Oxford, to whom 1 
sent a specimen, and whose opinion I asked as to its geo- 
logical character, says — " the serpentine would by some be 
referred to a transition series ; by others to a primitive : 
but I am happy in thinking that the terms Primitive and 



* 



Transition are daily becoming of less importance. 



?5 



* Literally a veined serpentine limestone, and among the synonymes in 
Mr. Brongniart's treatise on the nomenclature of rocks, the ophicalce 

veinee is called Verd Antique.— Ed 






166 Miscellaneous Articles of Foreign Intelligence. 

i 

I purpose in a future number to give an account of the 
New-Haven and Milford Marble, which is equally inter* 
esting in its relations to the arts and to geology, — Ed. 

6. Miscellaneous Articles of Foreign Intelligence ; commu- 

_ nicated by Dr. J. W. Webster. 

In France — The study of Organic remains continues to 
advance rapidly. Brongniart is at the head and is the most 
able man for Floetz (or secondary) formations, but for 
Primitive, Brochant is superior. Brongniart carries hi? 
views about coal formations so far, that he looks upon them 
as great Fresh Water deposits, from their sometimes con- 
taining shells like the lime or river water shells ; they are 
found for example at Entreveres, in the Alps, at Falkirk, 
and Alloa in Scotland, &c. On the other hand, following 
this step, Mineralogists have already shown the great aggre- 
gation of rolled flints and sand between the Jura and the 
Gres, to be a succession of fresh water and salt water depo- 
sitions, or, at least three or four very different deposits ; 
and the Jura limestone they have divided into three, lime- 
stone with GryjJUites, and two others above which is the 
third Floetz limestone of Jameson. 

Brongniart delineates and describes all the impressions 
of plants which he can get, and every lover of the Science 
must wish that he may be enabled to publish so fine a work* 

Daubuisson has in the press, Elements of Geology in two 
vols, it will be a good work. 

Humbolt is preparing a similar work. 

Beudont, who has already, in the Journal des mines, given 
many interesting facts respecting the crystalization of salts 
under different circumstances, is about publishing a journey 
through Hungary, where he spent six months, and found 
beside primitive formations, a newer Sienitic and Volcanic 
Porphyry formation ; a red sand stone, with masses or beds 
of pitchstone, precisely like that of Arran, excepting that 
the latter occurs in veins ; a chalk formation, a part of the 
Paris formation, and a volcanic formation deposited and ar- 

m beds by water; the pumice, in these singular wa- 
tery arrangements having often, at first sight, the appearance 
of chalk ; his work will throw much light on Geology. 









% 






m 



Miscellaneous Articles of Foreign Intelligence. 16? 

Dr. Maccullock's account of the Hebrides is nearly fin- 
ished.** 

Jameson's Philosophical Journal is much devoted to 
Mineralogy, and the numbers wl 
^reat credit. 

Heron de Villefosse has been enlarging his work, and hisr 
Geological Map of Saxony and the "North of Germany is 
said to be very fine. 

Berzelius has lately been at Paris and republished his 
new system. 

Von Buch is busy with his work on Tenerifte in which 
many interesting discussions on Volcanic products will be 
introduced. The Baron lately dislocated his arm in leap- 
ing from a German stage coach. 



Mr. J 



JVe 



gy, after the external characters only ; but there are about 
thirty new substances, he has not mentioned : his Geology 
is not yet out. 

Mr. Greenough is now the chief man of the Geological 
Society, and is preparing a Geological Map of England ; 
but what shall we think of his late small work comprisin 



p 

5 



the best observations of a Von Buch, Brongniart, &ic. (with 

others of less w r eight) in w^hich he expresses the opinion, that 

there is nothing constant in Geology, and that there is no 

stratification of rocks ! 

Bakewel is the principal teacher of Mineralogy in Eng- 
land. 

Mr. Brocchi's work on the Appenines, and especially on 
the petrifactions, is fine. 

Mr. Blainville's determination of the impression of fishes, 
*n a periodical work, will be useful. 

Specimens from China, the Cape, India and Senegal are 
now most prized in France, and many of much interest have 
been received* 

At the Cape there is Mica Slate with granite veins. In 
Senegal much Iron stone, probably in a red sand stone 
formation. 

Our Chromate of Iron is not likely to be much prized 
now, as Dr. Heber found plenty in the Shetland Islands, of 
which he is about publishing an account. 

"Nnce published. — Ed. 






168 JVote on the Map of Mountains. 



7. Curious fact respecting Animal Poison.* 

It seems highly probable, that an infuriated serpent will 
secrete the poisonous fluid much more promptly than when 
in a placid state. And it is no doubt equally true, that 
many animals, which under ordinary circumstances are per- 
fectly innoxious, become armed with a salivous poison 
when infuriated : a truly inexplicable phenomenon. Man 
himself becomes somewhat poisonous when highly excited 
by anger. Dr. S. Brown informed me that he has had 
patients under his care, who had been bitten in personal 
combats, and whose wounds exhibited every symptom of 
poison, pertinaciously resisting the ordinary modes of cure; 
but in these cases, the deleterious fluid is the saliva, (but it 
has been supposed that fragments of the tartar from the 
teeth remaining in the wound, were the cause of the appar- 
ent poison,) whereas in the serpent, as is well known, it is 
a peculiar secretion deposited in its proper recipient cavity. 

8. Map shelving the relative height of the principal Moun- 
tains on the Globe. 



• 






Mr. Silliman — Sir, 

I was sometime since very much gratified at seeing pro- 
posals of Mr. Timothy Swan, of Boston, for publishing by 
subscription, a Mapf shewing the relative heights of all the 
principal mountains in the world. Having lately been in 
Boston, I called on Mr. S. and subscribed my name. The 
plate I was pleased to find nearly finished. As the work J 

may not be known to many of your readers, allow me to | 

call their attention to it. The engraving is beautiful as a J 

picture, but to the mineralogist, and indeed to every inquir 
ing mind, is exceedingly valuable, as it presents at one view 
the aspect and comparative heights of all the most cele- 
brated mountains, the limits of perpetual snow, of vegeta- 
tion, &c. The additions to the American edition are very 
numerous, comprising all our most elevated summits- 

# 

*Tliis fragment should have been inserted in Mr. Say's memoir on her 
pejology, but vras accidentally omitted. 

f The Map is about eighteen inches square. 



Cabinet of Minerals. 169 

From the appearance of the plate, there can be little doubt 
of the work being equal in point of execution to the Eng- 
lish Map, while the additions will render it far more valua- 
ble to Americans. The publisher will, I trust, be remune- 
rated by a very extensive and general subscription. 



Yours, &,c. 



A. B. 



9. Cabinet of Minerals, for sale. 



We understand that a valuable collection of about twenty 
thousand specimens has been recently, and is still offered 
for sale. It comprises nearly all the varieties of simple min- 
erals and numerous geological specimens; the minerals of 
Germany, Russia, France, England, Scotland, Ireland, Ice- 
land, the Ferroe Isles and of the Azores, together with a com- 
plete series of the geology of Great Britain, of the London, 
Paris and Isle of Wight formations — a very extensive suite 
of Volcanic specimens — a geological suite of four hundred 
specimens, from granite to gravel, from Freyberg, together 
with a great variety of fossil remains, marbles, agates, he. 
A series of models of crystals in wood, &c. The collection 
was formed by a gentleman in Europe, and has been pro- 
nounced second, (among American cabinets,) ornly to that 
at New-Haven. It is well worthy of the attention of col- 
leges and universities. For further information enquire of 
Col. G. Gibbs, New-York ; B. Silliman, New-Haven, and 
of Dr. J. W. Webster, Boston. 

Remark. — This cabinet was advertised some time since 
in the newspapers, and an impression was received, by 
some persons, that it was Col. Gibbs' collection. It is suf- 
ficient to say that this was an error. Col. Gibbs' Cabinet 
is still in Yale-College, and has been, recently, (with his ap- 
probation of course) removed to a new and commodious 
room, fitted up for its reception, and sufficiently capacious to 
contain also the College Cabinet, and to receive an Ameri- 
can one, which is forming, and the infant collection of the 
American Geological Society. 

The room is eighty-four feet long by forty in width, and 
nearly twelve in height ; it is finely lighted and exhibits the 
specimens in a very advantageous manner. — Ed. 

Vol. II.....N0. 1 " 22 



170 American Cinnabar and Native Lead 



10. American Cinnabar and Native Lead. 



Extract of a letter from B. F. Stickney, Esq. dated Fori 
Lawrence , Michigan Territory, Mouth of the Miami of 
the Lakes, June 17, 1819. 

Remark. — In Vol. I. page 433, mention is made of Amer- 
ican Cinnabar and native Lead. I have procured from Mr. 
Stickney, U. S. Agent, for Indian affairs a statement of 
facts relative to a subject, which, so far as regards the cin- 
nabar, is so important, and as regards the native lead, is so 
curious, that I have not been willing to abridge the state- 
ment. Some of the mercurial sand which Mr. Stickney 
enclosed in his tetter v* unfi rtunately Sum. so that I have 
never seen a specimen. — Ed. 

Cinnabar* 

It is true, that there is in this vicinity, a 1 ge district oi 
country abounding with siilphuret of Mercury, more or less 
interspersed through the soil, in the state of a black and red 
cinnabarine sand, and in one place, the genuine red cinna- 
bar occurs in the form of an impalpable powder or in small 
lumps and grains, interspersed in banks of clay- This is 
near the mouth of the Vermilion river, discharging itself in- 
to Lake Erie, about eighty miles south east of this place. 
From the mouth of the Vermilion, round the whole shore 
of the western end of Lake Erie, on the shores of Detroit 
river, Lakes St. Clair, Huron, and Michigan, the banks are 
streaked with small reek of this black and red sand of Cin- 
nabar. The whole body of the soil is interspersed with this 
sand through the whole of this extensive district of country. 
But generally it is more abundant in banks of fine ferrugin- 
ous clay. When gentle breezes agitate the Lalves and 
wear away their banks, the water bears off the lighter 
particles of earth and leaves the heavy sand predominant, 
when it is found in great abundance. But after a violent 
storm, there is scarcely any to be seen ; for the reat agita- 
tion of the whole sand of the shore, gives an opportunity to 
the ore of mercury, to find a lower level, in conformity to 
its much greater specific gravity. 







American Cinnabar and Native Lead. 171 



Native Lead. 

As the existence of native lead has been so much dis- 
puted, I will give you a full history of the circumstances that 
led to the discovery, and the evidence of its existence. 

In the summer of 1812, a gentleman of unquestionable 
veracity, by the name of Johnston, a clerk in the store 
kept by the United States, for the purpose of Indian trade, 
at Fort Wayne, but not at all acquainted with mineralogy, 
told me that he, in company with five or six persons more, 
had found in the bed of the Anglaize river, near its mouth, 
U stone of uncommon appearance, and great specific gravi- 
ty, and weighing thirteen pounds. The description which 
he gave of its colour and of the form of crystals, correspon- 
ded with galena ; but he stated that there were some soft 
metallic spots, that might be cut with the same ease as lead, 
and had the appearance of that metal ; that the stone was 
broken, and he and several others of the party took pieces 
of it. I desired to see the piece which he had; but upon 
search, found it to have been misplaced- About one year 
and a half since, a French lady, who was one of the party 
mentioned, related to me the same circumstances, and pro- 
duced the piece she had preserved, weighing about five 
ounces, and answering the description that had been given. 
I found it to be a galena of the common lead colour, in very 
brilliant cubic crystals, inlaid in one direction with slips of 
perfectly metallic lead, about a line wide, and the sixth of a 
line thick, and the length extending across the piece of ore. 
I tried its fusibility by the blow pipe, and submitted it to 
tests. 

I have sought in vain near the spot where it has been 
represented that this specimen was found to find more. I 
think it is probable there is a large mass farther up the river, 
that the piece found, was frozen into the ice, and floated 
down with it to the place where the ice thawed. 

In conformity to your request, I have given you as full 
an account as in my power, of the sulphuret of Mercury 
and native lead. 



172 



Means of Producing Light, fyc 



11. Means of Producing light, ^c. 

Extract of a letter from Prof. Robert Hare, M. D. of Phi- 

ladelpia, to the Editor, dated Dec. 30, 1819. 

I believe I mentioned in a letter to you last summer, that 
I had rendered the flame of Hydrogen luminous like that of 
oil, by adding a small quantity of oil of turpentine to the 
usual mixture for generating that gas.* When the ingredi- 
ents are at the proper temperature, the light is greater I 
think than that produced by Carburetted Hydrogen. 

I have lately found that the addition of about T \ of the 
same substance to alcohol will give this fluid the property of 
burning with a highly luminous flame, and that there is a 
certain point in the proportions at which the mixture burns 



without smoke like a gas light. 



This observation may be of use where spirits are cheap, 
as in our western states, and even in the northern parts of 
the Union where it is made from potatoes. 

It might be serviceable to morals if the value of this arti- 
cle could be enhanced by a new mode of consumption. 

It is in my power to send you a drawing and engraving of 
what I call the caloriphorus, by analogy with Volta's Elec- 
trophorus. In this there is a self regulating reservoir of hy- 
drogen on a better construction than Gay Lussac's, and the 
ignition is effected by a small calorimotor. 

I have likewise an improved Eudiometer or gas metre. 

A recurved tube with a capillary opening at the end of 
the crook is furnished at the other with a sliding rod gradu-* 
ated to two hundred parts. Being filled with water or mer- 
cury, the drawing out of the rod causes air proportionably 
to pass in, or if the point be previously within a bell glass 
holding gas, this will be drawn in. 

I have five different forms applicable to the various rea- 
gents, used for analysis of gases. 

The caloriphorus has a contrivance by which the hydro- 
gen and oxygen may be exploded by the ignition of a wire 
instead of a spark, either in a common Eudiometer o\ 
Volta, or in that above described. 



) 



• 






. 



This fact is mentioned by Mr. Morey also, in the present No.— -Ed- 






Troy Lyceum.-*- Carlisle Mineral. 173 

12. Troy Lyceum. 

In November, 1818, "a few citizens of Troy who had 
attended Mr. Eaton's lectures on Botany and Geology," 
associated for mutual improvement in the various depart- 
ments of natural history, and for the purpose of forming 
collections of specimens. This institution has been recent- 
ly incorporated by the Legislature of New- York, and a 
lectureship created in it, which is now filled by Mr. Eaton. 
We understand that a considerable cabinet is already col- 
lected, and that many of the members of the institution are 
very active. 

Established in a flourishing and opulent town, patronized 
by some of its most respectable and influential inhabitants, 
and having a very advantageous local position, it is believed 
that the Troy Lyceum, co-operating with the elder sister 
Lyceum of New-York, and with other similar institutions 
in our principal cities, will add to the stock of American 
science and do us honour.* 

13. Fibrous Sulphat of Barytes from Carlisle, thirty four 

miles west of Albany. 

This Carlisle mineral was supposed by many to be sul- 

fhat of strontian. From my first seeing it, in July, 1818, 
expressed the opinion that it was fibrous sulphat of ba- 
rytes, (especially after finding its specific gravity to be 
4-50,) of which variety I had a foreign specimen : and this 
opinion I confirmed by analysis in December following. 
Soon after, Dr. Torrey, of New- York, obtained the same 
result ; and some months later, Prof. MacNeven.f I under- 

* A communication containing extracts from the minutes of the Troy 
Lyceum, dated January 25th, 1S19, was received, and would have been 
published, had it not been soon ascertained that one prominent subject of 
tfie communication, the fibrous mineral from Carlisle, was in controversy. 
My own opinion as to the nature of that mineral had been made up, before 
the receipt of the communication, and being different from that expressed 
therein, was duly transmitted to the Lvceuro. Having received no intima- 
tion since, as to the ultimate opinion of that body, I have kept the commu- 
nication on file. 

It will be seen in a subsequent article, that the natu of the Carlisle 
mineral is now fully ascertained, and that I have extracted some facts re- 
lating to it and to other subjects from the Tr^y coram lica »n— E 

* Or his pupil? under hi= direction. 



174 Carlisle Mineral. 



derstand that Prof. Dewey was of the same opinion. In 
the mean time, Prof. Cooper, of Philadelphia, who at first 
believed the mineral to be sulphat of strontian, wrote me an 
account of experiments, which had induced him to change 
his opinion ; but it does not appear from his letter, or from 
Dr. MaeNeven's mention of his own results in his atomic 
theory, that either of these gentlemen was acquainted with 
my opinion and analysis, which were communicated only 
to my classes, and by letters to a few friends ;* or with Dr. 
Torrey's analysis, read before the New-York Lyceum earl) 
in the present year. Prof. Hare writes me that he finds 
the mineral to be sulphat of barytes, so that now there is 
no difference of opinion respecting it. 

In an extract from the minutes of the Troy Lyceum, 
forwarded to me by their Secretary, the following facts are 
stated on the authority of Mr. Eaton. 

" The fibrous sulphat of barytes is found in the town of 
Carlisle, Schoharie county, about eight miles in a N. W. 
direction from the Court-house, three miles W. of the 
Schoharie Kill, three miles S. W. from Sloan's Village, and 
thirty-four miles W. of Albany. 

It is in the N. E. face of a hill, which is about seventy 
or eighty feet high, and three-fourths of a mile in extent. 
The hill crosses the farms of Jacob Dickinson, Andrew 
Griffin, and Abraham Mosier. 

Geological Position. — The fibres of the mineral are ver- 
tical, and in length from half an inch to two inches, standing 
between the layers of a soft argillaceous slate. By the 
lateral adhesion of the fibres, very extensive strata are 
formed. As fragments are found in the soil on the side ot 
the hill through its whole extent, there can be little doubt 
that the strata of this mineral are as extensive as the hill 
itself. The rock in which it is imbedded is overlaid with 
compact limestone, which contains impressions of shells 
mostly pectenites. 



• 



* I refrained from mentioning my opinion and experiments in this Jour- 
nal; because I bad and still have reason to believe that there is a real 
sulphat of strontian found farther west in the State of New-York, and tbius 
ing it possible that some of the gentlemen had confounded the t\vn I wnfii 
for further information — Edit. 


















Med Sand Stone formation of North- Carolina. 175 

Uses. — Though the colour of the mineral is blue or 
bluish grey, the fragments which have for some time been 
exposed to air and light, assume an appearance in some 
degree resembling common borax. This induced Mr. 
Elias Baldwin, of the Society of Friends, an ingenious 
smith, to make an experiment with it in brazing, as a sub- 
stitute for borax. His success encouraged him to apply it 
in various ways, until he found it to be the best flux ever 
used in brazing and welding. 

By using it pulverized as a substitute for clay, he welded 
the most refractory steel with the same facility as if it wen 
the softest of iron. He performed also the process of bra- 
zing several times, by which he proved its very great supe- 
riority to borax in two respects ; its requiring a much 

smaller quantity, and its remaining more fixed in a high 
heat." 



14. Red Sand Stone formation of North- Carolina. 

Extract of a letter from Professor D. Olmstead, of the 
College at Chapel-Hill, North- Carolina, dated Fed. 26, 



1820. 






An extensive secondary formation has lately been discov- 
ered very near us. On the road between this place and 
Raleigh, travelling eastward, we come to it four miles from 
the College ; but at another point it has been discovered 
within two miles of us. It is a sand stone formation. The 
varieties are the red and grey. I have traced it through the 
counties of Orange and Chatham, and have ascertained it 
breadth, between this and Raleigh, to be about seven miles. 
Its direction is a little west of south. If a line be drawn 
through the Richmond bason parallel to the great moun- 
tains west of us, it will pass through this formation. Hence, 
must we not regard this as a continuation of the great sand 
tone formation, which W. McClure has traced to the Rap- 
pahannock? Must we not consider the Richmond bason 
and this as forming parts of the same formation I The va- 
■ "fety found nearest to this place is not unlike the old red 
sand stone found in your vicinity. 

It was natural to look for coal here, and I have for some 
time directed the attention of ray pupils, and of stone-cut- 



176 Sidero-graphite. — Fetid fiuor Spar. 

ters to this object. Two or three days since one of the lat- 
ter brought me a handful of coal, found in this range, on 
Deep River, in Chatham county, about twenty miles south 
of this place. The coal is highly bituminous, and burns 
with a very clear and bright flame. It is reported that a 
sufficient quantity has already been found to afford an ample 
supply for the blacksmiths in the neighborhood. 

It is my intention to employ the first leisure I can com- 
mand in collecting more precise and extended information 
respecting the formation. 



• 



1 5 . Sidero-graphite . 



Extract of a letter from Dr. Torrey, of New-York* 

I have just discovered a new mineral, or one which I can- 
not find described. It is a compound of metallic iron and 
plumbago. It somewhat resembles laminated plumbago. 
Its specific gravity is 5*11.4; is attracted by the magnet; 
burns when heated intensely, and scintillates ! dissolves in 
great measure in diluted sulphuric acid, giving out much hy- 
drogen gas. I have analysed a small piece, and found, iron 
54*25, plumbago 11*50. I know of no such mineral, and I 
have called it Sidero-graphite. It is found at Schooley's 
mountain, N. J. but the exact locality is kept a secret by the 
person who found it, as the mineral is supposed to be some- 
thing valuable! I shall soon, however, be able to procure 
two or three small specimens, and I will send you one. 

16. Fetid fiuor Spar. 

^ istus E. Jessup, recently attached to the expe- 
dition up the Missouri, has visited the locality of fluor spar 
near Shawnee* town, Illinois, (Vid. vol. I. p. 52,) and finds 
this mineral very abundant and beautiful. He has observ- 
ed, as he informed us, that this mineral is fetid by friction 
or percussion, and that even the fracture through a natural 
cleavage will diffuse the fetid odour around to the distance 
of two feet or more. We have v ated and confirmed Mr 

Jessup's observation. 

*No* far from the confluence of the Ohio and Missiaippi 



I 



4& 






Effects of Cold. — Stromnite — a new Mineral. 177 

17. Effects of Cold. 

Dr. Lyman Foot, of the United States' Army at Pitts- 
burgh, writes, " the thermometer has frequently stood her., 
during the late winter at from 15° to 17 J of Fah. below 0, 
in the morning, and at 10° and 12' below all day. It is amu- 
sing these cold nights to hear the ice on the lake crack ; the 
report is like that of a six pounder, and the ice instantly 
opens to the width of ten or fifteen feet. "What is the cause 
of it ? Does ice contract on cooling below a certain tempera- 
ture ? The snow has been here four and five feet deep." 

Remark. — Although in the act of congealing;, and for 
eight or ten degrees above freezing, cooling water expands, 
there can be no doubt that when ice is once formed, it con- 
tracts by cold like other bodies. Hence the cracks and re- 
ports, always perceived even on narrow rivers, and on small 
lakes, during the prevalence of intense cold.* When this 
gradual contraction extends over a great surface, as on lake 
Champlain, we might well expect that the accumulated ef- 
fect would produce very loud explosions, and very wide 
fissures ; so wide as occasionally to swallow up, instantly, the 
unwary travellers who, with sleighs and horses, adventure by 
night, and sometimes even by day, upon the smooth surface 
of our great northern lakes. When the weather grows warm 
again before the ice melts, the fissures close and sometimes 
even overlap, owing obviously to expansion. — Ed. 

18. Stromnite — a new Mineral. 

i 

From Dr. Th. S. Traill of Liverpool, we have received 
a printed paper read by him before the Royal Society of 
-Edinburgh, April 20, 1817. It contains an able report of 
me characters &c. and composition, of a new mineral from 
Orkney, to which Dr. Traill has given the name of Strom- 
nite. This mineral consists according to Dr. Traill's anal- 
ysis, of carbonate of strontites 68-6 — sulphate of barytes 27*5 

carbonate of lime 2-6— oxid of iron 0*lss98*8 and the 
loss, of 1-2, in the 100, is attributed to water. 

These cracks are not to be confounded with those which, during the 

congelation, proceed from the opposite cause— namely, expansion ; the space 

between the banks of rivers, small lakes, kc. not being wide enough to ad- 

fnit the expansion which the water suffers m freezing; the ice resisted by 

the shores necessarily cracks, and sometimes even crack- and overlaps. 

Vol. TI...J\ T o. 1. 23 



178 German Correspondent. — Exploring Expedition, fyc. 

19. German Correspondent. 

We have perused, with pleasure, the first numbers of the 
German Correspondent, an occasional miscellaneous paper 
published in New-York, and devoted to German literature 
and science, with which it is the aim of the very respecta- 
ble Editor to bring his countrymen better acquainted. The 
design is well worthy of encouragement, and the more so, 
as the Germans appear particularly well disposed toward? 
the United States. 



20. Exploring Expedition. 

We are informed that Gov. Cass of Michigan, aided by 
U. B. Douglass of the corps of Engineers, one of the 
assistant Professors at the West Point Military Academy, 
and others, will proceed very soon, on an expedition along 
the southern and western shores of lake Superior, and 
through the district of country generally between lake Mi- 
chigan and the Missisippi, and the head waters of that river* 

In connexion with negociations on Indian affairs, every 
practicable degree of attention will be bestowed on the na- 
tural resources of the country — on its mineralogy — botany, 
geography, &c. We anticipate from this source much val- 



uable information. 



21. Mermaid. 



Extract from the log book of the ship Leonid as, sailing 
from New-York towards Havre, Asa Sicift master ; Mai/ 
1817. hat. 44°, 6' north. 

First part of the day light variable winds and cloudy ; a* 
two P. M. on the larboard quarter, at the distance of about 
half the ship's length, saw a strange fish. Its lower parts 
were like a fish ; its belly was all white ; the top of the 
back brown, and there was the appearance of short hair as 
far as the top of its head. From the breast upwards, it had 
a near resemblance to a human being and looked upon the 
observers very earnestly; as it was but a short distance from 
the ship, all the afternoon, we had a good opportunity to 
observe its motions and shape. No one on board ever sav 
I he like fish, before ; all believe it to be a Mermaid. 















Bubbles blown in Melted Rosin. 17*' 



The second mate Mr. Stevens, an intelligent young man, 
told me the face was nearly white, and exactly like that of 
a human person ; that its arms were about half as long as 
his, with hands resembling his own ; that it stood erect out 
of the water about two feet, looking at the ship and sails 
with great earnestness. It would remain in this attitude, 
close along side, ten or fifteen minutes at a time, and then 
dive and appear on the other side. It remained around 
them about six hours. Mr. Stevens also stated that its hair 
was black on the head and exactly resembled a man's; that 
below the arms, it was a perfect fish in form, and that the 
whole length from the head to the tail about five feet. 

Communicated by Mr. Elisha Lewis of New-Haven, a 
respectable merchant. 

22. Bubbles blown in melted Rosin. 

The following curious fact is mentioned in a tetter to the 
Editor, from Mr. Samuel Morey, of Orford, N. H. : 

If the end of a copper tube (a pipe stem will answer,) be 
dipped in melted rosin, at a temperature a little above that 
of boiling water, taken out and held nearly in a verticular 
position, and blown through, bubbles will be formed of all 
possible sizes, from that of a hen's egg to those which can 
hardly be discerned by the naked eye ; and from their sil- 
very lustre, and reflection of the different rays of light, 
they have a pleasing appearance. Some that have been 
formed these eight months, are as perfect and entire as when 
first made. They generally assume the form of a string of 
beads, many of them perfectly regular, and connected by a 
very fine fibre — but the production is never twice alike. If 
filled with hydrogen gas, they would probably occupy the 
upper part of the room. 

In a letter to Mr. Morey, the Editor attributed the for- 
mation of these bubbles to the common cause, viz. the dis- 
tension of a viscous fluid by one that is aeriform ; and their 
permanency to the sudden congelation of the rosin, thus im- 
prisoning the air by a thin film of solid matter, and prevent- 
ing its escape. 

The temperature at which the bubbles are formed, being 
very low, even this very thin rosinous globe, might be strong 
enough to resist the small atmospheric pressure arising from 
the condensation of the included air by cooling. 



% 









180 Effect of Temperature on human feeling. 

In a letter, dated March 28th, 1820, Mr. Morey replies : 
" The cause ) 7 ou assign for the permanent formation of the 
rosin bubbles is undoubtedly correct. A little girl came 
running to me one evening, with, as she said, about two 
thirds of a string she had formed from the rosin of one of 
the stove lamps, while burning. It consisted of twenty-two 
or twenty-three beads, each about one third of an inch long 
and one fourth of an inch in diameter, connected together 
by a fine fibre, less than one eighth of an inch long. In 
passing my eye repeatedly from one end to the other, I 
could not discover any difference in their length, form, or 
size, or in the distance they were apart, except two or three 
at one end. Considering that the temperature of the rosin, 
and the materials, and the pressure are always the same, I 
have no idea what governs the formation of the bead differ- 
ent from that of the fibre. When I mentioned it to you, I 
did not suppose it was new, and if so, I thought it very un- 
certain whether you would think it worth noticing in the 
Journal. 

23. Effect of temperature on human feeling . 

Professor Olmstead, in a letter to the Editor, remarks ■ 
"In England, the only natural temperature that is agreeable' 
lies between 60 and 70°, so that when the thermometer is 
above 70, the inhabitants begin to feel uncomfortably warm, 
and when it is below 60, they begin to approach the fire. In 
this climate, (lat. 35,40, N. long. 79, 3, W.) we do not feel 
uncomfortably warm until the thermometer is above 80 ; 
and we begin to kindle fires when it is below 70. It would 
seem therefore that our standard in this respect is 10° high- 
er than it is in England ; and that we do not suffer more by 
a heat of 90, than the people of England do by a heat of 80. 
Dr. Black also remarks, that, in Scotland, the thermome- 
ter rises, in moderately warm summer air, to 64°. Accor- 
ding to this account, what would be esteemed moderately 
warm summer weather in Scotland, would be considered 
cool autumnal weather in this climate, when the presence of 
a fire would be quite comfortable, and almost necessary. It 
seems moreover agreeable to the analogy of nature, that the 
animal system should accommodate itself, in some meas- 
ure, to the external circumstances in which it is placed. 

N. B.— Many more small articles, localities of minerals, notices of books, 
di fries, fcc, ere necessarily postponed. — Ed, 






- 



TH 



AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, fee. 






GEOLOGY, MINERALOGY, AND TOPOGRAPHY. 



Art. I. Account of the Geology \ Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 
of the secondary region of New-York and New- Jersey, 
and the adjacent regions ; by James Pierce. 







HE secondary region of New-Jersey and of New- 
York situated West of the river Hudson and southeasterly 
of the Highlands extends from North to South about sixty 
miles, with an average breadth of thirty. It exhibits an in- 
teresting diversity of surface, embracing fresh and salt wa- 
ter alluvial, extensive valleys and plains, alternating with 
mountain ranges of considerable elevation ; and among a 
variety of interesting minerals peculiar to secondary regions, 
this tract presents many of great utility, and inexhaustible 
in quantity. 

On the eastern border of the abovementioned seconda- 
ry region and adjacent to the Hudson, is observed a promi- 
nent mountainous range. This elevation rises gradually 
from Bergen point, and pursues for sixty miles, a nearly un- 
interrupted course, terminating near the Highlands. In the 
State of New-Jersey, it has an average width of two and 
a half miles, with a summit of table land ; from its western 
brow there is a gradual descent to the alluvial valley of the 
Hackensack and Passaic ; on the eastern side it is uniform- 
ly either steep or precipitous. At Wehawk, four miles 
North of the city of Jersey the mountain presents a per- 
pendicular wall of about 200 feet elevation above the Hud- 
son ; from this summit an extensive prospect appears, of 
the harbour of New- York, of a diversified countrv, and of 

Vol. II No. 2. 21 



182 Account of the Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, Re- 
works of art exhibited in a great city contrasted with the 
adjacent wood-clad rocky mountains, where nature appears 

in her rudest state. 

From Wehawk to Fort Lee an alternation of precipitous 

ledges and steep declivities is seen, mostly clothed with 
trees of varied verdure, but frequently displaying a rocky 
surface ; the hills retiring here and there give place for 
narrow but fertile and well cultivated strips of ground upon 
which many neat dwellings appear, environed by fruit-trees 
and diversified crops, which are seen to advantage in con- 
trast with the rocky eminence in the back-ground. From 
Fort Lee to the vicinity of Tappan, a distance of sixteen 
miles, the mountain presents a great uniformity of aspect 
on its eastern face bordering on the summit, is seen an ex- 
tensive unusual precypice called the Palisadoes of near 200 
feet perpendicular altitude ; numerous vertical fissures are 
observed in the rock, crossing each other at various angles, 
forming columns of basaltic appearance. The face of 
this ledge is in general divested of verdure, but it is here 
and there seen in the crevices. The direction of the 
Palisado mountain is parallel with the river and is nearl) 
North and South ; — the face of the ledge is slightly wa- 
ving. From the base of this precipice to the river's bor- 
der, a distance of from three to four hundred feet, a steep 
declivity is seen covered by angular blocks of stone fallen 
from the Palisadoes — this part is shaded by trees and bush- 
es. The summit of the Palisado mountain presents a sur- 
face of slightly undulating table land that gradually rises to 
the north, its average width about two miles. It is mostly 
a wood-clad tract, as uncultivated as the Indian wilds. The 
western side of the mountain is of gradual descent, cleared 
and rendered productive; neat sandstone farm-houses range 
near the base of the hill for twenty miles like a continued 
village. From the western brow of this ridge is seen an 
interesting variety of mountain ranges, rich, highly cultiva- 
ted valleys, and extensive alluvial meadows through which 

the Hackensack and its auxiliary streams pursue their 
course. 

The minerals of this mountain-range from Bergen Point 
to its termination, are of a pretty uniform character. Coarse 
secondary greenstone, an aggregate of hornblende, feldspar 
and epidote, is exclusively the summit rock in place- The 



> 



of New-York and New-Jersey, tyc. 183 

feldspar cannot readily be distinguished from quartz in a 
newly broken specimen of this stone as from irregular crys- 
talization it does not present the fracture characteristic of 
feldspar, but where the surface has been long exposed to 
the air, the feldspar whitened by commencing decomposi- 
tion, is apparent. The summit rock of the Palisado range 
is not so dark as the greenstone of New-Haven, having less 

hornblende but otherwise agreeing in external character and 
geological relations. 

The only interesting crystalized mineral associated with 
the greenstone of this range is prehnite. I have recently 
discovered good specimens of that mineral in ledges of fine 
grained greenstone that border the eastern shore of New- 
ark bay — for several miles, masses of radiated prehnite of 
a lightish green were of frequent occurrence, some of 
them a foot in diameter. I found at this place a detached 
specimen of compact prehnite five inches in thickness, 
weighing six pounds — it was ascertained by Dr. Torrey to pos- 
sess the uncommon specific gravity of 3145. Coarse green- 
stone in place is observed.within a short distance of Bergen 
point — it forms the nucleus of hills of considerable eleva- 
tion five miles below the village of Bergen. Mural preci- 
pices of coarse greenstone, gradually diminishing in alti- 
tude border the eastern section of the peninsula to within 
half a mile of the narrow sound that separates New-Jersey 
from Staten-Island. In these precipices I have noticed 
crystalized feldspar filling fissures half a foot in breadth. In 
the vicinity of Wehawk, on the eastern face of- the moun- 
tain, greenstone of a dark color and fine grain, in which 
hornblende greatly predominates is often observed. In this 
neighbourhood I have recently discovered a mineral ap- 
proaching the character of kaolin ; it is pulverulent, and of 
a grayishVhite, and does not form a paste with water. ' It 
was found by Dr. Torrey to whiten and fuse when exposed 
to heat ; it appears to be a suitable material for the manu- 
facture of porcelain ; it is associated with a secondary dis- 
integrating rock of quartz and decomposing feldspar ; the 
kaolin originates from this last mentioned mineral ; this 
rock is in various stages of decomposition, is several feet in 
thickness ancMies under greenstone* At the base of the 
mountain bordering the river, in many places, secondary ar- 
gillaceous shist conglomerate, red, white, yellow and pur- 



• 



184 Account of the Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc< 






pie sandstone, and indurated clay alternate, exhibiting u 
stratification nearly horizontal, the underlying inclination 
being from 8 to 10 cleg. Tliese layers are sometimes seen 
on the mountain's side at considerable elevations above the 
river- The sandstone abovementioned is in general a coarse 
aggregate of quartz and feldspar, often friable but some- 
times very firmly combined, exhibiting winding vertical fis- 
sures. A fine compact white sandstone, resembling the 
Portland stone of England, is noticed in a few places as the 
basis layer of the Palisadoes. The compact white sand- 
stone is in repute for cellar walls, not absorbing moisture 
as readily as the red freestone. The greenstone of the 
Palisadoes is much used in forming docks ; it is rarely 
found in a decomposing state. 

A metallic vein was worked at Fort Lee at the com- 
mencement of the revolutionary war under the impression 
. that it contained gold. Doct. Torrey has ascertained that 
the ore is pyritous and green carbonate of copper, the mat- 
rix quartz and a silicious and calcareous breccia dipping un- 
der greenstone. In the breccia numerous cavities of a reg- 
ular rhombic form are observed — they were doubtless occu- / 
pied by rhombic chrystals of calcareous spar as that de- 
scription of carbonate of lime is seen at this place imbed- 
ded and detached. Micaceous oxide of iron is found in 
most specimens containing pyrites. 

The trees commonly met with on the above described 
range, are different species of oak, walnut, chestnut, maple, 
butternut, birch, gum, cedar, kc. The neighbourhood of 
Fort Lee and many parts of the mountain is heavily tim- I 

bered. — Of berries the blackberry, whortleberry, raspberry 
and strawberry are abundant. 

The wild animals occupying ti, e heights with almost 
exclusive dominion, are the wild-cat, raccoon, fox, opos- 
sum, rabbit and squirrel. — The poultry yards at the wes- 
tern base of the mountain are often annoyed by the fox 
and opossum. Of venomous serpents the copper-head is 
the most common, but the rattlesnake is sometimes seen on 
the Palisado range. Eagles and hawks are numerous 
they build their nests securely on the mountain cliffs. 

The elevation of the several points of the Palisado range 
was ascertained by Capt. Partridge to be as follows. — 
Fort Lee. till feet above the bed of the river ; — the bluff 










of New-York and Neic- Jersey, $v,\ 185 

opposite Spiten-Devil, 407 ;— a height a little farther North, 



but rising above the general level, 479 ; — Bompay Hook, 



two miles above Closter landing, 517 ;— bluff North of 

Bompay Hook, 549 ; — Closter mountain near Rock-land 
County, 539. 

I observed at several places on the summit of the Pal- 
isadoes, large projecting columns of greenstone, with 
from four to six well defined sides and in one or two 
instances nearly regular hexahedral prisms eight or ten feet 
in diameter, apparently extending to the base of the preci- 
pice and retaining for a considerable distance their basalti- 



form 



aspect. 



At the termination of the Palisadoes, Tappan sea, an ex- 
pansion of the Hudson commences and extends northerly 
ten miles with an average breadth of four. A clove pas- 
sage through which winds Tappan creek, separates the Pal- 
isado table land from a mountain range that gradually rises 
north ; this chain has for four miles at its base the waters of 
Tappan sea ; the eastern side seldom exhibits precipices; 
it is in many places elevated and cultivated — but the 
summit displaying irregular elevations is generally crown- 
ed with wood. Greenstone in no way differing from the 
rock of the Palisadoes is exclusively the summit rock in 
place. The western side of the mountain is in general 
steep, rocky and wood-clad. Adjacent to Tappan creek 
an excavation is seen extending horizontally into the 
greenstone rock of the mountain about 1000 feet, made in 
searching for silver, but the vein was not found sufficiently 
good to be worth pursuing. Red sandstone is extensively 
quarried on the eastern side of the mountain at various el- 
evations. 

The northwestern part of Tappan sea is hounded by 
greirad rising gradually for two miles. The surface is eve- 
ry where underlayed by red sandstone of a fine grain but 
soft, porous, and absorbs moisture more readily than the 
freestone of the Passaic to which it is in general inferior in 
quality. In this tract is situated the small village of Ny- 
ack. Land bordering Tappan sea, that embraces good 
quarries of freestone is valued at 1500 dollars the acre. 
The mountain chain ranges in the back ground to the north- 
west of Nyack, presenting moderate elevations— it then 
^veeps forward to the east bounding Tappan sea on its nor- 






186 Account of the Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, tyc. 

them side to Kedidika Hook ; it there takes a northwest 
direction parallel with the river for four miles, rising abrupt- 
ly from the water to a great height ; its ledges in many 
places precipitous are composed of the materials observed 
in the Palisado rock, with the addition in some parts of 
the summit of a little sulphur rendering it friable. The 
mountain is underlaid by sandstone, marking its secondary 
origin* At Haverstraw the chain rises to its greatest height, 
presenting numerous ledges and irregular elevations The 
most lofty peak called High Tower situated near Hav- 
erstraw landing, w r as found by Capt. Partridge to rise 850 
feet above the bed of the Hudson; a wall of rock of some hun- 
dred feet perpendicular height borders the summit Sand- 
stone in place is found on the side and at the base of the moun- 
tain. Piles of dark angular blocks of greenstone in many pla- 
ces occupy the sides of the mountain to the exclusion ot ve- 
getation. Puddingstone, containing smooth round pebbles 
is frequently observed. From Haverstraw the greenstone 
mountain ranges in a western course and sweeps with a di- 
minished height to the vicinity of the Highlands, presenting to 
the eye a profile of wild and irregular eminences. Iron is 
abundant in this western chain ; veins of this ore of the 
best quality have been found in several places running from 
the North-River to the Highlands. The quality of many 
beds rich in iron is injured by sulphur. A manufacture ot 
copperas from the sulphuret of iron met with in this sec- 
tion of Rockland county was once contemplated. Rich 
copper ore has been found not far from High Tower, but 
the traces of it are lost. On the southern side of the 
mountain running west from Haverstraw, the descent is in- 
general gradual ; much of the surface is cleared and culti- 
vated and of a medium soil, well watered by numerous 
springs ; large rolled masses of granite and gneiss rest on 
the mountain side, probably conveyed to this secondary re- 
gion from the Highlands by some convulsion of nature. 
Pectanitesand other marine petrifactions have been found 
on this ridge at considerable elevations ; fine grained trap 
is met with at the base. 

Westward of the Kedidica Hook range, and half a mile 
from the Hudson is situated a mountain lake four miles in 
circumference, called Rockland lake ; — its surface is I 50 
feet above the bed of the river from which it is separated 






1 



* of New-York and New- Jersey , fye* 187 

by a lofty ridge — the land elsewhere adjacent to the lake, 
rises gradually, is of a good soil and well cultivated ; seve- 
ral neat stone farm-houses are pleasantly situated on the 
banks of this extensive sheet of water. * The lake is well 
stored with pike, yellow-bass, perch, sunfish, and suckers, but 
there are few eels, and no catfish are found. No stream of 
magnitude is seen to enter the lake, but it is the source of one 
of the most considerable branches of the Hackensack. Fed 
irom below by mountain springs, it retains a greater uni- 
formity of temperature and altitude than is observed in 
ponds formed by the expansion of a river in a valley ; it 
seldom rises two feet in height, and remains unfrozen after 
* the North-River is closed ; this must be attributed to its 
great depth and the warmth of its auxilary streams. Con- 
densed by cold, the fluid on the lake's surface descends 
and its place is supplied by warmer water from below ; an 
interchange continues as is well known from the experi- 
ments of Count Rumford and others, until the mass is re- 
duced within eight degrees of freezing point, when being 
no longer condensible by cold it remains stationary and the 
surface is frozen. Ice being an indifferent conductor of 
heat the fluid below continues much warmer than the air. 
The waters of the lake are soft and pure and as they repose 
pn a sandy bottom, no water-weeds or swamps are seen on 
its borders except at the river's outlet. The adjacent in- 
habitants are not subject to the fevers and early fogs of au- 
tumn ; the w r aters of the lake remaining colder than the 
air, morning exhalations do not arise to be condensed. Veg- 
etation bordering on the lake is seldom injured by pre- 
mature frosts ; being protected probably by the then warmer 
air of the water. The height of that part of the Kedidica 
Hook range situated between the lake and the river, is 640 
feet above tide water, as calculated by Capt. Partridge. To 
Joseph Dederer Esq. a well informed resident of the nor- 
thern bank of the lake, at whose pleasant and hospitable 
mansion I have passed many days, I am indebted for much 
local information. 

The elevation of Kedidica Hook is well calculated (or 
geological and geographical survey, uniting extension with 
distjnctness of view. The wood-clad Highland chain is ob- 
served ranging the horizon for fifty miles ; its course is from 
northeast to southw* t : the Newark and Prackne raoua* 






188 Account of the Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, &{C* 



tains faintly appear to the southwest. The Haverstraw 
mountain is near you, with its camel's back summit running 
westwardly ; to the South the Palisadoes are seen. In the 
immense valley embraced by these mountain ranges, the 
hills and plains, the cultivated and wood-clad tracts, the 
lakes and streams are viewed upon the uneven map of na- 
ture ; the greater part of this valley appeared in a good 
state of cultivation. To the southwest of Tappan sea in 
the direction of Hackensack and Pyramus, the country is 
in general very level and inclining to sand, and well adapt- 
ed for the use of gypsum, but this valuable manure is sel- 
dom used by the farmers of this district ; sandstone pre- 
dominates in that tract. To the West of Kedidica Hook the 
surface is more uneven and hills of considerable elevation 
are seen adjacent to the Highlands mostly under cultiva- 
tion. The Hudson at your feet with its expanse of waters 
and numerous bays, is seen for a great distance ; its prim- 
itive eastern bank rising gradually to mountain elevations 
is thickly settled and most of the summits cleared. From 
Haverstraw to Stoney-Point, a distance of five miles, and 
from Haverstraw bay to the Highlands, in a northwest direc- 
tion the country is in general level, the soil inclining to sand 
is in many places underlaid by red sandstone. Good whet- 
stones have been recently quarried in this part of the coun- 
try. 

The summit of Stoney-Point, once a distinguished mili- 
tary post, exhibits in place rocks composed of green feld- 
spar mottled with black mica, the feldspar however predom- 

»•■■' ~ • r - - On 



mating • 



a slight effervescence is produced by acids. 



magnesia 



the North side of this eminence a mineral is found which 
appears to be composed of iron, alumine, silex and some 

; it occupies the mountain's side and large blocks 
detached are observed on the shore — it has the aspect of 
an ore of iron. This ferruginous rock embraces in veins a 
mineral containing much magnesia ; it is translucent at the 
edges, the lustre waxy, the fracture splintery with a dark 
green, unctuous surface, answering pretty well to the de- 
scription of splintery serpentine ; its surface is dissolved 
by diluted sulphuric acid, and epsom salts formed in nume- 
rous crystals ; this effect is not produced upon any other de- 
scription of serpentine that I have elsewhere met with. The 
peninsular situation and difficult ascent of Stoney-Point ren- 






^ 






vf New-York and New-Jersey, fyc. 



189 









and extending half the distance to 



the Highlands is 



dered it an admirable situation for a military post. At the 
base of the mountain fine grained micaceous shist appears. 
At Stoney-Point commences the primitive region. White 
granular limestone is abundant in the ranges of hills to the 
West and North of Stoney-Point ; it is a continuation of 
the rock of the same character that passes through New- 
England, and is in great quantity near Verplank's point. 
The country North of Stoney Point, adjacent to the river, 
- - : -.- _ hilly 

and rocky, and not extensively cleared ; for two miles, the 
remainder of the distance, the North river running from 
the northeast, washes the base of a wood-clad tract that 
may be considered as making a part of the Highland chain ; 

numerous streams descend the winding glens of the moun- 
tain. 

Rockland County is of a triangular form ; the inhabitants 
are mostly of Dutch descent ; Dutch continues to be gene- 
rally spoken — many families have not acquired the English 

The Dutch of Rockland county have deserved- 



language 

ly acquired the character of bein 




hospitable. This coun- 






ty includes within its limits the first ranges of the Highland 
chain ; from Rockland they cross New-Jersey and extend 
to the Delaware, bounding the secondary region. 

Two prominent mountain ranges running near each oth- 
er intersect the interior of the secondary region of New-Jer- 
sey. They take their rise adjacent to the primitive High- 
lands two miles North of Pomptonand runabout eighty mile, 
an almost uninterrupted semicircular course. The summit 
rock in place is uniformly a dark colored, fine grained secon- 
dary greenstone, resembling basalt ; it is frequently obser- 
ved resting on conglomerate and sandstone — these rock 
•ire supposed to lie under most of the greenstone ranges of 
New-Jersey ; the most elevated point of these mountains 
is situated six miles northwest of Patterson, where a sugar- 
loaf peak rises near 1000 feet above the level of the ocean. 
Its trap rocks are generally covered by a thin mould that 
exhibits a verdant surface, and a walnut grove without un- 
derbrush, exclusively occupies the summit for an extent of 
forty acres. This elevation commands a diversified and ex- 






tensive view 



to the East, northeast and North the eye ran- 

The wa- 



ges over a great extent of pretty level country. 

ving summits of the Pracknes ridge are observed extending 



Vol. II No. 2. 






) 



190 Account of the Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 

in a northwest direction for several miles, with ponds of 
magnitude and depth. A detached mountain range of con- 
siderable elevation is situated north of the Pracknes ridge j 
it sweeps in a semicircular course several miles, taking its 
rise and termination near the Highlands. Many of the 
summits are under cultivation and afford fine views of the 
immense secondary valley situated between the Highlands, 
the Hudson and the Pracknes ridge. Greenstone of a fine 
grain is the rock in place, in which I found prehnite and stil- 
bite imbedded. To the East of the Pracknes ridge is sit- 
uated another section of the extensive greenstone ranges 
called the Totoway mountain — this ridge rises near the 
Pracknes mountain six miles from Patterson, and connects 
itself with the Newark chain at the great falls j it is in ma- 
ny places free from rocks, but on the East, precipices of 
considerable extent and height with waving or denticulated 
mural faces are sometimes observed, presenting columns ap- 
proaching to basaltic regularity. An insulated semicircu- 
lar wall of greenstone, with projecting columns occupies a 
summit of the Totoway ridge, bearing some resemblance 
to a castle or fort in ruins. Sandstone quarries are ob- 
served in several places at the base of the greenstone ridg- 
es. A quarry situated three miles northwest of Patterson, 
at the Pracknes mountain affords the best freestone of New- 
Jersey. Fine red and gray sandstone embracing some mi- 
ca, alternates with argillaceous strata, dipping under the 
greenstone with a western inclination of about 12 degrees. 
Bituminous coal, in layers of about two inches in thickness 
has been frequently found at this and other parts of the 
Pracknes ridge, in connection with sandstone and shale. This 
neighbourhood exhibits many indications that more valua- 
ble beds of this combustible exists below. Gneiss, granite, 
pudding and sandstone, in rolled masses, appear abundant 
on the surface in many parts of this region. The green- 
stone of the Pracknes range rarely presents interesting im- 
bedded minerals. I have however found, in a few places, 
prehnite, agate, chalcedony, and a mineral answering to the 
description of cacholong. At the falls of the Passaic near 
Patterson, perpendicular mural precipices of greenstone, 
with wide vertical fissures are observed, and amorphous 
masses at the base. The lower strata of this rock contain 
much argillaceous matter, which partially takes the place of 



» 






\ 



*- 



0/ New-York and Neiv- Jersey , fye. 191 

hornblende. The ledges at Patterson rest on a porous rock 
that lies in a horizontal position resembling the toad stone 
of Derbyshire. Carbonate of lime and other minerals sub- 
ject to decay are imbedded in the rock ; numerous cavi- 
ties, left by their decomposition, give a volcanic aspect to the 
strata. A friable amygdaloid with an argillaceous basis 
was observed in several places, embracing numerous no- 
dules of carbonate of lime of a spheroidal, oval or almond 
shape, from the size of a pea to that of a walnut ; they are 
easily disengaged from the base, and exhibit a smooth dark 
• green surface ascertained by Dr. Torrey to be chlorite. 
The layers beneath the amygdaloid are red and gray con- 
glomerate connected with red sandstone, too porous for use, 
as it absorbs much moisture and is broken by the expan- 
sive power of frost. Good freestone, in nearly horizontal 
position, is the basis layer and forms the bed of the Passa- 
ic. In many places the greenstone occupying the summit 
appears but a few feet in thickness. The greenstone of 
Patterson does not present columns assimilating to basalti- 
form regularity. On the bank of the Passaic, adjacent to 
the first manufactories, I observed a well defined hexaedral 
column of fine grained greenstone, a loose mass, about five 
teet in length by two in diameter ; by the aid of a magnifier 
its greenstone composition is apparent. Before the autumn of 
1 818,prehnite, calcareous spar, and carbonate of copper were 
the only minerals observed imbedded in the greenstone ran- 
ges adjacent to Patterson — at that period I met with, near 
the falls, superior specimens of zeolite, stilbite, analcime, 
and datholite, together with fine masses of prehnite ; ame- 
thyst has been since discovered by Judge Kinsey, and Mr. 
J. I. Foote, residents of Patterson — to these gentlemen I am 
indebted for many useful facts. Prehnite I obtained in 
translucent masses of considerable size, some specimens three 
inches in thickness ; the fibres often radiate from a com- 
mon centre, a mammelated surface is frequently observed, 
considerable lustre is reflected from narrow polished planes; 
the colour in general a delicate light apple green, but in 
some specimens it is darker than the emerald. — It is found 
embedded in greenstone at the falls. 

The zeolite of Patterson is white, aggregated in fascicu- 
lar groups of delicate diverging fibres, and presenting de- 
tached acicular four-sided prisms of various dimensions, some- 



192 Account of the Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 

times diverging from a point, but often radiating from a cen- 
tre ; with nitric acid it forms a jelly. Stilbite I found asso- 
ciated with prehnite,in distinct well defined crystals, some- 
times in irregular groups, but often insulated. The crysta- 
line form may be described either as a flat four-sided rec- 
tangular prism, acuminated by four planes set on the lat- 
eral edges, or as an elongated, six-sided table, bevelled on 
jour of its lesser sides — the sides are proportioned as two is 
to five, the colour white with pearly lustre ; the structure is 
laminated ; itis translucent, softer than prehnite, and does not 
form a jelly with acids. Since my discovery of datholite 
at Patterson, I have sought in vain for this mineral else- 
where in the greenstone ranges ; the vicinity of the falls is 
the only locality for it yet found in this country — and there 
is but one in Europe ; — its character was conjectured by 
Col. Gibbs and ascertained by Dr. Torry by analysis. The 
Patterson datholite will probably be regarded as a new va- 
riety of the Norwegian mineral, differing in crystaline 
form and proportion of constituent parts. The above men- 
tioned minerals are generally found connected with an 
amygdaloid that embraces considerable green earth. 

Mural precipices of dark fine grained fissile greenstone 
are observed at the little falls of the Passaic,;five miles from 
Patterson — numerous vertical seams cross each other at va- 
rious angles in the ledges, giving to many detached pieces a 
regular prismatic form with three and four sides, often trun- 
cated on one or more of the lateral edges ; a tabular form 
is common. Rock of similar character was often observed 
in other parts of the Pracknes ridge. Organic remains from 
the ocean, or petrifactions of orthocerites, madrepores, tu- 
bipores, pectinites, terebratulas, encrinites, bilabites, ser- 
pulites, and other species, generally in an argillaceous base, 
resting on mountain and valley, I have found in the vicin- 
ity of Patterson, and in many parts of the secondary region 
of New- Jersey. 

The situation of Patterson is admirably adapted for a 
manufacturing town — it is within four miles of sloop navi- 
gation upon a never failing stream, that furnishes water pow- 
er sufficient for two hundred mills, and mill-seats without 
end ; fuel is abundant and the market can be well supplied 
from the beautiful and fertile valley through which winds the 
Passaic. The streams auxiliary to this river embrace the 









of Neiv- York and New-Jersey, tyc. 193 

waters that for near one hundred miles of their course de- 
scend eastward from the primitive mountains ; many of these 
streams have their origin from extensive lakes and run forty 
miles in mountainous districts. 

From Patterson to Springfield the trap ridges are called 
first and second Newark mountain and Caldwell mountain ; 
their direction is nearly south, preserving a great uniformity 
of altitude — as seen from New-York they mark an even 
line on the western horizon — the eastern side is steep, the 
western of gradual descent, a description applicable to 
most of the mountains of New-York and New-Jersey — it 
is observable at the alluvial Highlands of Neversink, the 
primitive mountains of Staten-Island and New-Jersey, the 
green hills of Long-Island, at the Palisado and at the Shavvan- 
gunk and Kattskill mountains. Secondary greenstone of a 
uniform character, no way differing from that at Passaic 
falls is the only summit rock, in place, observed on the first 
and second Newark mountain, but except in the vicinity of 
Patterson and Springfield, mural precipices are seldom seen. 
The mountains side is, wherever ledges appear, covered with 
small amphorous stones — red sandstone is observed in place 
on the sides and at the base and is supposed to lie under 
the Newark ranges. The eastern side of the mountain is 
much of it cultivated to a considerable height ; the soil is 
red from the disintegration of sandstone ; the summit and 
western declivity is in general occupied by coppice, of small 
oak, chestnut, walnut, butternut and cedars. The second 
Newark mountain running a parallel course and distant 
about a mile from the first is less elevated and rocky and 
the ascent more gradual than the first ; I have found preh- 
nite and agate imbedded in the rock of this mountain. Tin 
eastern view from the first Newark mountain is diversified 
and particularly pleasing in spring; at the base of the moun- 
tain is presented an extensive, rich, thickly settled and high- 
ly cultivated valley that appears from the summit to be a 
nearly level plain— the meadows and fields of grain pre- 
sent a beautiful light verdure and innumerable orchards are 
gay with blossoms ; the villages of Rloomfield, North and 
South Orange, and the large towns of Newark and Eliza- 
bethtown are in view — you overlook the extensive alluvial 
meadows of Newark and have a full view of the city and 












194 Account of the Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 

harbour of New-York, a part of Long-Island and Staten- 
Island and a distant view of the ocean. 

The valley situated between the Newark mountain and 
the Bergen greenstone ridge is partly secondary, the rest 
alluvial. In the secondary division, sandstone in nearly hor- 
rizontal position, or waving with the surface is found al- 
most every where on penetrating the earth — and fine red 
and grav freestone alternates with shale at the sandstone 
quarries of the Passaic and Second river. Bituminous 
coal in thin layers has been noticed, associated with argilla- 
ceous shale in many freestone quarries adjacent to the Pas 
saic; at the termination of the Newark mountain, at Spring- 
field and at many parts of the trap ranges, smoke, and in 
some instances flame issuing from the crevices of the rocks 
has been noticed by the adjacent inhabitants — as no pyrites 
has been observed, these phenomena probably proceed 
from carburetted hydrogen gas, indicating coal below, — 
that mineral being often found under secondary trap and 
sandstone. Animal and vegetable organic remains have 
been observed imbedded in the freestone of New-Jersey 
nearBelville a tooth near two inches in length was recent- 
ly foind on the freestone fifteen feet below the surface. 
Clopjer is observed in many partsof the New-Jersey secon- 
dary *egion ; a vein of ore affording eight per cent of copper 
has fceen recently discovered near the Passaic three miles 
nortl of Bellville ; the vein is now lost. — A rich mine was 
formerly worked on the property of Col. Schuyler a mile 
t?astof Belville, but the draining of the shafts becoming too 
•expensive, the works were relinquished. The matrix of 
the »re is gray and red sandstone, often accompanied by an 
argilaceousand calcareous breccia ; thesulphuret, azure and 
green carbonate of copper and red oxide of copper are here 
fouid, but no pyritous copper. I have procured at this 
pla^e good specimens of the fibrous malachite ; the crys- 
talhe fibres are collected in groups diverging from a point 
th* colour is emerald green with silky lustre — tufts are seen 
composed of short fibres resembling green velvet. Carbonate 
of Lime in the crystaline form of dog-tooth spar, and fil- 
ling veins is often here observed. This place is reported 
as a locality for oxide of titanium, but the only specimen 
found here was in a small solid mass of quartz. Not far 
from Aquackinock there is a copious mineral spring ; lts 



! 



of New -York and New- Jersey, tyc. 195 

waters contain carbonic acid, iron and muriate of soda. The 
Newark mountain terminates at Springfield — from this 
place where the continuity of the trap range is broken, the 
greenstone ridge takes a southwest direction for ten miles 
and then a west course ten more, from thence it bends to 
the northwest, terminating near Piuekamin — adjacent to this 
range a mountain is seen running a parallel course, corres- 
ponding to the second Newark mountain* Secondary green- 
stone is exclusively the rock in place of the summits and 
sides of both ranges ; it is frequently observed, but seldom 
in ledges of magnitude ; sandstone is quarried in various 
places between the hiiJs znd at their base ; it is observed in 
several instances under the grernstone in a nearly horizon- 
tal position with a small dip, sometimes alternating with se- 
condary compact limestone, that presents layers of from two 
inches to two feet in thickness. Prehnite is found in con- 
siderable quantities near the foot of the mountain in amygda- 
loid with a greenstone base, much of it partially decompo- 
sed ; it is sometimes seen imbedded in the rock in long par- 
allel columns of various dimensions, its fibres radiating from 
the centre. Zeolite, stilbite, crystals of quartz, and carbon- 
ate of lime were frequently seen in the valley between the 
mountains. North of Scotch plains I found sulphate of ba- 
rytes associated with carbonate of lime ; but a small portion 
of these ranges is cleared and cultivated. The seconda- 
ry mountain that takes a western course from Springfield, 
bordering the alluvial, has been called by some geologists the 
Granite-Ridge. It is described as passing through New-Jer- 
sey, bordering the oceanic alluvial, whose highest point is 
seen near Hoboken, alluding doubtless to the height near 
Wehawk. The Greenstone-Ridge, would be a more ap- 
propriate name. Excepting the serpentine at.Hoboken there 
are no primitive rocks in place between the Hudson anci 
Highland chain — the summit rock of all the ranges is uni- 
formly secondary greenstone. The secondary mountains 
of New-Jersey can, at a great distance, be distinguished 
from primitive by the regularity of their course and the as- 
pect of their summits. The Highland chain runs from 
northeast to southwest which is the general direction of th* 
primitive strata of mountains and vallies yet observed in 
*he United States ; none of the secondary ranges of New* 
Jersey pursue a course parallel with the primitive. The 



i 



i 



i9fc> Account of the Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 

secondary ranges of New-Jersey, in many places present 
for miles an even summit of table land ; the Highland ridg- 
es display numerous sugar-loaf eminences, and a waving 
profile, characteristic of primitive. The extensive se- 
condary range commencing near Pompton and within 
half a mile of the Highlands and extending in a semi-circu- 
lar course, until it again approaches the Highlands, ex- 
hibits in its direction and the aspect of its summits a proof 
of the correctness of the above positions. The extensive 
valley situated between the greenstone semi-circle and the 
Highlands presents much fresh water alluvial — many of the 
small hills of this tract have no rock in place — the alluvial 
plain bordering the Passaic is in general extensive ; in some 
places four miles in width — peat is observed in several pla- 
ces between the source of that river and the little falls ; a 
considerable quantity is cut in this valley adjacent to thi 
Newark and Morriston turnpike ; the earth had been pene- 
trated six feet without finding the bottom of the strata. The 
level tract called Pompton plain near twenty miles in cir- 
cumference and environed by mountains presents a deci- 
ded fresh water alluvial — strata of gravel, sand, and clay, 
without rocks in place are uniformly found in this dis- 
trict wherever wells have been dug ; it was probably at a 
remote period the bed of a lake. — The waters of the riv- 
ers Pequanack, Long-pond, and Ramapaugh pass through 
this valley — the southern and much of the western part of 
Pompton plain is marshy and embraces about 1500 acres 
of peat ground ; the peat disclosed in digging a ditch of 
four miles was called very good. In the southern part of 
the plain good granular argillaceous oxide of iron or pea 
ore is raised from a space of about 200 acres. The High- 
lands form the west and northwest boundary of this plain ; 
ki other directions it is skirted by the Pacganack moun- 
tain — this range pursues a serpentine course from North 
Pompton to the vicinity of Morristown, separating in its 
route the extensive alluvial plains watered by the Pompton 
and Passaic. I ascended in many places and examined a 
considerable part of this range — the summit rock in place 
is uniformly a finegrained, dark secondary greenstone, often 
in a state of partial decomposition, exhibiting mural preci- 
pices of considerable height and extent; sandstone in place 

was sometimes observed at the base and sides of the oioun- 






• 









rf New -York and New- Jersey, <$ 



197 



X 



re- 



tain — I found imbedded in the summit rock (generally in 
decaying greenstone,) prehnite, zeolite, analcime, chalcedo- 
ny, agate, amethyst, jasper, crystals of quartz, radiated and 
smoky quartz and narrow veins of satin spar in jasper ; the 
part of this range adjacent to Pompton plains may, perhaps, 
from the abundance of these minerals be useful to the lapi- 
dary as well as the mineralogist — the agates are from the size 
of a pin's head to three pounds weight, mostly chalcedo- 
ny — the eyed and fortification agate I observed in a few 
instances* I have a mineral specimen from this mountain, 
found and presented to me by Judge Kinsey of Patterson, 
that would probably weigh eight pounds (and is but half of 
the imbedded mass)composed of agate, amethyst, and white 
quartz, in which are observed numerous deep cuniform 
cavities of uniform shape but differing in size — they were 
probably occupied by some of the decaying zeolite ; 
mains of laminae, probably of s til bite, are observed in 
some of them." I obtained chalcedony two inches in thick- 
ness — the amethysts of Paquanack and Patterson display 
the characteristic coloring, are limpid but seldom observed 
in well defined crystals — some of the agates display a rich 
variety of coloring. 

Another greenstone range of minor extent is situated in 
the great valley, the subject of examination ; — it rises near 
Chatham, extends ten miles, and is called Long-hill. The 
greenstone of this ridge is so subject to decay that rocks 
seldom appear in place ; prehnite was here noticed. The 
Passaic for several miles, near the base of the mountain, 
pursues a sportive course, and at times concealed in groves, 
then emerging, winds through extensive alluvial meadows. 

_ About the centre of the Long-hill I observed mural pre- 
cipices composed of what the farmers of New-Jersey call 
shell rock, resembling the stone on the banks of the Rar- 
iton. * 

The secondary of New-Jersey accompanies the High- 
lands to the Delaware. Near the village of Pluckemin and 
South of the Highlands, an elevated greenstone range is ob- 
served extending in a western course. Another range passes 
near Princeton towards the Delaware — the greenstone oi 
this mountain that came under my observation is both coarse 



diffe 






JVo 



2fi 



Bergen ridge 









198 Account of the Geology , Mineralogy, Scenery, &fC, 

Between the river Rariton and the Delaware, a rock dif- 
fering materially from the red sandstone of the Passaic, gen- 
erally underlies both mountain and valley ; after approach- 
ing the surface, it extends North to the primitive and passes 
a considerable distance into Pennsylvania; — it forms the nu- 
cleus of hills of considerable elevation near the Delaware, 
sometimes presenting mural precipices ; the red soil proceed- 
ing from the decomposition of this rock is fertile and well 
adapted for gypsum ; the colour of the rock is red, much 
darker than the Newark stone ; — this mineral appears to be 
without grain, to the breath it yields a strong argillaceous 
odour, and uniformly decomposes when long exposed to air 
and moisture. — I presume it is mostly composed of iron, 
alumine and silex with perhaps a little sulphur ; it may be 
called ferruginous shist — this rock is stratified, splittin 
readily into thin brittle laminae, and is said to rest in some 
places on good freestone. Copper is the only metal 
sought for in this rock ; excavations are now making near 
Brunswick for copper, and very recently new shafts have 
been sunk at an old copper mine near Pluckemin — no ves- 
tiges of copper remain upon the surface at the old mine of 
Woodbridge. 

Sandy-hill, an elevation situated between Brunswick and 
Princeton exhibits an alluvial composition, resembling that 
of the hills of Neversink; sand, white and colored clay em- 
bracing beds of ferruginous sand and pudding-stone are the 
minerals that compose the ridge. 

The alluvial borders the greenstone ridge from Bound- 
brook to Springfield, to the West, in general it approaches 
the Rariton within two miles and forms the bed of that river 
a little below Brunswick. Wherever excavations have been 
made in the alluvial tract South of the greenstone ridge, 
strata of sand, gravel and clay are disclosed, but no quar- 
ries or rocks in place. Ochres of good quality are observed 
in many parts of this district, and at Uniontown near Spring- 
field, compact peat of a superior quality, resting on marl and 
supposed to extend through a morass of five hundred acres ; 
bones of the mastodon were discovered a few years since 
in this swamp. I have noticed extensive beds of pipe clay 
in the alluvial tract situated between Woodbridge and Am- 
boy ; it is infusible and is principally alumine, * having less 
than twenty per cent of silex in its composition ;-**it is white 



\ 






( 



of New-York and New- Jersey, $*c 



i9!« 






turf and other vegetable matter. 



singular 



and adhesive to the tongue. Petrifactions of marine shells 
were observed in various parts of the alluvial district adja- 
cent to the greenstone ridge, and detached pieces of 
bituminous coal* The alluvial North of the Rariton 
above described, is connected with an extensive alluvi- 
al plain five miles in length by twenty in breadth, formed by 
the deposits of the navigable rivers, Hackensac and Passaic, 
situated between the secondary valley and the Bergen 
ridge ; the depth of the alluvial is from twelve to twenty 
feet — the basis is sand and shells like the shore of the sea — 
several insulated groves of lofty swamp cedars remain in 
the North part of the meadows. The whole tract was for- 
merly covered with wood ; the bodies of trees but little de- 
cayed are found at various depths. An attempt is now 
making to reclaim a part of these meadows — it will be the 
work of time to produce a compact soil by the decay of the 

The enterprising propri- 
etors, the Messrs. Swartouts, deserve success. A 
elevation called Snake-hill appears insulated in this verdant 
ocean. It is wood-clad, rocky and precipitous on the east- 
ern, southern andwestern sides, and declines gradually to the 
north where it is nearly free from stone and is cultivated 
the Hackensack approaches the southern and washes the 
western base. From this eminence the Hackensack and 
Passaic are seen for several miles slowly winding through 
the meadows and almost slumbering on the plain ; many 
villages, ranges of mountains, and the distant ocean are ob- 
served from this elevated ground. Greenstone, no way 
differing frQm the summit roek of the Palisadoes is exclusive- 
ly the rock of this mountain, presenting in several places 
mural precipices of considerable height ; cubic masses of 
this rock are piled up at the southern base. Serpents were 
formerly numerous at this place ; a few rattlesnakes and cop- 
perheads remain in the southern ledges. To the North of 
Snake-hill an insulated tract, three miles in length and one 
in breadth is observed gradually rising from the meadows 
no rock in place appears on the surface, but good red and 
gray sandstone is quarried in several places. I found mica- 
ceous iron ore abundantly diffused through the gray sand- 
stone ; pectinites and other marine petrifactions are *een 
resting on the most elevated parts of the tract. 






r 



200 



Sing alar position of a Granite Rock, fyc. 



Art. II. Account of a singular position of a Granite Rock, 

by the Rev. Elias Cornelius, (with a print.) 

Salem, Mass. April, 1820, 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAN. 



In communicating the following fact, it is not supposed 
that any new evidence will be furnished of a distinction 
which has long been made in the relative formation of dif- 
ferent rocks. It is offered merely as another example of a 
primitive limestone ; attended with such unequivocal indi- 
cations as to place its geological character beyond a doubt. 

In the town of North-Salem, and state of New-York, 
there is a rock, which from the singularity of its position has 
long attracted the notice of those who live in its neighbor- 
hood, and from its vicinity to the public road, seldom es- 
capes the observation of the passing traveller. It has not, 
however, it is believed, ever been described. It is situated 
two miles East of the academy in North-Salem, w T ithin thir- 
ty feet of the main road to Danbury in Connecticut, upon 
the sloping brow of a small hill or bank, whose height may 
be thirty feet. Although weighing many tons, its length 
being fifteen feet, breadth ten feet, and greatest circum- 
ference forty feet ; it stands elevated in different parts 
of it from two to five feet above the earth, resting its whole 
weight upon the apices of seven small conical pillars ; six of 
these with their bases either united or contiguous, spring up 
like an irregular group of teeth, and constitute the support 
of one end of the rock. The remaining pillar, much the 
largest of them all, stands at the lowest point of that part of 
the surface over which the rock is elevated, and supports its 
other end. Notwithstanding the form of the rock is very 
irregular, and its surface cCnsiderably uneven, its whole 
weight is so nicely adjusted upon these seven small points 
one of which is six feet from the others, that no external 
force yet applied has been sufficient to give it even a tremu- 
lous motion. 

But the singularity of its position is not the most interest- 
ing circumstance which meets the eye of the geological ob- 
server. Upon examination, he finds the rock and its pillars 



• 






i 



*# 


















I 









• 



I 



Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 



201 






CO 



The rock is gran* 
he; the pillars which support it are limestone* The position 
also, is a natural one. There is no mountain or other ele- 
vation near it from which the rock could have been thrown. 

fixed, is penetrated with 



Tl 



hich 



limestone rocks, with here and there a specimen of granite 
intermingled ; so that their position has not been altered by 
any convulsion of nature. Here then, the Geologist finds 
a limestone of whose early foundation he can have no 
doubt. If granite be a primitive rock the strata on which it 



F 



rom 



rests must at least be as early in the order of nature 
a specimen whose character is so indubitably fixed, we may 
proceed with safety not only to name, but to describe the 
species to which it belongs. Upon examination, the de- 
scription of the limestone in question will not be found ma- 
terially different from that w hich is laid down in books. Its 
color is white ; grain, large ; highly crystalline ; present- 
ing a structure, very distinctly foliated — so much so that it 
can easily be chipped into little rhombs which are semi- 
translucent. There appear to be several ranges of it in 
this town — in most instances they take a course northeaster- 
ly and southwesterly, with very little if any inclination to 
the horizon — and they generally have the same external 
character. The country in which they lie is very obvious- 
ly a granite country, furnishing that rock in almost every va- 
riety. 




Art. HI. Sketches of a tour in the counties of New-Haven 
and Litchfield in Connecticut, with notices of the Geology. 
Mineralogy and Scenery, &fc. by the Editor. — (From 
the papers of the American Geological Society.) 

The following observations arose out o{ a journey un- 
dertaken for other purposes and occupying only five days. 

The manner is more diffuse and popular than the sub- 
ject might strictly demand, but this course was adopted 
with the hope of alluring some degree of attention to the 

* Specimens both- of the Granite and the Limestone which have been 
mentioned have been forwarded tor your examination. Annexed you nave 
a representation pf the rock and its pillars as they are seen from the road 
and river, sketched with a pencil on the spot 



t 









i 



202 



Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc 



subject of geology, on the part of readers who might be re- 
pelled by a severer method. 



* 



August 26 1817- — On a very fine morning, with an ex- 
excellent travelling map of the State, and with the necessa- 
ry instruments, I commenced my tour in a gig. 

Upon the map (which was so folded as to lie constantly 
open at the desired place) I wrote down with a pencil, the 
names of the strata at the moment of their occurrence, stop- 
ping frequently to break the rocks and to obtain specimens. 

West-Rock, Secondary Greenstone Ranges, fyc. 

My course was nearly northwest on the great Litchfield 
road. From New-Haven to West-Rock, two miles, the 
country is alluvial, flat, sandy or gravelly. 

At West-Rock, which is a fine precipice of greenstone, 
reposing on sandstone, we enter a beautiful and very nar- 
row valley stretching to a great distance nearly North and 



South. On the right are the bold ranges of secondary 
greenstone, about 400 feet high, with their rude perpendic- 
ular precipices, which (except at the South end of West- 
Rock where they terminate, and where the cliffs have been 
in some measure torn down and defaced to afford building 
stone for New-Haven,) present a time-worn aspect ; — and by 
the immense masses of broken rocks, which have accumu- 
lated at their feet, and slope half or two thirds of the way up 
their sides, evince that ages have passed since their cliffs 
were first exposed to the weather, and to the destroying in- 
fluences of time. As we go North, the cliffs become less dis- 
tinct, although probably not less elevated — but they are 
partially obscured by arable ground ; fields begin to slope 
up their sides, and cultivation appears, instead of the vene- 
rable ruins which abound farther South ; still farther North, 
the cliffs appear only here and there, and finally a 
tance these hills assume a much more gentle outline, and 
appear in some measure to lose the peculiarities of aspect 
which characterise greenstone mountains. 

The valley at their feet is fertile, abounding with green 
meadows ; a rivulet flows through its length and becomes 



t a 



dis- 



West 



This valley is alluvial, although, in all probability, its foun 



; 



) 






A 



» 












i 



I 









of Neiv- Haven -and Litchfield. 



203 



dation at no great depth is rock, and the junction of primi- 
tive and secondary country evidently takes place in this val- 
ley. It has been supposed to contain coal, and I know of 
no geological fact which contradicts this opinion, and there 
are some in favor of it. 



Primitive Slate Rocks. 

The hills which bound this valley on the left, are 
composed of magnificent ranges of slaty rock, which run 
parallel to the 



reenstone 



range. 



G .... They rise in pretty 

abrupt hills of which the steepest sides are towards the 
greenstone : the road for some miles, runs in the valley, but 
eventually begins to rise sloping up the hills, and inclining a 
little West. Primitive argillite, or slate, highly glistening, 
often tortuous, abounding with veins and distinct tuberculous 
masses of quartz occasionally of enormous size, is the pre- 
vailing rock on the left of the valley.* It sometimes becomes 
almost mica-slate, occasionally alternates with that rock, and 
at a junction which is distinctly visible about six miles from 
New-Haven, the two rocks are so much blended, that it is 
impossible, for some feet, to distinguish them apart, although 
at a small distance either way they are very distinct. Good 
slate for building is found in these hills and carried to New- 
Haven.f About eight miles from that town the road sudden- 
ly turns at right angles, to the left, and we now travel, not as 
^pfore, in the direction of the strata, but across them. 
gillite prevails about two miles, but manifests more 



Ar- 
an d 



more a tendency to become mica-slate — it eventually under- 
goes this change very distinctly, and for six or seven miles, 
we cross immense strata of mica-slate, having the same direc- 
tion with the other slate; the strata of both are vertical or very 
highly inclined, and the mica-slate is frequently porphyritic, 
presenting distinct crystals of feldspar as large as a thumb. 

* Upon these hills there are numerous masses of white quartz, of the ap- 
pearance of rock salt, sometimes several yards in diameter, and quite un- 
connected with any rock. After seeing the slate of these hills no one can 

doubt that the quartz has arisen from' the decomposition of the shistose 
strata. 

t Some researches for coal have been made in these slate rocks, but, it i^ 
**tremely evident that coal cannot be found in hills that are decidely prim- 
itive ; all such expectations concerning this region are baseless. 



i 






\ 



204 Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, tyc. 

Beacon Mountain. 

Fourteen miles from New-Haven, we come to Beacon- 
mountain, a rude ridge of almost naked rock, stretching 
southwest. The road, which is formed in the natural gap 
of the mountain, here winds through a bold gulf or defile, 
so narrow, that at one place only a single carriage can pass 
at once. On both sides the cliffs are lofty, particularly on 
the left ; and on the right, at a little distance from the road, 
they overhang in a frightful manner. I climbed the hill at 
this place ; the rocks on both sides are mica-slate with gar- 
nets and staurotide ; here they had fallen in large masses, 
and left the projecting strata impending in a vast natural shed, 
under which one might be protected effectually from the 
weather, but with the constant apprehension of being crush- 
ed by their fall. 

The ridges of the Beacon mountain present fine geo- 
logical and picturesque features, and are much more abrupt 
and grand than most of the mica-slate regions of Connecticut. 

Beyond this gap the road turns more to the left, running 
along a rivulet, and after three or four miles we rise some 
hills, and discover the Naugatuck a branch of the Housa- 
tonick passing along at the foot of other steep hills on the 
opposite side. It runs through a deep and narrow gulf and 
one looks down upon it from the high hills on which the 



road is laid. 



Gneiss, Granite, ^ 



The hills are composed of gneiss, running parallel with 
the ridges of mica-slate already mentioned. This is the 
first gneiss that occurs on the road from New-Haven at the 
distance of about sixteen miles. 

We now pass through the little village of Salem, consist- 
ing of a few houses on the bank of the river, and whose 
church situated on a high hill overlooking the river, forms a 
striking and pleasing object. 

From Salem, almost to Watertown, four miles, the rocks 
are gneiss— still preserving the same direction and parallel- 
ism. The county is hilly but very picturesque and beautiful. 

Near Watertown, _ o 

masses, and in the town I found detached pieces with garnet 
and sappar. Watertown, on a commanding hill, with its 
two steeples and its pretty white houses forms an object such 
as is rarely seen in travelling in England. Two miles be- 



. 



) 






in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 



206 






I 



, 



yond Watertown we come to ledges of granite constituting 
a considerable hill. Here I found much of the graphic gra- 
nite and radiated or plumose mica, both very handsome in 
their kind* The feldspar of the granite was white with a 
high pearly lustre, and the grey quartz was delicately inter- 
spersed in graphic forms. The specimens were of extreme 

delicacy* 

Mica- Slate. 

As I proceeded, the granite soon changed again into mica- 
slate, and this continued without exception, quite to Litch- 
field. It often contained garnets and occasionally stauro- 
tide, and I saw loose masses of granite, with crystals of 
black tourmalin; while rising Litchfield-hill numerous loose 
blocks were to be seen of primitive limestone containing 
tremolite. In fact, the loose stones through the whole ride 
from Woodbridge hills were very numerous, but they were 
altogether fragments of primitive rocks — often granite, 
sometimes with the component parts very distinct. 

Frequently the loose rocks contained crystals of feld- 
spar as large as a thumb or finger, — so as to be quite por- 
phyritic — they were sometimes granite and sometimes gneiss 

Litchfield-IIilL 

Litchfield-hill is a beautiful spot. One principal street, 
(intersected however by some cross-streets) extends more 
than a mile in lcngth,aud contains a collection of very hand- 
some houses, with gardens and court-yards — the houses and 
appendages are generally painted white, and it is rare to see 
so considerable a number of houses in a country town 
where nearly ail apparently belong to gentry, 
such a town would be a wonder, and here, connected as it 



In England 



is with the rich agricultural country which surrounds it, — 
swelled into beautiful hills, and scooped into luxuriant val- 
ines, every where covered with lively- verdure and with cul- 
tivated fields — it presents a very interesting and gratifying 
spectacle. 

Litchfield-hill reposes on mica-slate, and this on the road 
to Goshen, continues to be the prevailing rock. It often 

some of the crystals 

of the last form the cross, and are occasionally large. 



abounds with garnets and staurotide 



Vol. II No. 2. 



27 






ilto 



Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc 



Granite and Gneiss 



Nearer to Goshen than to Litchfield we cross a ledge of 
granite — but it is immediately succeeded by gneiss* 

Goshen is a pretty village, with a neat church and a few 
houses in the centre, but it is principally in scattered farm- 
houses. In passing on from Goshen into the corner of 
Cornwall and to Canaan, the country becomes very hilly, 
and we cross great ledges of gneiss, often abounding with 
veins of quartz. On the road I saw two large loose masses ot 
dolomite and quartz, with tremolite. When we are about leav- 
ing Goshen we enter a great defile in the mountain — vast 
ledges of gneiss are on both sides, forming entire mountains; 
it is in fact, a winding valley, and as far as the eye can stretch 
to the North, mountains rise behind mountains, 

" Hills peep o'er hills and Alps on Alps arise, 1 * 

till they die away in the distant horizon. 

A valley among the mountains. 

1 arrived, just at night fall, at Hunt's tavern, a much fre- 
quented and very comfortable house, situated in a part of 
the same valley which I have already mentioned, on the 
banks of a rivulet, called the Hollenbeck. In this secluded 
spot, in the midst of mountains, I looked for an evening t of 
complete retirement, and intended to proceed with my pic- 
turesque and geological sketch of the country. 

But, I soon found myself surrounded by acquaintances, 
some of them old friends of my childhood ; some were trav- 
elling South and some North, and this focus brought us to- 
gether from remote and opposite quarters, to pass a social 



evening. 



So far from the ocean, and in the midst of Swiss land- 
scapes, who would have expected to hear the solemn still- 
ness of these valiies, disturbed by naval songs ! A plain 
man, seated in the piazza of the iiouse, with a a voice strong 
and deep-ioned, but clear and melodious, beguiled his eve- 
ning hours, by singing the exploits of the American navy f 
the verse was more "remarkable for minuteness of detail, 
than for beauty of versification ; but this performer attract- 



4 















< 



in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 207 
ed a little audience into the piazza where, in a cool but 



pipe 



(A 



Manufactory of Anchors and formation of Bar-Iron. 

This naval taste was easily explained by the fact, that 
at this place there is a considerable establishment for the 
manufactory of anchors. It belongs to the Hunts — (four 
brothers,) and has supplied many anchors for the American 
ships of war. Very lately, they have sent off two for the 
Franklin 74 gun ship — one weighed 8000 and the other 
• 9000 pounds, 

I rose very early the next morning to visit the anchor 
manufactory. Every thing was very obligingly explained 
to me, and I saw enough of the operations to obtain a dis- 
tinct comprehension of them. 

The iron is, on the spot, reduced from the ore to 

the malleable state. Th^ ore is that of Salisbury — the 

[ brown iron stone of Werner. It is pulverized by a machine 

\ moved by water, — which is, in fact, nothing more tljan a large 

hammer moved by a long lever, and falling into a trough or 
rude kind of mortar, in which it plays up and down, and in- 
to which the ore is thrown. This receptacle is shaped like 
a hopper, and the pulverised ore falls through as fast as 
it is pounded ; it is then taken up by shovels, and thrown up- 
on a large forge-fire, where a heap of charcoal of some 
bushels, is kept in vivid ignition by two bellows of great 
dimensions worked by water; as these rise and fall alter- 
nately, the blast is never intermitted, and the supply of ore 
and fuel being made, also alternately, the work goes on for 
many hours without interruption. No limestone or other 
flux is employed, and the consequence is that the operation 
although much more expeditious, is also much more wasteful 
than where the ore is first reduced in furnaces, and after- 
wards rendered malleable in the forge. Mr. Hunt inform- 
ed me, that in this way, the ore yields not more than half its 
weight of malleable iron, whereas in the other mode three 
fourths are obtained. Indeed the dross rejected in this 
operation is obviously still rich in iron. I selected speci- 
mens that were brilliantly crystalized, — had the fine lustre 
of the Elba ores and a very considerable specific gravity. I 



m 









20$ Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, tyc. 

was informed that they sometimes melt this dross over again 
to get more iron from it, bat that in general it is neglected. 
In the course of some hours, the melted ore, in a good de- 
gree freed from its oxigen, collects into a coherent, but soft 
mass on the hearth of the forsre ; it is removed from the 
fire by very massy tongs, connected by an iron chain with a 
huge crane of wood by means of which it is swung off to 
the anvil, where it is subjected to the strokes of a hammer 
moved by water and weighing 600 pounds* The loup, as 
it is called is thus completed — the dross is pressed out of its 
cavities, — it is shaped into the form of a rude parallelopi- 
ped and indeed becomes, even by this first operation, in a 
good degree malleable iron. 

It is now called a bloom ; it is returned to the fire and 
heated intensely again, and again it is hammered j the dross 
maybe seen exuding from its pores and dropping in a mel- 
ted state — the iron becoming more and more compact and 
tough till it finally acquires ail the properties of that most 
useful metal. 

The iron made from the Salisbury ore is considered as re- 
markably tough and strong, and it is obvious that such is 
the belief of our government and naval men or it would not 
be employed for anchors for ships of war. 

The blooms after they are finished, are commonly from 
ISO to 300 pounds weight, and from them the anchors 
are forged, altogether by the use of the ponderous hammers 
which! have mentioned. In this shop, a few years since, a 
four pounder was forged from malleable iron, and shewn to 
the Connecticut legislature at New-Haven. There was no 
anchor in this shop at present over 1000 pounds weight. „ 
The price at the forge, is about eight dollars per hundred, or 
nine dollars delivered (at water carriage I presume.) 

Manufactory of Screws. 

The Messrs. Hunts have also at the same place, an es- 
tablishment for manufacturing screws of the largest kinds 
for powerful machinery ; such screws as are sometimes ma- 
ny feet in length and several inches in diameter. The pro- 
cess by which they are manufactured is sufficiently simple, 
considering the importance of the result. The piece of 
iron being duly prepared and brought as near as may be 

* 






> 



. 









in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 



209 



to a cylindrical form, is placed horizontally, and connected 
with machinery moved by water ; it is thus made to rotate 
rapidly, and at the same time a proper tool is so applied to it, 
as to cut the spiral groove, and of course to leave prominent 
a corresponding spiral thread. 



Geological 



and picturesque features of the country. Jl 



ivaterfalL 



August 28, 181 






Finding 



mvself in the midst of a 



country, whose mineralogy and geology appeared very 
interesting, I took advantage of a bright morning, and was 
in my gig at a very early hour. 

Lofty hills and mountains, — steep and abrupt vallies and 
lively water-courses surrounded me on every side. I proceed- 
ed between hills of gneiss on my way to the iron mines 
ot Salisbury. Fragments of dolomite and other forms of 
white primitive limestone began to abound along the road, 
and many of them were full of crystals of tremolite (the 
grammatite of Haiiy ;) they afforded such beautiful specie 
mens that I could not resist the temptation to descend very 
often with my hammer. It was impossible to doubt that a 
great change in the geological features of the country would 
soon be observed, and that primitive limestone must soon oc- 
cur in place. 

Accordingly, before I had gone over the four miles which 
brought me to the Housatonick river, ledges of white lime- 
stone began to make their appearance at some distance from 
the road on the right, but gneiss was the last rock which 
occurred before crossing the river. 

The scenery was altogether wild, and possessed of 
very considerable grandeur. A quarter of a mile above the 

river, here of considerable width, falls over a 



bri dge, the , 

ledge of limestone (as it appeared to me at the nearest point 
°f approach) with clouds of spray, in a white and almost 
unbroken sheet of water, and with the th?mdering noise of a 
cataract. I believe the fall is about thirty feet, and being all 
a t one leap, the effect is very fine* 

A Furnace, 

Between the fall and the bridge, a furnace of very con- 
siderable extent was in full operation, and its clouds of black 






210 



Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 






smoke formed a striking contrast with the spray and fog ot 
the cataract. It might have been twenty-five or thirty feet 
in height, and ten or twelve in diameter. Vast bellows, ri- 
sing and falling alternately by the action of water, threw in 
torrents of air, at the bottom, while at the top, the workmen 
were almost constantly occupied in putting in the ore, with 
charcoal and limestone in successive layers and in mixture. 
The ore is previously roasted in the open air ; it is broken 
into pieces of a proper size, arranged in layers alternately 
with charcoal, and when the heap is three or four feet high 
the fire is kindled and allowed to burn slowly for many 
hours. The cohesion of the ore is in this manner impair- 
ed — sulphur, arsenic and other volatile things are expelled, 
and it is prepared for the fiercer heat to which it is subject- 



an 



ed in the furnace. This last is shaped somewhat like 

a section beins: removed from each end and the smal- 



€22: 



ler end being uppermost. At the top it is only four or five 
feet in diameter, and there is little appearance of the vehe- 
ment heat which exists below. The ore, which is here melt- 
ed is principally from the Salisbury bed, but partly also 
from the adjoining state of New-York. Both kinds are ox- 
ids, as indeed are all the iron ores which are profitably and 
usefully wrought ; only they are more or less mixed or com- 
bined with sulphur and arsenic and withsilex or flinty earth, 
argil or clayey earth, and other earthy matters and with for- 
eign metals ; chrome, titanium, manganese, &c. The princi- 
pal steps in this operation are therefore easily explained on 
principle. The roasting has been already explained. In 
the furnace the charcoal, aided by the fierce heat, detached 
the oxigen and flies away with it in the form of carbonic 
acid gas ; the limestone although by itself infusible, by uni- 
ting with the earths and sulphur and other foreign bodies, 
removes them, at the same time promoting the melting 
of the entire mass, and thus in the language of the furna- 
ces it acts as a flux. The iron also to a considerable ex- 
tent, combines with the carbon and thus becomes very flu- 
id, and capable of being cast into any desired form. At the 
bottom of the furnace, the slag or dross floating at the top of 
the melted iron, is occasionally raked off, and the iron is ei- 
ther allowed to run out at a tap-hole, or is ladled out with 
large iron ladles managed by hand, and thus poured into the 
moulds into which it is to be cast The slag; or dross which 



i 



• 



1l . 



in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 21 1 

- 

is rejected, accumulates in the vicinity of a furnace and often 
to a great extent ; it consists of the lime which was added, as 
a flux, combined with the foreign earthy matters, and with a 
proportion of oxid of iron and other metallic oxids. It has 
often very gay and beautiful colours — it is inflated and 
twisted in various forms, or solid and firm like glass, and 
has in many instances, the strongest resemblance to the 
glasses and frits produced in volcanoes. Indeed it is impos- 
sible to contemplate the phenomena of one of these great 
furnaces, without finding much to gratify curiosity and much 
to inform the understanding. I observed the iron to be, in 
many instances crystalized, especially what remained in 
the ladles after pouring ; it was in brilliant plates looking 
not unlike the specular ore or that variety called the mica- 



ceous iron. 



Primitive Limestone in JVLica-slate. 



Proceeding West from the river, we cross a bed of primi- 
tive marble or limestone, and soon after we rise a some- 
what arduous ridge of mica-slate, stretching North and 
South, and forming the boldest feature of this part of the 
country; it is immediately succeeded by the primitive 
white marble having the same direction and inclination in its 
strata ; then again succeeds the mica-slate, and then the 
marble, and thus the geological traveller is gratified, in the 
course of five or six miles w T ith as many alternations and suc- 
cessions of these two rocks, each perfectly distinct from 
the other, and totally different in their nature j their junc- 
tions are in some places exactly defined, and such a number 
of alternations and successions in so small an extent of coun- 
ty, and on such a scale of magnificence affords sufficient 
materials to occupy and to embarrass the reflections of the 
Geologist. These rocks are highly crystaline in their 
structure — they possess every mark of having been deposit- 
ed from a state of chemical solution ; yet what cause, ex- 
isting in the primitive chaotic ocean, could have determined 
at one time the deposition of a rock consisting of quartz 
and mica, and immediately after, and without intermixture 
or disturbance, one consisting of crystalized carbonate of 
lime ? 












212 



Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 



Other Furnaces. 



We 



a happy natural reservoir, of a mile or two in diameter, which 
supplies an unfailing stream for some of the most conside- 
rable iron furnaces in this interesting district of country. 
By the politeness of one of the proprietors* every facility 
was afforded of access to the iron establishment and to the 
bed of ore. 

The establishment is more considerable than the one al- 
ready described, and I was particularly struck with the im- 
mense piles of slag and refuse, accumulated around the fur- 



naces. 



It also struck me forcibly at both places, that the twyers 
(tubes) of the bellows instead of being fixed, air tight, into 
the side of the furnace by which means, at first view, one 
would suppose that the greatest quantity of air would be 
thrown in, and the smallest wasted, were brought only within 
a few inches of the furnace, and discharged their blast into 
an orifice of much greater surface than that of the tubes ; 
experience, it seems, has shewn, that this is the best arrange- 
ment, and that more heat is thus excited than upon the other 
plan. May not the effect be accounted for, from a powerful de- 
termination of the atmosphere (created by the heat of the fur- 
nace) to enter at the same place, which as there is no grate 
and no admission of air from below, could not happen pro- 
vided the twyer were fixed air-tight into the furnace. At this 
establishment they have cast cannon for the navy. They 
arc cast solid and then bored out by a rotary movement 
produced by water. By particular management in the re- 
duction of the iit>n ore, they produce at pleasure either a 
harder or a softer metal ; the hardest is so hard that it cannot 
be filed, bored, or in any way altered ; this is the fact with 
most common articles of domestic hollow ware, but that 
cast for cannon and some other purposes is soft and is much 
less brittle than the hardest kind. 



Salisbury iron ore bed. 

The main iron ore bed is situated two miles West ol 
these furnaces. This of course formed an object of atten- 

* John M. Holly Esq. 



f « 









in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 213 




lion. Geologically speaking, the Salisbury iron ore as is 
obvious from the statements already given concerning the 
rock formations of this district, must be considered as belong- 
ing to a country highly primitive. It may be added that mi- 
ca slate, without marble, is observed between the furnaces 
and the ore bed ; somewhat farther West upon the borders 
of the state of New- York, the marble again appears, but 
whether accompanied by mica-slate I am not informed, al- 
though it is most probable that it is. 

The Salisbury iron ore may, with propriety, be referred to 
the mica-slate as its proper accompanying rock, because it 
forms the basis of the country, but the ore, as far as I could 
learn, is not imbedded in any rock- Its immediate bed is clay. 

It is about seventy years since this great bed was opened. 
It lies in the side of a hill of moderate elevation, and al- 
though numerous, large and deep excavations have been 
made, there is no indication that the ore is in danger of being 
exhausted. It is not worked by shafts and galleries (as I be- 
lieve iron ores generally are not) but like a quarry of stone, 
open to the sky, and such connexions are formed between 
the pits and the general surface of the country, that, to trans- 
• port the ore, carts and waggons are driven freely in and ouL 

v The ore, as already remarked, is the brown iron stone 

of Werner — that is, the brown oxid of iron, more or less con- 
taminated with manganese and other metals, and with por- 
tions of earthy substances. 

All the varieties of this kind of ore may be found here 
»n great perfection and beauty, and particularly very fine 
specimens of what is called the brown haematite. Many of 
these, in their delicate, fibrous and radiated structure, in the 
highly varnished gloss of the exterior, and in the elegant sta- 
lactical forms which they have assumed, cannot be surpassed 
by specimens in any collections.* 

Those large cavernous masses also which contain cavi- 
ties usually lined with the stalactical and other beautiful 
forms of iron, are here abundant, and an amateur of fine 
specimens may here be gratified at a cheap rate. 

* Jfl mistake not, the vertical position of the stalactites, in the ore bed, 
sufficiently indicates that their form is owing to gravity, while their fibrous 
and radiated structure, seems to depend on the laws of crystalization. On 
some of the Salisbury «re«, there is a delicate, sooty coating which appears 
to be manganese, and probably affords no g;roand ; (as some have imagined,) 
tor inferring the agency of subterranean fire. 

Vol, II No. 2. 28 






\ 



214 



Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc 



It has been already observed that the iron, ore at this 
place is imbedded in clay, so that it is obtained with com- 
parative ease. 

The clay is often stained by the oxid of iron, so that it ex- 
hibits most of the varieties of colour belonging to the ochres, 

and would, without doubt, in various instances, afford good 
painting colours. It appears in some places saponaceous, 

and in some instances to approximate to the properties of 
fuller's earth. This clay deserves further attention, and a 
more attentive mineralogical examination than probably it 
has hitherto received. 

There are other ore beds and establishments in this town 
tor manufacturing both cast and bar iron, but my time did 
not admit of my visiting them. 

Hide to Kent. 

Having now reached the proposed extent of my journey 
West, I turned my face South, and crossed the Housatonick 
some miles below the falls. In pursuing this oblique course, I 
necessarily crossed the strata of marble and mica slate al- 
ready described. 

My next object was the bed. of iron ore in Kent, and in 
going to it my journey lay immediately down the east- 
ern bank of the Housatonick. In driving about twen- 
ty miles, in the course of an afternoon, there was very 
little to detain me. My journey was no longer across 
the natural ridges of the country, but parallel with and be- 
tween them, so that many miles presented less variety than 
was often seen in as many furlongs, in travelling at right an- 
gles with this direction. In a word, my whole ride to Kent 

two parallel 
chains of mountains or high hills, so near each other that 
there was merely room for the Housatonick to flow along 
which it often did with sullen murm 



was through a vast natural defile formed b\ 



urs, over a very rocky 



and broken bed, and for a narrow road, in most instan- 
ces passing directly along its banks, So abrupt were these 
chains of mountains, that on the western side, the river often 
washed their very feet, and their frowning cliffs, more or less 
veiled by thick forests, huns; over the river. The road 
which I travelled, was bounded by hills almost equally ab- 
rupt, rocky and rude in their aspect, and in most instances 
on either side, there seemed to be no passage through these 
apparently impenetrable barriers. 












; 












m the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 215 

My journey was through the borders of Canaan, Corn- 
wall and Kent, and although, from the nature of the country, 
there could not be much arable land, and only a very spare 
population, the eye was constantly regaled with bold views 
of mountain and river scenery, and from the more elevated 
situations, the whole face of the country seemed a collection 

| of rude hills and mountains, in most instances covered with 

very dense forest, the entire consumption of which would 
seem beyond the power of any population which is likely 
ever to accumulate in these regions. 
^ The failure of a wheel, aud the time consumed in secu- 

I ring it temporarily with cordage, caused twilight to overtake 

Hie, and the mountains closing around on every side and 
frowning with their dark and woody sides and ridges, seem- 
ed to cut off not only all view of any other more fortunate 
regiou, but absolutely to swallow up the road and to bar all 
escape. 

At length, the little village of Kent made its appearance, 
seeming to be dropped in among the mountains, and almost 
secluded from the rest of the world. 

I The hills and mountains which occurred between Salisbury 

and this place, were, on the eastern side of the river, almost 
invariably gneiss ; those on the West appeared to be the 
same, and without doubt they were either gneiss or mica- 
slate, or possibly in different places both. The hills pre- 
sented the same features as those on the eastern side, and left 
no doubt of the general similarity of geological structure. 

During the last five or six miles before reaching Kent, 
ranges of white primitive limestone began to attend the 
gneiss, and ran parallel with it, but at a lower elevation. 

At the places where I had opportunity to examine, this 
limestone appeared in some measure mixed with the 
gneiss by which it is embosomed. It effervesced only par- 
tially with acids — its colour was foul and yellowish, and it was 
mixed with much insoluble matter probably derived from 
the gneiss. 

August 29. — My wheel being effectually repaired by 
smiths whom in the evening I engaged to work with the 
first dawn, I set forward early for the bed of iron ore, which 
was at the distance of several miles. A circuitous road 
was said to be very good, but it would lead through the de- 
files, while one across the mountains was shorter but exceed- 















216 ^ Geology ', Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 

ingly rough, steep and difficult, and rarely travelled by any 
vehicles except carts. 



Induced however by a wish to cross the ridges I prefer- 



red the latter road. Its difficulties were even greater than 



had been represented, owing I suppose to recent rains 
which had swept away the loose earth from the f©eks and 
stones, and worn deep gullies. 

I was however gratified to find that my previous impres- 
sions were correct, and that the ranges by the side oi which 
I yesterday travelled, and of which these were only a con- 
tinuation, were universally gneiss. 

Iron ore bed of Kent. . * 1 

Arrived at the iron mine the observer is forcibly struck 
with the magnitude of the excavation. This ore bed, like 
that at Salisbury, is situated in the side of the hill, but this is 
a high and steep one, and the ore is explored under tfati open 
sky like a quarry, with the exception of a few places where gal- 
leries of some extent have been carried into the hill. Like the 
ore at Salisbury, this is imbedded in clay, which in most places 
is the substance with which the iron is in immediate contact. 
Unlike the excavations at Salisbury, which are numerous but 
of small magnitude, this is nearly all in one great basin 
which in some places appeared to be 1 50 feet deep, and several 
hundred feet wide. The magnitude of the excavation has 
been greatly increased, by an ingenious contrivance of the 
present very respectable proprietor, Mr. Adam. He has turn- 
ed a stream of water coming from the more elevated ground 
in the vicinity, through the mine, and when it is swelled by 
rains, it carries off prodigious quantities of clay, stones and 
other things, and leaves the ore which, on account of its 
greater gravity, remains in a great measure behind. In this 
manner a vast amount of labour and expence in getting rid 
oi troublesome incumbrances, is saved. Very striking proofs 
of the force of the water are exhibited in die low ground 
beneath the mine, where great quantities of stones, gravel 
and earth are spread over a very considerable surface. I 

As regards the geological position of this ore it is a little- 
different from that of Salisbury ; the latter, it will be re- 
membered, is in mica-slate, whereas that of Kent is m 
gneiss. The section of the hill which has been made by the 









; 



in the Counties of Nciv- Haven and LitchftlcL 217 

excavation, exposes to view a ledge of gneiss in the upper 
part of the mine ; it was inaccessible, but from its appear- 
ance and from the fragments which had fallen below, no 
doubt could be entertained that it was gneiss, especially as 
this rock constitutes all the neighboring country. 

The clay which forms the immediate enveloping matter 
of the ore is very interesting. It. presents a great variety 
of colours ; of blue, green, red, yellow, &c. — which, with- 
out doubt, arise from the oxid of iron and other metallic ox- 
ids ; good colours for painting might be selected from them. 

Some parts of the clay appear very saponaceous, and the 
workmen assured me that a true fuller's earth, answering all 
the purposes of that useful mineral, had been obtained 
here. 

A fuller's earth is a clay usually soapy in its feel — very 
absorbent of grease and oily matters ; fine in its texture, so 
as to present no parts that shall be large and harsh enough 
to injure cloth or wool, mechanically, by rubbing ; it should 
fall to powder easily in water, so as to diffuse itself through 
that fluid, and easily mix with it and with the stuffs to which 
it is applied. The fuller's earth of Hampshire, England, so 



much celebrated, is of a greenish yellow, tolerably firm, 
crumbles easily in water, receives a polish from the finger 
nail,and is very powerfully detergent. This is, after all, the 
important criterion by which to distinguish fuller's earth ; 
if it removes grease with avidity, crumbles easily in wa- 
ter so as to diffuse itself readily ,and yet is not so coarse as 
to wear the fibre, it is a fuller's earth. The subject is of some j 
practical importance to this country on account of its wool- 
len manufactures, which, although checked for the present, 
must eventually rise and prevail. While they are of small i 
extent it may be better to use soap, but in very large es- 
tablishments, fuller's earth from its cheapness' (provided it 
can be abundantly obtained) is very desirable. 

With respect to the existence of fuller's earth in the clay 
of the Kent iron bed it appears very probable, and some of 
the specimens appear very like the Hampshire earth, but 

experiments alone can decide. 

This vast bed of clay, (for it occupies more or less the 
whole depth of the pit) is without any reasonable doubt, in- 
terposed between ledges of gneiss, which evidently form its 
roof, and appear to form its pavement. 









218 Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, tyc. 

Both this ore and that at Salisbury form a striking in- 
stance of a great metallic deposit, not in veins, as most met- 
als occur, that is, filling fissures in rocks, which fissures are 
perpendicular to the horizon, or form an angle and usually 
a considerable one with it ; on the contrary, these ores are 
parallel or nearly so with the horizon — that is, taking the en- 
tire deposit into view — and form, what is technically as well 
as familiarly, called a bed of ore. 

With respect to the kind of ore at Kent, in a scientific ar- 
rangement it would be referred to the same species, as that 
at Salisbury — the brotvn iron stone of Werner or the brown 
hoematite. Yet practical men assure us that the iron made 
from it is of a different, and as is asserted of an inferior 
quality, and that it is more difficult to be brought to the state 
of good iron.* 

It would require a careful chemical examination to de- 
cide in what the difference consists (and the subject is so 
important as well to merit this attention,) but if judging from 
appearances only, we were to hazard an opinion, it would be 
that the Kent ore contaiusa larger proportion of manganese* 
Most of these ores of iron contain some portion of manga- 
nese, and although a small proportion of that metal does not 
injure iron and (as some suppose,) even benefits it ; a large 
proportion renders it brittle. 

The impression that the Kent ore contains more manganese 



at the specimens have, generally, 
ralisbury ore, and in their cavities 



is derived from the fact th 

a darker colour than the Salisbury 

there are appearances almost like those produced by pure 

oxid of manganese. The Kent ore appears to be mid way 

between the brown and the black iron stone of Werner ; 

the latter confessedly contains a great deal of manganese, 

and if we are not in an error, the Kent ore bed contains more 

of black ironstone — the Salisbury more of the brown. 

The Kent ore bed also abounds in fine specimens, tn< 
fibrous, stalactitical and mamillary varieties in particular, 
are uncommonly fine here, and a mineralogical traveller i^ 
strongly tempted to load his vehicle, more deeply than W 
convenient in so rough a country. 

^ On comparing the specimens both from Salisbury and 
Kent, with those of the same species in the splendid col- 

* A manufacturer of muskets assured me that he found it loo brittle W 
gun barrels, while that of Salisbury is very tough. 



I 












in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 



219 



lection of Col. Gibbs (most of which came from the mines 
in France) we can scarcely distinguish the one from the oth- 
er, whether we regard their characters, their beauty, or their 
richness. 









Ride, to New-Preston. 

For a series of years a highly crystaline white marble 
has been brought to New-Haven from the towns of Wash- 
ington and New-Milford ; it is in extensive use, for sepulchral 
monuments, as well as for purposes of architecture, although 
far the greater part of it is used for the former purposes. 

This marble, viewed even in the hands of the stone-cut- 
ters, could leave no doubt in the mind of the geologist, thai 
it belonged to the highly primitive formations; its perfectly 
crystaline structure 



its high translucence 



its whiteness 
often very pure — its freedom from any impressions of or- 
ganized bodies, and its occasionally abounding with crystals 
of foreign substances, particularly tremolite, afford sufficient 
ground for this conclusion. I could have no doubt, accor- 
ding to the established laws of geology, that it must be 
found imbedded in gneiss or mica-slate, and most probably 
in the former. 

I now eagerly embraced the opportunity of examining it 
in place, and for this purpose passed over east to the village 
of New-Preston, distant from the Kent ore bed seven 
°r eight miles. Gneiss was still the rock which attended 
^e ; it occasionally rose into abrupt and lofty hills, some- 
times composed of naked rock, with the edges of the strata 
projecting, and forming rude impending cliffs, threatening a 
fall into the rallies. 

The village of New-Preston is situated on one of those 
high ridges of gneiss, which pass nearly North and South, 
and form the boldest geological features of the country. 
This ridge runs nearly parallel to those which I have al- 
ready described, as forming the barriers of the Housatonick 
as lar as I pursued its course. 

Gneiss, from the fissile nature of the rock, splitting readi- 
ly through the layers of mica or isinglass, which forms a part 
°f its structure, often affords an excellent building and pa- 
V1 ng stone. The Haddam stone, so much valued in New- 
York as a flagging stone, that of New-Milford, of Derby ^ 
*£. is of this description. 






* 



220 Geology \ Mineralogy, Scenery, tyt. 



Stone houses — mode of building and of covering with cement. 

Upon the top of New-Preston hill(on a spot which although 
rude, on account of the rocks and loose stones, with which it 
abounds, affords fine air and picturesque views remarkable 
both for extent, variety and beauty,) I had the pleasure to ob- 
serve two very good houses, constructed of the gneiss rock ot 
the country. The public house is one of them and its owner 
assured me that it had literally arisen out of its own cellar, 
which was wholly excavated from the gneiss rock on which 
the house is founded ; the fragments obtained in forming 
the cellar had proved more than sufficient to construct the 
walls of the house. This house was not covered external- . 
ly, with any cement, although it had been left rough with that 
view. It seems, the proprietor had been deterred from 
applying it, by the ill success of a neighbor, who having con- 
structed a similar house, and covered it with a cement, had 
the mortification to see it cleave off by the square yard at a 
time. But on inspecting this house, also a very good one, 
the cause of failure appeared extremely obvious. The ce- 
ment had been very improperly applied. 

If a stone house is not to be covered with cement, it is ? 

necessary (as every one knows) to construct it with stones 
which have the smoothest and handsomest faces — either nat- 
ural or cut by the chisel, according to the nature of the 
stone and the views of the proprietor, as to expence ; the 
joints are made as nice and small as possible, and are careful- 
ly pointed, which gives this kind of building all the firmness 
and beauty of which it is susceptible, and it has the former 
in the highest, and the latter in a sufficient degree. 

But, if a stone house on the contrary, is to be covered 
with a cement, its walls should be left on the outside as rovgh 
as possible— no smooth faces should be suffered to be on 
the outside — every such stone should have the smooth face 
turned inward, and no very large stones should be employ- 
ed, or if they are, their faces should be as rough as possible ; 
the stones should be thoroughly bedded in, and the cavities 
between them filled with mortar, but the holes on the outside 
should not be stopped— no small stones or mortar should be 
put in between them — in a word the whole exterior should 
present as many rough angular points and as man} 



/ 



V 












in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 221 

irregular, deep and dove-tailed cavities between tfie stones 
as possible. 

The mortar should be made of the best lime, and if it is 
slacked with water already saturated with lime, so much 
the better ; the sand should be very angular, sharp grained 
and purely siliceous, consisting of little else than fragments 
of quartz, (commonly called white flint,) it should be coarse, 
from the size of a pea to that of the head of a large pin, and 
mixed with the lime in about equal bulks, or as some say, six 
or seven parts of sand to one of lime, with the addition of a 
suitable quantity of hair. This mortar, in clear, and moderate- 
ly warm weather, is put on with the trowel, dashed in with - 
force and care into all the cavities, and floated over to the re- 
quired thickness, all at one operation, and one day's work 
must be put on so soon after another that the two edges may 
perfectly incorporate, which will not be the fact if the for- 
mer clay's work is allowed to dry too much before that of the 
latter is put on. . 

Only one coat should be applied- — a second would not ad- 
here, if applied, and will come off with the frost. The work 
may be afterwards beautified by a lime wash made with 
milk instead of water, with certain additions* which the work- 
men pretend to keep secret, but which are very well known. 

A cement put on in this manner will stand; and in say- 
ing this I speak from the experience of twelve years ; a ce- 
ment of this kind which under my observation, has been on 
that length of time, being as sound as the stone beneath. 

In the case of the house on New-Preston hill, a thin coat 
was put on like a first coat of inside plastering ; thus the holes 
which should have held the plaster firm were filled up, at 
the same tim,e that the stones were scarcely covered, and 
when the second coat was applied, there was nothing to hold 
it, and of course, as might have been foreseen, it came off 
and left a ragged and mutilated exterior. 

I speak with pleasure of seeing houses built of stone be- 
cause it is hidi time that we should build more extensively 
with permanent materials, brick or stone. 

* These additions are probably of no importance—the milk and the lime., 
appear to be all that are essential ; the caseous or cheesy part of the milk 
forms, nlun^ \x ifh the lime a kind of varnish, although without gfoss ; skim- 
med milk will answer, if not svur. It is indispensable, that during the appli- 
cation of the wash, it be constantly stirred by an assistant, that the 1 
may not subside. 

Vol. II No. 2. 29 







Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, tyc. 

Stone houses properly constructed, the inside plastering 
not being laid upon the stone but on lath at a little distance, 
or, in the language of the workmen, the walls being furred, 
are much warmer in winter, and much cooler in summer, are 
in a great measure indestructible by fire, and by time, need 
little repair* and are never damp ; on the contrary, if furred, 
they are perfectly dry. 

If plastered upon the inside, directly upon the stone, they 
will be damp, not however from moisture passing through 
the walls, which is never the case in a well built house, but 
from condensation of the vapour of the atmosphere, the 
thick masses of stone not suddenly changing their tempera- 
ture, and stone being a pretty good conductor of heat, when 
the atmosphere becomes charged with vapour and warm 
withal, the vapour appears on the wall in drops, as it does 
on a tankard or other vessel filled with colei water, and sud- 
denly brought into a warm and moist air. 

From this digression^hich will perhaps be pardoned 
from the practical importance of the subject, we return to 
our geological investigation. 

Beds of primitive white Marble. 

The ridge of gneiss, on which New-Preston stands, stretch- 
es away South and somewhat West to New-Milford. De- 
scending its eastern declivity I turned abruptly to the right, 
and followed the direction of the ridge of gneiss, travelling 
parallel to it. The beds of marble soon made their appear- 
ance in a valley through which runs the little river, the eas- 
tern Aspetuck, issuing from the Raumauglake, in the north- 
ern part of Washington, and emptying into the Housaton- 
ick at New-Milford. Along this little stream*, and at small 
distances from it, are situated the principal marble quarries 
and they are opened and wrought at short intervals through 
an extent of seven or eight miles, almost to the main street 
of New-Milford. The marble, as it lies in its native beds, 
has a very beautiful appearance, being, as already observed, 
very white and looking almost like beds of snow. Some 
of it is large grained, composed of plates of perceptible 

* Ft is indispensable, that in houses covered with cement, the water should 
no where get into or beneath the cement, for, it will then cause it to cleave 
off with the frost. There is no danger of this, if the cornices and other sim- 
ilar parts are well secured 



* 



in the Counties of New- Haven and Litchfield. 223 

magnitude ; in other places it is fine grained, looking al- 
most like lump or loaf sugar. Some of it is decidedly 
what mineralogists term dolomite, and all of it comes un- 
der the denomination of granularly foliated. It is, accor- 
ding to scientific arrangements, of the same kind with the 
statuary marble, and yet, it may be questioned whether any 
of it would answer for statues. Those of the ancients were 
made principally from the Parian marble, so called from its 
coming from the island of Paros in the Grecian Archipelago, 
although it is well ascertained that several other islands, as 
Naxos, Tenos, he. in that sea afford similar marble : I be- * 
lieve all the statues of the moderns and some of those of the 
y ancients are composed of the Carrara marble, thus denomi- 

nated from the place where it is found in Italy. To fit a 
marble for the use of the statuary, it should be highly crys- 
taline, and yet with a pretty fine grain ; it should be- per- 
fectly white, entirely free from flaws and from foreign mine- 
rals, and it should be very firm. The finest pieces of 
Washington and New-Milford marble probably come as 
near this description as any marble as yet found in this 
country, but it is too often mixed with tremolite, often in- 
deed in such fine crystals and other forms* that it is very 
beautiful to the eye of a mineralogist, although it would be 
a blemish to the statuary. 

The most beautiful pieces of this marble are apt to be of 
the most tender consistence, and an artist after toiling with 
immense pains to finish a fine statue, would be very much 
chagrined to find a delicate prominent part, as a nose, an ear, 
or a lip, suddenly break off, or filled with crystals of tremolite. 

Statuary marble, although not a remarkably hard stone is 
one of the most durable. "Hence, says Patrin, " it is sought 
for, for the construction of the most sumptuous edifices, and 
of monuments which are intended to be at once magnifi- 
cent and durable. Marble is one of the least destructible 
materials ; of this we have proof in those precious statues 
which are an eternal monument of the genius of the artists 
of ancient Greece. They have supported the injuries of 
twenty centuries while the scythe of time has not been able 
to glance on the brilliant polish of their surfaces." 

These ranges of marble extend a great way North and 
South, and are quarried in many and distant places. In th* 



* s 



carcely inferior in beauty to the tremolite of the Alps. 









224 Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, tyc. 

present case the sawing is performed by the waters ot the 
Eastern Aspetuck ; the quarrying is carried on in the usual 
manner. One circumstance however was novel to me. 
The marble is easily divided by wedges in the direction ot 
its stratification, but if they wish to produce a vertical crack, 
they can effect it, and at the same time produce a horizontal 
one in the following manner. An auger is provided which 
is exactly of the form of an equilateral triangle ; — with this, 
a triangular* hole is bored, in such a manner that the basis oi 
the triangle is in the plane of the horizon, or of the stratifi- 
cation, and of course a line let fall from the vertex so as 
equally to bisect the base, would be perpendicular to the 
horizon, or to the stratification. When this hole is charged * 

with gun powder and fired in the usual manner, two cracks 
are produced, one horizontal or in the direction of the stra- 
tification, and oh both sides of the hole, and the other per- 
pendicular to the first. 

I w 7 as gratified to find the geological associations of this 
marble very distinct and exactly such as I had been led to 
anticipate. 

This marble forms a perfectly distinct bed in gneiss, 
which is found on both sides of it, and of course both above 
and below it. As we travel on toward the centre of New- 
Milford, the gneiss makes its appearance in various places 
in the road, and is every where attended by the marble. 
According to the systematic arrangement of Mr. Werner, 
this is therefore the oldest primitive limestone, forming dis- 
tinct beds in gneiss. I was very solicitous to observe the 
junctions of the marble and gneiss, and was gratified in va- 
rious places. The transition from the one rock to the other 
was, however, in general, not perfectly abrupt, and a sensi- 
ble intermixture of the two rocks could be perceived tor 
some feet on both sides of the junction. 

The two rocks accompany each other quite into the 
main street of New-Milford, and cross the river Housaton- 
ick some little way below, and without doubt proceed on to 
Danbury, Reading, &,c, where primitive limestone is found. 

The geological relations of this marble appear then to be 
perfectly distinct.— I may say they are very grand in their 
extent, and give us new reason to admire, that wonderful 
order and harmony, little suspected by people in general. 

* It would not necessarily be triangular—if* the auger should be suffered fd 
revolve, in the usual manner, the hole would of course be circular 










in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 

which are found equally in the mineral kingdom, as in the 
animal and vegetable, and which afforded, on analogical 
I grounds, the best reason to predict, that the geological asso- 

ciation of this marble would be found to be what it actually is, 

New-Milford. 

I had some hours at New-Milford before night, and 
they were busily occupied in packing my specimens, and 
in viewing the town and its vicinity. 

The public burying ground strikes a traveller forcibly, on 
account of the great number and crowded state of its mon- 
uments, and their being, almost without exception, construct- 
j. i^d of the snow-white marble, so abundant in the vicinity. 
New-Milford has had the reputation of not being a heal- 
thy town. Bills of mortality, averaged for a good number 
of years, afford the only adequate means of deciding a ques- 
tion often agitated between different towns. New-Milford 
has of late years, had some sickly seasons, and so have 
roost towns in Connecticut, however healthy they may be 
reputed. It is true we must not infer from this that there is 
no difference in the health of different places. It is how- 
% eVer probable, that in New-Milford, the great show of mon- 

uments, (many of them very beautiful in their design and 
execution) arises from the facility, with which the material 
] s obtained in the neighborhood. 

New-Milford lies in a valley on the banks of the Housa- 
toniek ; high hills cut off the view to the East, and indeed 
hi almost every direction, and this low situation, with the ef- 
fects of evaporation from stagnant water, have, in popular 
opinion, given rise to its reputed unhealthiness. 

This town is situated principally upon one main street, 
with some windings and branches. In few towns in Con- 
necticut, is there so great an inequality in the appearance of 
the houses. Some are more than commonly mean and ru- 
inous, while a considerable number are beautiful, and some 
even splendid. One house, built of brick, is very expensively 
ornamented with the white marble, which, beside many other 
costly decorations, forms a superb arch over the door. 

Our country is still too recent to afford the traveller many 
°f those biographical, and other interesting historical noti- 
ces which are so common in Europe. It could not, howev- 
er, be uninteresting to know, that this town was the early 









226 Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, tyc. 

residence of the venerable senator, Roger Sherman : his 
house, a plain old building, is still pointed out, and his name 
will be remembered as long as talent, integrity, and patriot- 
ism shall command the respect of Americans. 

Augnst 30th. — With the rising sun I left New-Milford* 
and beading my course East, passed a succession of rough 
and arduous ridges, to the Shepaug river. In the distance of 

* _ _~ a m m V 



five or six miles, the succession was gneiss — gneiss — gneiss 



mica-slate — gneiss — gneiss, — which last terminates in 
an alluvial tract upon the banks of the Shepaug, a river which 
empties into the Housatonick. The rocks of mica-slate, 
abounded with garnets, and had time permitted, many fine 
specimens might have been obtained. f 

Mine Hill — Quarry of Gneiss — Spathic Iron. 

At the Shepaug, I quitted my wheels, and, with a guide, 
proceeded, on horseback, two miles North, to the silver mine, 
as it has been called, siutated in a forest, upon the last ridge 
of gneiss which I had crossed. The hill, from its steep- 
ness and roughness, and the thick forest by which it is al- 
most every where covered, is difficult to ascend.* 

This hill is called Mine-hill, from its having been ex- 
plored some years ago by mining operations. The ex- 
cavations were made at several places, but chiefly at one, 
where we soon arrived. I have been assured by a son 
of the person who carried on the work, that without any 
doubt, silver was obtained there in some quantity, but hot 
enough to render it profitable, and the work after being car- 
ried on to a very considerable extent, a deep shaft having 
been excavated, and great quantities of different minerals 
thrown up, was abandoned. 

Of the silver, I could at present, discover no traces bat, 
from some specimens, from this place, which I saw some 
years since, I am led to suspect that the ore was the sul- 
phuret or the vitreous silver ore of Werner. 

Every thing here, however, indicates a metallic vein, and 
the relics of the mine still remaining in great abundance^give 

sufficient indications as to the principal contents of the vein. 

* As a guide is indispensable to tho»e who visitthis intcreMiugspot, it way 
not be amiss to mention for the benefit of future mineralogicul travellers, 
that any information will be obligingly imparted, at the house of a respec- 
table man, (Ma Trowbridge,) who lives at the foot of the hill. 



* 



• 






in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 221 

There were several metallic sulphurets, quartz in abun- 
dance, and often crystalized, and, more than all, and what 
had principally drawn me to the place, spathic iron. This 
remarkable mineral, which, in small quantities and much 
mixed with other minerals, is a very common companion of 
metals in their veins, is however, rarely found in great quan- 
tities in one place. France, and especially Germany, is re- 
markable for mines of spathic iron, and although we have 
some few American localities of it mentioned in professor 
Cleveland's mineralogy, there is, so far as I am informed, 
no evidence that in this country it exists any where, in 
quantity, except at this mine. 

Tons of it lie here upon the ground, and no one in this 
vicinity appears to know what it is, nor does it appear ever 
to have entered into the views of the proprietor to turn it to 
account. 

It is very well characterized. Its structure is distinctly 
foliated, with a triple cleavage, producing rhombic frag- 
ments, the surfaces a little bent : the colours are from yel- 
lowish white, deepening through various shades of yellow 
and brown, to almost black ; the surfaces which have been 
acted on by the air, are the most deeply coloured and their 
interior, when a piece is broken, is much whiter : the spe- 
cific gravity is four, water being one. 

It is entirely indifferent to the magnet till it has been heat- 
ed red hot on charcoal, when it becomes very sensible and 
flies to the magnet almost with the avidity of iron filings. If 
does not often appear crystalized, but when it is, the crystals 






< 






. . ,. -, Q . 

immediate gangue, and many specimens are found, in whicj 
it is beautifully interlaced with this mineral, and occasional- 
ly a fragment presents a ground of dark coloured spathic 
iron, with white crystals of quartz, perforating it in many 
places, and directons and thus presenting a kind of mosaic. 
In the above description, it is presumed every mineralo- 
gist will recognize the spathic iron. This kind of iron ore 
is entirely different from that of Salisbury and Kent. It i, 
essentially composed ofoxid of iron, united to carbonic acid, 
and usually to lime ; it contains al$o variable proportions o! 
manganese and sometimes magnesia. It appears to be es- 
sentially a carbonate of iron, but it is rare that lime is not 



also 



present. 



i . 



228 Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 

Hence probably it is, that, ordinarily, in reduciug it, it is 
not necessary to put limestone into the furnace, as in case of 
other iron ores ; the lime, or in other words, the flux, is 
present in the ore itself, and little or none need be added. 

But this is not its greatest excellence 

It affords steel directly from the bar without the process of 

cementation. Hence, in Europe this ore is much valued, as 
the iron bar drawn out by the trip-hammer in the common 
process of blooming, is iron or steel at pleasure, according 
ats the process is managed ; this is not true of any other 
ore, and hence probably this has been called the steel ore- 
The steel made from it is not of the finest kind, it is used 
principally for agricultural and other coarser instruments. 

The gneiss rock in which this spathic iron lies, is within 
the limits of the town of New-Milford, and on account of 
the important use which is there made of this rock, it is 
worthy of a moment's attention. 

It is, as already remarked, gneiss, but singularly perfect 
in its characters, and it is questionable whether for purposes 
of architecture the world can produce its superior. 

Both its stratification and its schistose structure are so 
perfectly regular and continuous on one right line,that slabs 
of it of any length which can be lifted, can be raised from 
the quarry so regular in all their dimensions, and so even in 
all their surfaces, that they are hardly, excelled by hewn 
stone. The colour also is of a light, agreeable grey ; 
the finest houses in New-Milford have this stone for their 



door-steps and basement ; and its natural surfaces, or those, 
which, at the ends and edges are but slightily modified by 
the hammer and chisel, are so perfect that nothing finer 
need be wished for the construction of the handsomest hous- 
es in cities. Could it be easily transported to New-York, 
this stone would be a more valuable possession to the pro- 
prietor, than the mine of silver or iron. 

I was informed that one stone was actually removed from 
the quarry, of the astonishing length of forty feet, with 
uch a breadth and thickness, as corresponded to the pur- 
pose for which it was to be used. It is worth the trouble 
of a visit to New Milford, if it were for nothing else than to 
see this incomparable kind of building stone. In its native 
bed, it has the general stratification of the neighboring coun- 
try, both with respect to the direction and dip of the strata. 






• 



in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield. 229 






Rattle Snakes — anecdote of one. 

I was informed by my guide that rattle snakes had for- 
merly been very numerous upon this hill, and were still 
found there in considerable numbers. He accorded with 
the general impression as to their torpidity, and the 
slowness of their motions, but stated the following fact, as 
of his own knowledge. One of his neighbors, a young 
man, meeting with a large and vigorous snake, of this spe- 
cies, instead of despatching him at once with his long cart- 
whip, which he could easily have done without the slightest 
danger, (as it is well known that they are killed very easily) 
amused himself by provoking him, by gently playing his 
whip around his body. The irritated reptile made repeat- 
ed and vigorous leaps towards the young man, coming near- 
er to him at every effort, and being teazed more and more 
by the whip, at last threw himself into the air with such en- 
ergy, that when he descended, he seemed scarcely to touch 
the ground, — but instantly rebounding, executed a succes- 
sion of leaps, so rapid, and so great, that there was not the 
slightest intermission, and he appeared to fly. The young 
man betook himself to a rapid flight, but his dreadful pur- 
suer gained rapidly upon him, till approaching a fence he 
perceived that he could not pass it before the fangs of the 
snake would be hooked in his flesh ; as his only resource, 
e turned, and by a fortunate throw of his lash, by which 
he wound it completely around the serpent's body, he ar- 
rested his progress, and killed him. 

Few animals are furnished with more dreadful means of 
destruction. I had a living one nearly two months in my 
possession, and every day watched his manners. Birds, 
and most small animals, when put into his cage, he immedi- 
ately killed, but did not eat them ; a toad he permitted to 
remain with him for weeks unmolested, and even seemed 
attached to him, as he would permit him to leap upon his 
body, and even to sit upon his head. He took nothing except 
water, which he drank in large quantities, but rejected eve- 
>y thing else, although tempted with very many things ; he 
grew emaciated, and at the approach of cold weather died. 
But he was six weeks in full vigour. When he opened his 
mouth his fangs were not visible, unless he was provoked ; 
Vol. II No. 2. 30 






230 Geology , Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 






at other times they were covered by a membrane like 
a scabbard, only they were drawn back, so that the 
sheathing membrane formed only a slight protuberance on 
each side of the upper jaw. If irritated, he flattened his 
head, threw it back, opened his mouth wide, and instantly 
the fatal fangs were shot out of their sheaths, like a spring 
dagger, and he darted on his object. 

After his death I examined the fangs ; they were shaped like 
a sickle — a durst led from the reservoir of poison at the bot- 
tom of the tooth, quite through its whole length and termi- 
nated just by the point, which was exceedingly sharp. Thus 
the fang is darted out at the will of the animal — it makes 
the puncture at the instant, and, simultaneously, the poison 
flows through the duct and is deposited in the very bottom 
of the wound. As this rarely fails to touch a blood vesseL 
the venom is thus instantly infused into the system, and 
without delay commences the march of death through ev- 
ery vein and artery. 

These facts, I am sensible, are not new, but they are not 
often related by eye witnesses, and nothing regarding the his- 
tory of this tremendous animal can fail to be interesting. 
How happy is it, that the poison of the rattle-snake, is not 
conjoined with the size of the Boa-constrictor, and with the 
speed of the antelope ! 

Ride to Woodbury* 

From the Mine-hill, through Roxbury, to the'vicinity of 
Woodbury, eight or nine miles, the country was an uninter- 
rupted succession of high hills, and deep vallies — not moun- 
tainous, but forming vast curves, and causing the face of 
the ground to swell and sink so regularly, that the traveller 
is almost constantly either ascending or descending- The 
hills were composed of gneiss, not naked as I have hereto- 
fore described, but covered with soil and cultivation, and 
following the general direction and stratification of the coun- 
try. Near Woodbury the rocks presented some tour- 
malins. 

On reaching the top of a high hill, all of a sudden in a. 
valley stretching North and South for a mile or two, Wood- 
bury appears, with a handsome, well built street,and furnish- 
ed with three churches, with spires, — two of them new and 
handsome. For one ef these churches, it seems the 






i 



. 









^ in the Counties cf New- Haven and Litchfield. 






231 



town is indebted to a dissension as to the location of n 
house of worship, which, as usual in such cases, ended in 
the building of two new ones. 

Woodbury basin of secondary Greenstone, tye. 

While descending the last hill, the geological traveller is 
forcibly struck with the new physiognomy of the valley in 
which Woodbury lies. Its features are totally different 
from those of the country on which he still is, and from 
those of the remoter regions all around. 

Abrupt fronts of dark coloured naked rock rise perpen- 
dicularly from flat, and apparently, alluvial plains. 
They have mural precipices and sharp ragged ridges, frin- 
ged with wood, and are marked by a great accumulation of 
ruins of the rock, sloping from the foot half or two thirds of 
die way up the rock ; on the opposite side of the hills the 
descent is gradual, without precipices, and comparatively 
easy. 

No one who with habits of observation has travelled from 
New-Haven to Hartford, and so on to Northampton, and 
Deerfield, — no one, in short, who has ever been conversant 
with a trap country, can fail almost at first glance to refer 
this to that class of rocks. It is the whin stone of the 
Scotch — the grunstein or greenstone of the Germans, and, 

ot 



i 



in a popular way, may be referred to the same family 
rocks as the Giant's Causeway and the cave of Fingal. 
* As the traveller descends into the valley, all his impres- 
sions are fully confirmed by discovering red sandstone in 
the structure of the houses and by finding a quarry of it 
worked at the foot of one of the ridges of rock. In a word, 
this is a basin of secondary greenstone, or trap, reposing on 
the old red sandstone of Werner. After being so long oc- 
cupied in the regions of gneiss and other highly primitive 
rocks it is gratifying to find thus suddenly so new a feature 
in the geology of the country. 

On consulting Mr. Machue's late geological map of the 

United ~ * ' 

gacity ; he travelled over it, and has laid it down as secon- 
dary, and belonging to the old red sandstone formation. 

From our being now within twenty-four miles of New- 
Haven, it might be imagined that this tract r- merely * 



States, I find that this spot did not escape his sa- 






232 Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, fyc. 

branch of tlie great secondary trap formation which com- 
mences at that town ; but it will appear that it is not ; on 
the contrary, it is perfectly distinct — it is strictly a basin ; 
an island, (if I may say so,) of secondary trap, in the midst 
of an ocean of gneiss. 

We find accordingly, a total change in the minerals of 
the country. Very beautiful prehnite is found here abun- 
dantly, lying loose among the stones at the bottom of the 
precipices ; it is in mamillary and botryoidal masses, or in 
almost perfect spheres, and sometimes in veins, and the 
structure is iti diverging fibres, — the colour a delicate green. 



I have seen it no where so fine or so abundant in this coun- 
try. Agates are also found here, and zeolites and some of 
them handsome. In other parts of the same tract, bitumin- 
ous stones are found. I have a piece of fibrous limestone, 
from this tract, which is so bituminous that it looks as if 

soaked in tar and will burn with flame. 

My time did not permit me to coast around this basin, 
and ascertain its extent and its relations with the precision 
which I could have wished. It evidently reached but a 
mile or two North of where I then was, and, returning to 
New-Haven, I rode through its length in that direction, and 
should place its entire length at seven or eight miles. Its 
breadth extended but a little way to the East of the North 
and south 



ad which I was travelling, and judging from the 
contour of the hills to the West, I should imagine that 
it was succeeded by gneiss at the distance of two or three 
miles from the road. 

I know of nothing in this country similar to this basin, 
except the coal basin of Richmond, which, although small, 
is much larger than this. 

A friend,* to whom in a letter I described this basin, re- 
marks upon it : — " The county of Antrim, in the North ot 
Ireland, presents numerous patches or districts of trap and 
basalt, in such relative positions as to render it very evident 
that after a surface consisting partly of bare primitive, and 
partly of hard chalk with flints had been formed, this was 

* The Rev. Henry Steinhauer. Principal of the Moravian Institution ol 
Bethlem, Member of the Geological Society of London, and formerly a 
missionary among the Esquimaux of Labrador. 

April 19, 1819.— Science. hi!mamty,re1igion and friendship have now tode 
plorethe death of this excellent and able man, from whom, as Principal ot 
the celebrated Moravian Seminary at Bethlero, inPenn. and as an ardent 
cultivator of the natural science, this country had much to hope. 









in the Counties of New >-Haven and Litchfield. 



233 



?» 



t? 



completely covered with a stratum of trap, which by some 
subsequent operation, was carved, united to its subjacent 
masses, into the present surface of the country, so as to be 
detached in some places, and to remain contiguous in oth- 
ers. Is there any reason (independent of the theory of 
universal formations, which I think must not be taken 
quite for granted, particularly in the late or upper forma- 
tions) for supposing that the trap of your neighbourhood, 

once was continuous over a much larger extent of coun- 
try i 

My present impression is that the trap of Connecticut 
, and Massachusetts, has not extended over more country 
than it now occupies. But this subject may at a future time 
be resumed. 

In Southbury, numerous low, conical hills, of sand and 
gravel appeared, and formed the basis of the road. 

Recurrence of primitive country, — and ride to New-Haven* 

The gneiss again came in, in the southern part of South- 
bury, and northern part of Oxford, and its ledges continued 
for two or three miles east and South of Humphreysville, 
where they form the bed and banks of the Naugatuck river, 
and contribute to diversify the scenery of that romantic 
spot. 

The rocks which intervene between this place and New- 
Haven, are the same ranges which, a few miles North, I pass-* 
ed in the commencement of this tour. They are, for two 
or three miles mica slate — then chlorite slate, much mixed 
with epidote and with spots of calcareous spar, and con- 
taining also beds of trap, which from its position must bs 
primitive. At one place on the top of the high hill, from 
which we descend into New-Haven — the trap, perfectly 
distinct at the distance of a few feet from the chlorite slate, 
forms a visible junction with it, and graduates into it so in- 
sensibly, that it is impossible to mark the line of distinction. 
Indeed, in its passage, it puts on very distinctly the appear- 
ance of greenstone slate. Upon these ranges of chlorite 
slate and clay slate, which succeed, lie vast isolated masses 

of trap, without any apparent connexion with other rocks: 

they seem to be of the same texture with the secondary 






Mr 



-ome countenance tc 



ig^e 



V 






• 



I i 



231 



Geology, Mineralogy, Scenery, tyc 



Descending the hill, trap and argillite and chlorite slate, 
several times alternate, and form the cliffs through which the 
road has been wrought. 

Scenery. 

Now a combination of fine objects, breaks upon the view. 
On the left the magnificent ridges of secondary trap, (men- 
tioned in the commencement of the tour,) stretching away 
North, farther than the eye can distinguish, and forming the 
barrier of luxuriant vallies, whose fine verdure is admira- 
bly contrasted with their naked and lofty precipices ; fur- 
ther East, other and still other ranges succeed, till their 
faint outline is blended with the distant sky ; immediately 
at our feet, is the great alluvial plain, from which rise the 
.smoke and the spires of New-Haven, and further still its ex- 
tensive bay, surrounded by alluvial and secondary, but ter- 
minated at its mouth, by primitive country, closing in upon 
both sides ; and much more remote, but distinguishable in 
the distant horizon, appear the shores and coast of Long-Isl- 
and, with the intervening sea and the craft and ships which 
it bears on its bosom. 



General Remarks and Conclusions. 



In Dr. Bruce's Journal, Vol. l.pa. 139,1 have given some 
account of the secondary greenstone formation, on which 
New-Haven stands. It is obvious, from the preceding state- 
ments, that immediately on leaving this plain, the rocks in 
the order in which they are described above, become prim- 
itive, and it is worthy of observation that, taking into view 
an extent of thirty miles, the structure of the country pre- 
sents, almost precisely the arrangement and succession ot 
rock formations, which are laid down by Mr. Werner. 

1. Clay slate, including beds of trap, and passing occa- 
sionally into chlorite slate.* 



* Within a mile south of the road, on which my returning tour 
these slaty rocks, commence beds of serpentine marble, which c 



crossed 
continue 

nearly 







• 






in the Counties of New-Haven and Litchfield 



235 



succeeds and occupies the country, for 



\ 



2. Mica slate 
many miles. 

3. Gneiss succeeds to the mica slate, and occupies the 
country for many miles more, 

4. Granite crowns the whole, although it occupies but a 
small extent* compared with the gneiss and slaty rocks, 

5. The relative elevation, is on the whole in this order, 
and we find clay slate occupying the lowest and granite or 
gneiss the highest situation. 

6. Near Watertown where the granite was observed, tin 
next formation, is mica slate, which occupies about fifteen 
miles in breadth to Goshen, where granite again appears. 

7* The north western corner of the State, where we have 
now arrived, presents immense ranges of gneiss and mica 
; lat^ with a new and very interesting feature. 

3. This feature is the existence of vast beds of white 
erystalized primitive marble, and, including the formation 
further south, between New-Preston and New-Milford 
these beds of marble, are included in strata of mica slate 
and gneiss — the whitest and most crystaline and purest 
marble being in the gneiss. 

9- West of Litchfield, a few miles, (as lam informed from 
the best authority,) there are hills of primitive hornblende 
and sienite. 

10. A little West of New-Haven, as described in Bruce's 






Journal, 



Th 



us 



(Vol. I. pa. 139,) are beds of primitive trap, 
it appears that in the district described in th 



e tour 



are included very nearly all the important primitive rocks 
of Werner, and the secondary district, on which New-Ha- 
ven stands, includes a considerable portion of his seconda- 
ry formations. 

The direction of the ranges of primitive rocks, is general- 
ly North, a little inclining to East, and of course South, a 
-ittle inclining to West ; the inclination of the strata, is to 
the East, at an angle, varying very much in different pla- 
ces ; the strata are in some places, nearly vertical and in 
others, at angles of less than 45° with the horizon. 

* Possibly it ic on'y in veins. 






23G 



Localities of Minerals 



Art. IV. — Localities of Minerals. 



Localities — communicated by Professor Dewey of fVill- 

iams* College* 

The new locality of serpentine, was found in Middlefield, 
Hampshire County, by one of our graduates, E. Emmons 
of that town. It is connected with the beds of soapstone; 
indeed, the soapstone often passes into serpentine. It oc- 
curs, green of various shades, reddish brown, gray, yellow- 
ish-ivhite, and cream-coloured, with spots of a smoky hue, 
like smoky quartz in this respect, but certainly serpentine. 
It is sometimes associated with quartz, filling the cavities of 
strata of quartz, covered with minute crystals. Its hard- 
ness is very variable — some of it is disintegrating, some is 
fibrous, and seems to be passing into asbestus. Much of 
this serpentine, especially the lighter coloured, is remarka- 
bly fine. The whitish decrepitates much, when high tem- 
perature is suddenly thrown upon it. Odour is strongly mag- 
nesian, when the mineral is breathed on. In some speci- 
mens are yelloivish and reddish broiun portions of a crystahne 
structure, and in some, cavities are filled with these imper- 
fect crystals. They break into a rhomboidal form, and are 
sometimes very regular rhomboids. Some of them, are so 
closely serpentine, that they may be all the same mineral 
They contain, like the rest of the serpentine, magnesia, ox- 
yd of iron, often so minute, that they are discoverable only 
under a magnifier, or by the magnet. 

Mr. Emmons has also found, beautiful masses of actyno- 
lite, often containing small tufts of the fibrous variety. White 
talc is often mixed with the actynolite. 

Bitter Spar, is found there also, in the soapstone, associ- 
ated with beautiful green talc. The spar is laminated, white. 
and yellowish — but some specimens, when fractured, pre- 
sented numerous small rhombs. 

I have found in Sheffield, (Mass.) masses of Tremohte. 
with fibres two feet lone:. I never heard of such tremolite* 

* In Prof. Dewey's piece, (Vol. I. pa. 337 ; ) Williams College is erroDf 
ously printed Williams* College 









Localities of Minerals. 237 






h 



Hexagonal crystals of mica. — They are in granite. As I 
did not notice them at first, I cannot tell where the granite 
was obtained, but believe it was from Chester or Westfield, 
on the granite ridge. Some of the crystals are small, not 
more than one tenth of an inch on a side and almost regular 
hexagons. ^ Others are larger, and have unequal sides. 
The real size of them is here given. 

JVb. 1. JYo. 2. JVb. 
The sides are cy^fi 





generally very ^\_y e \u 
perfect, and a & 

some of the crystals much resemble those 

you mentioned in the Journal from Porto 

Kico. It is probable that other specimens of hexagonal 

crystals may be obtained on the granitic ridge in this State. 

An attempt to measure the angles of No. 1, gave angle 

#=122°, 6=126°, c=112°, €?=121°, e=10S°, and 

"=132°. The sum is 721 °, and should be but 720°. 

The above angles may therefore be taken as very near the 
truth. 

In No. 3, the angles were as follows, a=l 16°, 6=124°, 
<j= 129°, d=112°, e=L22±°, and 7i=117°, being only 
^2(H°, and approximating nearly to the truth. I do not 
uppose the angles are very accurate, for I had no good 
means of measuring them. In some of the crystals, the 
sides are more unequal than in No. 3. 
m In some rhombic spar, containing the new mineral, Bru- 
eite, from Sparta, N. J. I found several hexagonal crystal 
of mica. 

Crystals of Tremolite, in dolomite, from Great Barring- 
ton. These crystals are much compressed, and the diedral 
summits rather rounded, so that they become bladed crys- 
tals. They are from one half inch to two inches, or more, in 
jength, and some of them three fourths of an inch in breadth. 
They are found in hard rocks of dolomite, above ground, 
and very abundantly, in the very friable dolomite, under the 
surface of the earth. The fibrous and acicular varieties ot 
tremolite are abundant in the South part of this county. 

II r own Spar from Leicester, N. Y. on Genesee river 
The crystals are rounded, or lenticular, and often so group- 
ed? as to have a scaly appearance — colour, dark .brown. 

Vol. JI.....No. 2. * 31 






23b Localities of Minerals. 

with a resinous lustre, — translucent, — becomes yellowish 
before the blowpipe. The crystals appear to connect 
prismatic masses of limestone, or of limestone mixed with 
some alumine. The whole dissolves perfectly, with effer- 
vescence, in nitric acid. 

Iron Sand. — From the shore of Lake Erie, near the 
river Ashtabula. — It is found in considerable qnantity. 

Pisolite. — From Chicopee river, Springfield, Mass. — 
These are globular concretions, from a very minute size to 
3-8ths or 1-2 inch in diameter, often connected together in 
large quantities. — Ash-white on the outside ; inside, dark 
rey ; pretty hard, opaque, concretive layers often scarcely 
discernible. — I have never found any nucleus of any ex- 
traneous mineral — Effervesces considerably in nitric acid. 
Composed of very minute particles of carbonate of lime, 
silex, and alumine ; the last appears to predominate. 
Hence when breathed upon, they have an argillaceous 
vsmell. — I believe they are called clay-stones commonly, but 
I know not what mineral to refer them to, except pisolite. 
They have somewhat the appearance of small concreted 
stalagmites ; but their location and composition do not 
well agree with this mineral. This notice may lead to ex- 
amination of them. 



T 



Localities by Mr. Amos Eaton— -from the minutes of the. 

Troy Lyceum. 

White Augite — Sappar — Plumbago — Adularia. — In the 
.ranular limestone of Canaan, Washington, and Brookfield, 
in Connecticut, tremolite abounds, and in Brookfield, the 
white variety of augite is abundant. 

Near the northeast corner of Had dam, on the East side 
of the river, in the parish of Middle-Haddam, is a new lo- 
cality of sappar. It is on the farm of a Mr. Selden, from 
whom I received specimens, with fibres, from six to eight 
inches in length. It is here found in mica-slate, as at Ches- 
terfield and Conway. 

Above six miles in a southeast direction from Brimfield, 

and two miles East of Holland meeting-house, is an exten- 

ive bed of Plumbago. Several years ago, this mine was 

wrought, and many ions of plumbago were taken from it.- 

The beds of plumbago, lie between layers of gneiss, «n 



















































Localities of Minerals. 239 

connexion with hornblende, perfectly pure, except that it 

contains cobalt ore, like the hornblende of Monson and 
Chatham. 

In Brimfield, in Massachusetts, the stone wall, near the 
house of Dr. Lincoln, and of the widow of Gen. Eaton, 
abounds in adularia. The feldspar part of a large portion of 
the granite and gneiss of that vicinity, is supplied by the 
most beautiful adularia. The sulphuret of molybdena, also 
is there very common — it is found chiefly, in veins of granite 
which traverse gneiss. 



* * * * * * 



Localities of Minerqjs, observed principally in Haddam f 
in Connecticut, in Sept. 1819, by Dr. J. W. Webster. 
Communicated in various letters to the Editor. 

I have discovered a new locality for tourmalin of great 
J beauty, and of remarkable regularity of form ; it is aboui 

one mile beyond the rock which Col. Gibbs blasted, som 
years since, for small, short Tourmalin, which rock, is in 
the road, four miles from the inn, at Haddam. The strata 
in this place, are, mica-slate and gneiss, frequently alterna- 
ting, and passing into each other, traversed by veins of gra- 
nite of various size ; — following the beds of these rocks, 
through a thick wood, I observed the tourmalin increase in 
quantity, and size, towards the more elevated part of the 
beds of mica-slate, a blast being made, the rock appeared 
wholly composed of a yellowish granular quartz, and black 
tourmalin, which were thrown out in profusion, being easily 
separated from the granular quartz. Every crystal was per- 
fect, having three lateral planes, and being terminated at 
each extremity with three; the terminal planes set upon the 
lateral. The diameter varies from 1-6 to 1-2 an inch, but 
I afterwards observed some with a diameter of two inches, 
1 'ess perfect however. 

In another letter, it is remarked, I have found a new locali- 
ty of black tourmalins, all doubly acuminated, and none less 



than an inch and a half in length, by one in diameter. 

* Haddam is about twenty miles from the mouth of Connectic 
on its western bank, and about 100 miles N. E. from JNew-York. 



ut river 






240 Localities of Minerals. 

About three miles West of the tavern in Had dam, in o 
cross road. Dr. Webster savs, " I discovered in a vein four 



. HVMVW .. »V«.V/ «-*v.. - V ~» .w~* *W£, — ~ — ~ r ---- 

and in the sand proceding from its decomposition, the 
finest crvstalized epidote, which I have seen from an 
American locality ; the specimens are, many of them, pre- 
cisely like those from the Oisans. We have here, in short, 
the pistacite, zoizite, and epidote arenace. 

[Mineralogists, are generally aware that the only 
known locality, of crysoberyl in place, is in Haddam. It i^ 
in a very beautiful granite, consisting principally of a white 
feldspar and a grey quartz, the parts very large, and it 
abounds with garnets, some of themjof a great size, with 
tourmalins and fine fibrous white talc. This rock is in the 
court-yard of a dwelling house, and passes under the house, 
into its cellar. Mineralogists have found it necessary, and 
just, to insure the proprietor of the house, against their gun- 
powder blasts, and to pry him liberally for the molestation 
of his peace.] — Ed. Of this rock, Dr. Webster observes s 

The rock containing chrysoberyl, is undoubtedly a vein, 
traversing gneiss, we believe. I obtained permission to 
blast, and dig round for some yards. The part which had been 
hitherto concealed by earth, is most abundant in garnet, and 
I obtained masses two feet in length, with perfect garnets, 
four, five and six inches in diameter, but all laminated. In 
one specimen,consisting chiefly of mica.are very perfect black 
tourmalins. In the mica slate of this vicinity, I found con- 
siderable actynolite. 

At about three miles beyond Jewitt's city, on the lei 
of the road to Norwich, is a magnificent example of a con- 
centric globular concretion of gneiss, many yards in diarnc* 
ter, the only instance I know of in this part of the United 
States. At Bozra, I found tourmalins, and fine graphic 
granite ; — at Tolland, remarkably transparent garnets, of a 
nearly rose red colour — also, good epidote of an olive 
green ; — At Tolland, graphite disseminated through rolled 
masses of granite and gneiss ;' — at Sturbridge, adularia 
at Charlton, radiated tourmalin. W 



5 






- M 



tfr. T. D. Porter, has shewn us specimens of adularia from Haddam I'Ed.} 



I 

Localities of Minerals. 24? 



New locality of crystalized sulpha t of Barytes, fyc— Com- 
municated in a Utter by D. B. Douglass, assistant pro- 
fessor in the West Point Military Academy. 

During my excursion to the northwest, last summer, as 
astronomer to the Boundary Commissioner, I was enabled 
to make a considerable collection of minerals ; — among the 
rest, a rich one of Niagara specimens ; also some very 
■air specimens of organic remains from fort Erie — upon the 
islands at the West em] of Lake Erie, I obtained sulphat of 
barytes, which is found both in crystals, and in mass, in 
great abundance, in the western islands above mentioned. 
I he crystals are very flat hexagonaJ prisms, clustered to- 
gether rather confusedly, and adhering very slightly to each 
other ; they are generally very clear and pellucid, some- 
times tinged with blue. 

Localities of Minerals. — Communicated by Dr. I. F. Dana. 

Tremolite, (bladed,) abundant, and of a fine quality at 
Chester, N. H. 

Plumbago, in small rolled masses, and in small veins, in 
micaceous schistus, at Chester, N. H. Some specimens^ 
are very fine, and in laminae, as large as the hand and half 
an inch thick. 

Epidote. — Epidote, very beautiful, in radiating crystals, in 

Exeter, N. H. 

Localities of Minerals. — By the Rev. Mr. Schaeffer \ 

JYeic- York. 

Pistazite, (Epidote,) in beautiful crystals, occurred in a 
fock of singular constitution, composed of schorl, quartz 
cubic, [cuboidal? as the cube is not among the forms of car- 
bonate of lime, — Ed.] crystals of carbonate of lime, indico- 
! 'te, &c. and an ore, the nature of which is not yet ascer- 
tained. It is probable, however, that it may contain nickel. 
Corlaer's Hook, New-York, discovered nearly three years 
ago. 

Pistazite (epidote,) amorphous, or rather granular,— oc- 
curs in a ferruginous green feldspar rock; Rhinebeck, Dutch- 
ess County, N. Y. — observed last summer. 




• 



~Z1£ Ancient Bones. 



Art. V. On some ancient human bones $*c. with a no- 
tice of the bones of the Mastodon or Mammoth, and 
of various shells found in Ohio and the west; by Caleb 



Atwater, Esq. 



Circleville, May 22, 1820. 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAK. 









I 






Dear Sir, 

It has been said, that neither the bones of man, nor 
the remains of any of his works, have been found in any of 
the rock formations of our Globe. This may be true of all 
parts of the earth except Ohio, In this region however a 
number of skeletons have been found in two places at least, 
and the works of man have been discovered in many oth- 
ers. To what epoch or catastrophe of our globe, they are to 
be referred, I leave others to decide, while I proceed to 
relate the facts* 

I am credibly informed, that in digging a well at Cincin- 
nati in this state, an arrow head was found more than nine- 
ty feet below the surface. The geology of that place has 
been well described by Dr. Drake, in his "Picture of Cin- 
cinnati." It is a very ancient alluvion. Nine miles South 
of the present shore of lake Erie, at Ridgeville, Cayaho- 
ga county, several feet below the surface, in the ridge, 
which was once the southern shore of the lake, several 
bricks, and one or more human skeletons were found, which 
from every appearance were deposited there by no human 
hand.* They might have been thrown on the shore, with 
the cedars which surround these remains, before the lake 
receded to its present bed. Similar indications have been 
observed in Huron county immediately West of Ridge- 
ville.f We may account for those found in Huron, in the 
same manner as those discovered at Ridgeville. 

At Pickaway plains, about three miles South of this town, 
while several persons were digging a well, several years 
since, a human skeleton was foundj seventeen feet six inches 

*Fact derived frrona Moses Eld red, Esq. 

i Authority, Fsrael Harrington, Esq. of Lower Sandusky. 

% By Major John E. Morgan. 









n. ii 



/h 243 





■JL 



■i 



7K 



JhJ.38 
4 ,} 







B 





^K^ 




\ 




X /». 



-J 



i 



NXa&JiM m -lyn Sc. 






Ancient Bones, 243 

below the surface. This skeleton was seen by several per- 
sons ; and among others, by Di> Daniel Turney, an emi- 
nent surgeon of this place ; they all concurred in the belief, 
that it belonged to a human being. Pickaway plains are, or 
rather were a large prairie, before the land was improved by 
its present inhabitants. This tract is alluvial to a great 
depth ; greater, probably, than the earth has ever been 
perforated, certainly than it has been here by the hand of 
man. The surface of the plain is at least one hundred feet 
above the highest freshet of the Scioto river, near which it 
lies. On the surface is a black vegetable mould, from three, 
to six, and nine feet in depth — then we find pebbles and 
•shells imbedded among them : the pebbles are evidently 
rounded and smoothed by attrition in water, exactly such 
as we now see at the bottom of rivers, ponds and lakes. I 
have examined the spot where this skeleton was found, 
and am persuaded that it was not deposited there by the 
hand of man, for there are no marks of any grave ; or 
of any of the works of man, but the earth and pebbles 
appear to lie in the very position in which they were de- 
posited by the water. This skeleton is no more, but one 
skull found nearer still to this town, a drawing of which ac- 
companies this communication, I have been careful to pre- 
serve for a similar plate. (See 2d plate.) 

On the North side of a small stream, called Hargtis 
creek, which at this place empties into tne Scioto, in dig- 
ging through a hill composed of such pebbles as I have de- 
scribed in Pickaway plains, at least nine feet below the 
surface, several human skeletons were found, perfect in ev- 
«y limb. The drawing* which I have annexed, is exactly 
one fourth part as large as one of these skulls which is in my 
Possession. These skeletons, thus found, were promiscu- 
ously scattered about, and parts of skeletons were some- 
ftnes found at different depths below the surface. This 
fcU is at least 50 feet above the highest freshets in the Sci- 
>to, and is a very ancient alluvion, where every stratum of 
and, of clay, and pebbles, has been deposited by the wa- 
ters of 6<?me stream. Near this hill is a large prairie, seve- 
r al miles in length, and nearly half a mile in width, which, 
from every appearance, has been the bed of the Scioto* 

* Although I profess no »ki»l in drawir I believe the draft is ctmet. 






244 Ancient Bones and Shell 



when it was probably a mighty stream, compared with which, 
it is now a mere brook. There are other skulls in this town 
taken out of the same hill, by the persons who, in order to 
make a road through it, were engaged in taking it away. 

These bones are very similar to those found in our 
mounds, and probably belonged to the same race of men. 
These people were short and thick, not exceeding gene- 
rally five feet in height, and very possibly they were not 
more than four feet six inches. These skeletons, when 
first exposed to the atmosphere, are quite perfect, but after- 
wards moulder and fall into pieces. Whether they were 
overwhelmed by the deluge of Noah, or by some other, I 
know not, but one thing appears certain, namely, — that wa- 
ter has deposited them here, together with the hill in which, 
for so many ages they have reposed. Indeed, this whole 
country appears to have been once, and for a considerable 
period, covered with water, which has made it one vast 

CEMETERY OF THE BEINGS OF FORMER AGES. 



* # * * * *■ 



Terebratula pennata, fyc. fyc* 



Sept. 24th, 1819. — I send you four drawings of article/ 
found by myself, (see plate I.) No. 1, represents what is 
to me an incognitum ; I do not find the like in Parkinson'.- 
u Organic Remains/ 5 nor in Sowerby's " Mineral Con- 
diology." The drawing represents it exactly. It is a 
carbonate of lime. You see but two sides, or the half 
of it, yet from them you may get a good idea of tin 
whole. No. 2, 3, is a petrified shell, classed by Sowerb} 
under the genus Terebratula, although this species is a non- 
descript. I would propose for it the name of " terebratula 
pennata," as the projections on its sides may well represent 
wings. I would thus describe it — rectangular, middle of the 
front, greatly depressed ; the depression striated crosswise ; 
the striae extending to the beak ; ten deep indentations oi^ 
each side of the depression ; the lower valve greatly eleva- 
ted, corresponding with the upper valve. The margin deep- 
ly and angularly serrated, with teeth corresponding with 
those in the other valve. A straight line from the hinge to 
the extremities of the wings. Beaks rather curved, with an 






Teeth and Bones of the Mammoth. 



245 



indentation, forming a semicircle in the centre of the beaks. 
This beautiful specimen is a light drab-coloured limestone. 
Fig. 3, shews the hinge of " terebratula pennata." 

No. 4, is a very beautiful specimen, and belongs to a new 
species at least, if not a new genus. It was found by my 
little daughter. It is not injured as most other specimens 
are, as its shell is almost perfect. The drawing shews its 






ize. 



Fig. 5, a detached vertebra of an encrinite, though lar- 
ger, than described by Parkinson. This is composed of 
limestone, and the surface is beautifully and distinctly artic- 
ulated. I have many specimens of the encrinite ; some quite 
perfect. 



•* 



* 



•* 



* 



x 



x 



Notice inspecting the teeth and bones of the Mammoth or 

Mastodon. 



. 



Oct. 11, 1819. — The teeth of the mastodon in my pos- 
session, resemble those of carniverous animals more than 
any with which I am acquainted. Those found in this 
state, vary in size, and are always found in alluvial earth, or 
in the beds of creeks. One of mine, were it not broken off, 
would weigh nine or ten pounds ; the weight of the other 
is given, as well as its size. The latter, was found by a 
child, at play in a small rivulet, near the Pickaway plains ; 
the former was found in the bed of salt creek, twenty-two 
feet nine inches below the surface, by Judge Givens, of 
Jackson county, Ohio, while engaged in digging for salt wa- 
ter. Two or more ribs, several joints of the backbone, &c. 
were found with it. Near this place several teeth of the 
mammoth belonging to different individuals, have been found 
at different times, some of them lying on the surface of the 
earth, and a few relics below it ; the former, I should ratherlus- 
pect, were brought here, principally by the Indians, the latter 
lay in the place where the animals died. A large thigh bone 
was lately found near this town in digging a mill-race. Sev- 
eral teeth of the mastodon have been found along the Scio- 
to river, on the southern beach of Lake Erie, and at Day- 
ton on the Great Miami. Several bones belonging to this 



Vol. II No. 2 



52 



, 






246 Dewey's Geological Section. 

animal have been discovered near Cincinnati, and some 
in a good state of preservation in the counties of Athens and 

Meigs. 



References. 

[Print at the end.] 



Art. VI. Geological section from Taconick range, in Will- 
iamstown, to the city of Troy, on the Hudson, by Profes- 



sor Dewey. 



Williamstown, July 4th 9 1820. 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAN. 



Dear Sir, 






No. 1 , 2, B. two views ofa mastodon's tooth,found in the bed of a 
small river near Pickaway plains, Ohio. Weight, 5 lbs. 6 1-2 f 

inches from A. to r. — from 1. to 1. three inches. 

No. 1, 2, A. two views of a tooth found in alluvial earth, twenty- 
two feet nine inches, below the surface, in digging a salt well at 
the Scioto salt-works. These teeth are in the cabinet of Caleb 
Atwater, Circleville, Ohio. The latter tooth weighs nine pounds, 
though several fragments have been broken off. Its original weight 
was probably from 12 to 14 lbs. at least. 



I informed you sometime ago, that I intended to contin- 
ue the Geological Section from the Taconick range, in this 
town, to the city of Troy, on the Hudson. I have before 
noticed the rocks on the* roads from this place to Troy, 
North and South of the direct line, and I have lately passed 
on this line from Troy, through Brunswick, Grafton, and 
Petersburgh, over the Taconick range, to this town. 
Through these three towns to Troy, the distance from the 
West line of Massachusetts, is very nearly twenty miles in 
a sfraight line ; and as the rocks are similar on the routes 
North and South of it, the geology will embrace a section 
several miles in width. It will be recollected, that the rocks 
of the Taconick range in this town, were stated to be argil- 
laceous-slate, chlorite-slate, and taleose-slate. The last pre- 
dominates, and abounds on the descent of the range into 
the valley of Petersburgh. This valley, of variable breadth, 

extends several miles North and South, and is travers- 






Dewey's Geological Section. 247 

ed by a stream which runs northward, into Hoosack River. 
In this valley is found abundantly the same mixture of chlo- 
rite and quartz, which is so common in Williamstown, 
though the two vallies are separated by the Taconick range, 
having an elevation from 1000 to 1400 feet. As this range 
is broken through by the Hoosack, a few miles North, and 
as the same mixture may be traced, and often found abun- 
dantly along the Hoosack, to the stream which runs through 
Petersburgh, the chlorite and quartz, undoubtedly follow up 
this stream, through the valley* On the West side of this 
valley, and about seventeen miles East of Troy, lies 

Chlorite Slate, very distinctly characterized. It is some- 
times narrow, and sometimes two or three miles in width, 
often rising into hills 200 or 300 feet high. As this rock is 
found on the Taconick range, and forms a part of it, espe- 
cially a few miles North of this place, it ought perhaps to 

be considered as belonging to the range, and as the rock in- 
to which the talcose slate actually passes. Its strata extend 
into the next rock, or 

Graywacke. This rock begins to appear about sixteen 
miles East of Troy, covering the surface in rounded mass- 
es, of very various size, and forming also vast strata, rising 
into hills in Petersburgh, constituting the mountains of 
Grafton, and extending as the general rock through Bruns- 
wick, to Troy. The mountains of it in Grafton are, as 
1 judge, from 800 to 1200 feet in height* It is, like 
all the other strata from Hoosack mountain to the Hud- 
son, inclined to the East, at various angles, from 10° to 40°. 
Its general inclination may be 20° a 25°. It consists _ of 
quartz, cemented by a greenish argillaceous substance, which 
generally forms the principal part of the rock, and is evi- 
dently a mechanical deposit. The quartz is sometimes 
very fine, but generally is readily seen by the eye, and is 
occasionally so large and abundant, that it resembles breccia. 
The fracture often shews the quartz to have been rounded 
masses, and in these cases the stone does not appear por- 
phyritic. In other cases the stone is so very compact and 
close-grained, containing also feldspar, that it might have pas- 
sed for porphyry, had it not been connected with speci- 
mens which could not be mistaken. This rock, though 
quite tough in the cross fracture, readily breaks into pris- 
matic fragments, along its veins, which are usually filled 



I 



248 Deivey's Geological Section. 

with quartz. By the action of the weather, large rocks are 
divided into innumerable prismatic bodies. A small stream, 
which rises in the mountains in the East part of Grafton, 
and runs westward into the Hudson, below Troy, affords 
an excellent opportunity for examining the position of this 
rock in numerous places. Occasionally there appear in 
this rock, beds, or veins, of a reddish argillaceous slate, in 
Grafton and Brunswick. 

Near Troy, the graywacke has a much finer texture, and 
darker colour, and some of it takes a fine polish.* Where 
the grayw r acke stops near Troy, there begins a bed or stra- 
tum of 

Argillaceous Slate. — It extends to the bank of the Hud- 
son, and has a similar inclination to the East. It must ' 
doubtless be considered as the next rock in order, or as^ 
forming an extensive bed in the graywacke. It is full ol 
natural seams, which divide it into small plates, and easily 
disintegrates. A large quantity, thrown into a street in 
Troy, has by the action of the weather, and constant travel- 
ling upon it, become in one year, complete clay. Both the 
graywacke and argillite are evidently transition rocks.* The j 

slate is very different from that which occurs in Williams- 
town, and along this part of the Tacofiick range, and which 
seems to me clearly primitive. It will doubtless be found 
by future observation, that the roof-slate of Hoosack, N. Y. 
which appears to be a continuation of theTaconick range, is 
separated from the argillaceous transition slate, which ex- 
tends for many miles along the Hudson, below and above 
Troy, by the same stratum of graywacke. I noticed no 
gray wacke-slate on this section, but it is found very perfect 
in Chatham, a few miles southeast of Albany. Specimens 
of the above rocks will soon be forwarded to the Geological 
society. 

Should you think the above worthy of publication 



I 



should be glad to see it because this section will be pretty 
complete from twenty miles East of Connecticut river to 
the Hudson. 



*•*#**-* 



# See Eaton's Geolocv 



Dewey 9 $ Geological Section. .249 






IVavellite 9 



? 



I have lately analysed a mineral, found by Mr. Emmons, 
in an iron mine in Richmond, in this county. It is new 3 or 
a new variety of Wavellite. 

Colour, greenish white ; scratches crystalized carbonate 
of lime, but is less hard than fluate of lime; infusible by 
the blowpipe ; and sp. gr. about 2. 4. It occurs in a sta- 
lactical form, or as an incrustation, presenting many small 
mamillary concretions, which, as well as the stalactites, are 
composed of minute radiating crystals, or crystaline fibres. 
Its lustre is rather weak — rather tough to break, but is pul- 
verised without difficulty in a glass mortar. It contains a 
little less than seventy per. cent, of alumine, much water, 
and a little lime and silex. From an examination of seve- 
ral specimens, the lime appears to be variable. The above 
characters bring it so near wavellite, that I am inclined to 
think it only a variety. 

When pulverised, it is nearly all dissolved in solution of 
pure potash by heat. If nitric acid be poured on the solution 
very nearly the whole is dissolved as a nitrate. The re- 
mainder is clearly silex. If the nitrate be mixed with car- 
bonate of potash, and the precipitate be well washed, it is 
nearly all dissolved by pure potash. The remainder is 
lime — is perfectly dissolved by nitric acid, or forms a mil- 
ky mixture with sulphuric acid, and the sulphate of lime is 
soon precipitated. When the alkaline solution is precipita- 
ted by an acid, and the precipitate well washed, and sul- 
phuric acid added, you have the full and distinct taste of 
alum. There can be no doubt of the general constituents. 
Several days after I had obtained these results, a letter from 
Dr. Torrey, of New-York, informed me that he had obtain- 
ed the same results,* except the lime. I can, however,no more 
doubt about the lime, than about the alumine. Probably 
the lime is accidental, and his specimen contained none. 

* A letter from Dr. Torrey, to the Editor, dated Sept. 22d, confirms this 
statement, and promises a detailed analysis, which we should be glad to 
c ee, especially as it appears that the analysis of the Wavellite has been re- 
cently repeated in Sweden, by Berzelius, with the following result; Ala- 
*n»ne, 35, 35 ; phosphoric acid, 33, 40 ; fluoric acid, 2, 06; lime 0, 50 : 
*»ds of iron and manganese, i ; 25 ; water, 26, 80. 



/ 



•\ 



250 Remarks on the environs of Carthage Bridge 



Art. VII. Remarks on the environs of Carthage Bridge, 
near the mouth of the Genesee River ; % Dr. John I.Bigs- 
bv, of the medical Staff of the British army in Canada. 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAN. 



Sir, 






v 



I have the honor of addressing to you a few observa- 
tions, on the environs of the justly celebrated bridge at Car- 
thage, on the Genesee river, in the State of New-York. 

The Genesee river falls into lake Ontario, on its South 
coast, about ninety miles from Fort Niagara. At its mouth, 
on the left sloping grassy bank, stands the village of Char- 
lottestown, a small, and irregular cluster, of dwellings, stores 
and taverns. The river is here perhaps two hundred yards 
broad, but it varies much during its course. The banks soon 
rise to the height of from 80, to 140 feet, and continue to as- 
cend to the first falls, five miles from the lake, where they 
are 198 feet high. They are always steep and covered with 
trees, especially cedar and hemlock, growing among ferru- 
ginous brown sandstone in debris, and shivered horizontal 
layers. 

p 

The Steam-boat Ontario, from Lewistown, stops at" Hau- 
ford's Landing," a mile below the first falls ; where two 
storage houses and a small wharf stand on a narrow slip ot 
ground, under the high and woody steeps.— A winding road 
leads up the precipice. 

On the summit of this road we are surprised to find our- 
selves at once, in a populous district, among cultivated 
grounds, and handsome stores and houses, distributed ac- 
cording to the interest of the proprietors. 

Advancing a mile, along the river, on the road to Roches- • I 

ler, through fields and woods, we arrive in view of Car- 
thage bridge. It is first seen from a small elevation, to 
cross among lofty and dense foliage, a gulf 200 feet deep, 
and 340 wide, whose mural sides are curiously striped by 
white and red strata. At the near end, a tasteful lodge is 
erected for the accommodation of the toll-gatherer. 

It consists of a single arch, 342 feet in width, a segment 
of a circle, I believe. The whole edifice is of wood, and 
is 740 feet long. Its breadth allows of neatly railed paths, 



^ 


















Remarks on the environs of Carthage Bridge. 251 

on each side, for foot passengers, and of ample space in the 
middle ior carriages to pass each other. The approach at 
either extremity being a gentle descent, a slight concavity 
is therefore given to the road over it, to preserve its even- 
ness and continuity. It cost 16,000 dollars, and to the hon- 
or of the American name, is the work of the artizans of 
the neighbourhood.* The toll is very unproductive ; but 
the lands in its vicinity have risen considerably in value. 

I need scarcely observe, that from the water, at the dis~> 
tance of three hundred yards, it forms a grand and singu- 
lar spectacle. The gloom of the narrowed and sunken river, 
gives a glow and brightness to the objects above, and espe- 
cially to this graceful and Iris-like fabric, which is seen 
white, and high in the air, striding the precipice, and par- 
tially concealed in pines, oak and beeches. Looking on- 
ward, under the arch, the view is speedily terminated by a 
very picturesque cascade seventy feet high : the quantity ' 
of water is not great, but is most advantageously displayed, 
by dashing on two successive ledges, from which, arching 
beautifully, it loses itself in the wreathing spray, that ever 
plays around the foot of the bare red rock. It is surroun- 
ded in the back ground by finely disposed foliage of various 
kinds. 

On crossing the bridge, (still proceeding to Rochester,) 
we find a straggling assemblage of houses, called Carthage, 
all evidently of the most recent date, and of ordinary ap- 
pearance, except two exquisite specimens of domestic arch- 
itecture. They are superbly furnished, and seem rather to 
be denizens of the most refined cities, than of this wilder- 
ness. The town is principally occupied by husbandmen, 
and contains the common proportion of well frequented 
taverns, but no church. The land is undulating, and full of 
stumps, and blackened decaying trees. 

Passing to the right, on the high banks of the Genesee, 
a nd through mingled cleared grounds and woods, for three 
hundred yards or more, we meet with another fall of ninety 
feet in height, and apparently more plentifully supplied with 
water ; which passes in an unbroken, and almost transparent 
curtain, over a gracefully curving line of rocks. It is also 
embellished with trees and smalt heights. A mill is erect- 



It was erected from scaffolding, on the bed of the river, which here 
contain* very little water 



252 



yf Carthage Bridg 



ing to take advantage of a part of its water ; — as has been 
done at the five minor falls which pour over the adjacent 
West bank, at some distance from each other. They are 
the outlets of channels Which the level of the country, now 
low and swampy, has permitted to form. 

The town of Rochester is half a mile higher up the river, 
a good road, through the woods and fields leading to it. In 
June, 1819, this settlement was four years old, and then con- 
tained about three hundred houses in compact, regular streets. 
The inns are excellent ; and the stores frequently with their 
gables to the street, are shewy and well stocked. The town 
possesses a printing office and newspaper. The streets are 
scarce cleared of the tree-stumps ; but they are lively and 
busy : commerce and manufactures are carried on with the 
facilities and steadiness of a Hanse town, whose organiza- 
tion possesses the experience of a thousand years. 

Almost all the town is on the West side of the river, but 
many good houses are on the other, and communicate by a 
common wooden bridge of three abutments. Looking up- 
wards from this bridge, you have rapids passing noisily over 
two ledges of rock which at the distance of fifty and a hun- 
dred yards cross the widened river. The left shore is a slo- 
ping meadow : the right is low, and intersected by numer- 
ous streamlets, each of which has its petty cascade, and its 
mill for oil, wood, and flour* Woods are close at hand in 
the rear. 

The view downwards is something similar. The West 
side is more covered with houses and opulent establish- 
ments, which, indeed, stretch a mile or more. 

The stratification of the banks of the Genesee river, can 



are 



fall 



be best observed about Carthage bridge. Here they 
perpendicular, and dilate so as to give the horse-shoe form 
to the chasm included between the bridge and first 
narrowing at the same time under the former. Large mas- 
ses of debris occupy the foot of these walls. The West 
ide of the precipice above the bridge is imperfect ; a nar- 
row grassy ledge having formed at midheight, succeeded by 
a steep slope, which is loaded with trees. The higher por- 
tions in general, are often much comminuted and very 

earth y. 

The rocks on both sides of the river, at this point, and a» 
different parts of the same side, correspond in kind and 
■Situation. 



* 












titularies on the environs of Carthage Hridge.. 



2 



S3 






' 



The upper strata are limestone, and are here inaccessi- 
ble, but can be better investigated at the second falls. A 
brown, compact conchoidul lime is the first ; the next is 
brown, rather crystaline, and full of shells of a pearly lustre ; 
a third is bluish and contains fewer shells. Broader layers 
succeed, having black flint nodules imbedded. 

The order of the whole succession of strata is as follows : 







- Layers of Limestone. 




Limestone and bluish Shale alternating in this stratum. 

l.j Ferruginous Sands! one. 

i 

j Greyish blue Shale, as at the falls of Niagara— very dusky. 

A white Clay — giving not the minutest effervescence in 
acids. 

Dark red Sandstone ; highly ferruginous — in many parts 
having globules of black metallic bistro 

As No. 10, but of lighter colour. 
As No. 10. 

Do. but stratified thus. 

Bright red ferruginous Sandstone, with yellow spots* and 
circlets on the fracture surfaces It is a compact mass. 
Nos. 7, and 8, have each one line of division. 

Wt Shale alternately grey and red. 



The surface of some of the sandstones, as No. 10, is im- 
pressed with the figure of confused bunches of twigs or 
branches, having transverse ribs at regular distances, like 
the bamboo cane. No* 6, contains a few pebbles, and ma- 
ny elongated univalve shells. Amona; the debris of this 
chasm, a ferruginous puddingstone of quartz pebbles occurs, 
but I could not find it in position. 

The banks of this river are highest at Carthage bridge. 
*rom their gradual subsidence towards the lake; and from 
their higher parts being covered with soil, little limestone is 
seen below ; while above the first fall, (excepting the low- 
est stratum,) no other is met with — but the successive bluff- 
which it forms are so shivered and moulded that their strati* 



Vol. II No. 2. 



33 



254 Botany. 

fication, colours, &c. arc very indistinct. At the second 
fall, and near Rochester, this rock is less disintegrated. 

JOHN L BIGSBY, M. D. 

Quebec, April, 1820. Assistant Staff Surgeon. 



BOTANY. 




Art. VIII. Floral Calendar, for the years 1815, 16, 17, 
18, and 19 ; kept at Deerfield, Mass. North Lat. 42° 28', 
West Long. 72° 39. — One hundred miles from the sea 
coast. — By. Dr. Dennis Cooley. 

In this calendar, a few of the most common plants arc 
selected, because the change in these at the time of flow- 
ering is most striking, and because they are most widely 
disseminated through the country ; and are, therefore the 
best species for corresponding observations. The first col- 
umn marks the first change in the foliation of a forest of 
oaks, chesnut, maple, and birch, perceptible at the dis- 
tance of half a mile. This change, it is well known, is 
generally very rapid and distinguishable ; and therefore, it 
was thought proper to be noticed. 

Forest rapidly Apple-tree io Common red garden 

changes. full flower. Cherry in full flower. Years. 

May 15 May 28 1815 

8 27 May 11 1816 

8 24 13 1817 

24 30 22 1818 



7 24 22 1819 

Red Currant Martins Brsf Barn Swallows Harvest of En^Nsh 
in lull flower, appeared. first appeared. grain commenced. 

May 1 1 April 22 April 24 August 8 

!0 26 May 1 Julv 28 

23 23 April 17 20 

20 24 26 28 

* 

Remark. — Such concise results of extended observations, 
are desirable, but it may not always be convenient to insert 
very voluminous details of daily floral occurrences.— [Ed.] 
















255 



Art. IX. May not the state of those indigenous plants, 
which blossom late in the season, indicate a late or an ear- 
ly autumn ? by Professor Dewey. 

The flowering of plants early or late in the spring, and 
the maturity of fruits early or late in the summer, are ever 
considered proof of an early or late season. The following 
facts give some plausibility to the opinion that the state of 
the later plants may be some index also to the season of 
autumn. They are the result of observations for the last 
tour years. The plants which invariably flower compara- 
* lively late in the season, at this place, are several species o! 

aster, and sol id a go, and gentiana, and hamamelis virginica. 
In all these plants, except hamamelis, whose fruit is ripened 
the succeeding spring and summer, the process of maturing 
their seed seems to proceed rapidly, and the cooler tempe- 
rature of Autumn to be favorable to this process. The sum- 
niers of 1816 and 1817 were considerably colder than those 
of 1818 and 1819. The mean temperature of the three 
summer months was as follows — for 1816, 63° 46 ; 1817, 
64° 41 ; 1818, 68° 57 ; 1819, 68° 84. The season of 
£816 will long be remembered for its cold. In this year, 
however, hamamelis and some species of solidago, which 
were all I then noticed, blossomed earlier than in either of 
the last two years. And in 1817, several species of the 
above genera flowered from ten to fourteen days earlier than 
W the two following years. But in 1816 and 1817 the au- 
tumn was much earlier, or vegetation was stopped by the 
coW much earlier than in 1818 and 1819. In 1816 the 
first severe frost was August 29th, and after September 20th 
[ severe frosts were frequent. In 1817 the first severe frost 

was October 1st, and they occurred often after the middle 
( >f the month. In 1818, "except on September 27th, there 
were no frosts of consequence till November. The first 
hard frost was October 6th, in 1819 ; and again towards the 
end' of the month. The above mentioned plants are 
uninjured by frosts which will kill our exotics. They can- 
not, however, endure repeated and severe frosts. So much 
later did these plants blossom in 1818, than in 1817, that it 
seemed impossible for their seed to be matured, unless the 
severe frosts should be later than in 1817, and I was thence 



— 

25(5 Botany. 

led to remark to several persons the probability that the au- 
tumn would be later. For the same reason I made the 
same remark last autumn. In both cases the remark was 
verified by fact. The promise of God, " that seed-time 
and harvest shall not cease," and the ordinance, M let the 
earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the 
fruit-tree yielding fruit alter his kind," while they are not 
inconsistent with the failure of harvest and fruit in a partic- 
ular place, or with the extinction of some species of vegeta- 
bles, seem to authorize the general expectation that the 
fruits will be matured, and that when the time of flowering 
is later, the season will be adapted to the state of the plants. 
As we have earlier and later autumns, it is at least worthy ol 
observation, whether the time of (lowering of the later 
plants does not correspond to then). Botany might, per- 
haps, be then applied to another practical advantage. The 
plants would be very easily known from their being late ia 
flowerimr. 

If it be true that the cooler part of the season is more fa- 
vorable to the vegetation of the above plants, as the differ- 
ence in the time of their flowering seems to indicate, therf 
is an obvious reason why their flowering should take place 
earlier in a cooler, than in a warmer summer. A similar 
reason will doubtless account in part for the well knowu 
fact, that if the flowers of the annual plants be cut off, new 
shoots set for -flowers, and actually blossom also in much 
less time- The difference in the temperature, from that 
naturally adapted to them, appears to change their course 
of growth and to bring their seed in less time to maturity | 
so that the plants appear to adapt themselves to their situa- 
tion, and the season, in order to perfect their seed. 

The preceding facts may seem to throw some uu< « rtain- 
ty upon the results of observations made for the purpose ol 
ascertaining the climate of different places from the time ot 
the flowering of plants. In places not very remote, how- 
ever, the results would not be affected in a given year. Ob- 
servations for one year, would not evidently be sufficient, it 
the places were distant. A series of observations for as ma- 
ny years as would be required to effect the same object by 
the thermometer would he necessary. In addition to this 
there must be more uncertainty in the results, if the places 
be not remote, when t|ta aaOer and annual plants are se- 



Botany. 
















lected for observation, rather than the larger plants, and es- 
pecially trees. That such observations may be relied upon, 
the same plants should be observed, and the circumstances 
of place, soil ', aspect, exposure to winds, fyc. should be similar. 
All these affect the plant, and alter the time of flowering. 
I have known the common dandelion in blossom here on 
the 18th of March, though it does not usually flower till 
about five or six weeks later. Claytonia spatulata flowers 
-onie weeks earlier on a southern aspect, and where it is al- 
protected from winds, than on a northern aspect, only a 
bw rods from the former. The same is true of epigaea 
repens. Tussilago farfara blossoms some days earlier on the 
wild bank of a brook, than in the warm and rich soil of a 
garden. Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, shews its. flow- 
crs ten days sooner in still waters, than beside brooks, 
where it is much less exposed to the sun. Also viola rotun- 
dilolia. The above circumstances are so liable to be dif- 
ferent in different places, that the results cannot be very sat- 
isfactory when the smaller and annual plants are observed. 
There is another circumstance also, which increases this un- 
certainty, if the places be considerably remote. There may 
be several days in the beginning of April, for instance, warm- 
er at one place than at another. As this would there bring 
forward the earliest plants sooner, a warmer climate would 
be indicated. But, should a few cooler clays succeed, as is 
usually the case, vegetation might be no earlier on the 
whole after a fortnight, than in those years in which the 
saras plants first showed their blossoms several days later. 
I have occasionally found a plant in blossom here, about a 
month preceding the time given by Muhlenberg for its 
flowering in Pennsylvania. These facts prove, not that the 
flowering of plants does not indicate difference of climate, 
hut that much accuracy of observation, for a series of years, 
] s necessary, if those plants be selected for observation, 
which are easily affected by changes of temperature, as- 
pect, &,c. in order to ascertain the climate or comparative 
mean temperature of different places. 

In respect to trees, the case is somewhat different. They 
are not so readily affected by changes of temperature. But 
the above mentioned circumstances of situation are seen ev- 
ery year to have considerable influence upon their time of 
flowering. The result of observations on trees will, bow- 



, 






258 Botany. 

ever, be most entitled to confidence. Dr. Bigelow, in his 
paper on this subject, on abstract of which was given in the 
1st No. of this Journal, selected the Peach-tree, from the 
numerous plants whose time of flowering had been obser- 
ved. This was a very judicious selection. It seems de- 
sirable to prosecute the subject, and that several trees 
should be observed at each place, and at the same stage of 
flowering. The last particular appears very important. For 
from the conclusion of Dr. Bigelow, it will be seen, that a 
difference of about four days, corresponds to a difference of 
one degree of latitude. Observers may be expected to 
differ at least two days in the time that a tree may be thought 
to he fully in bloom. 

I have made these obvious remarks, because they pre- 
sent some of the difficulties in obtaining very definite and 



S| 



conclusive results upon climate from the flowering of plant 
unless there be very accurate and continued observations ; 
and, I have made them in this place, because they were con- 
nected with the immediate object. Whether these difficul- 
ties be considered as great as they appear to me, the con- 
clusion to be drawn from the observations upon the last four 
years in relation to a late or an early autumn, will not be es- 
sentially affected. 

Williams College, April, 1820. 



FOR THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

Art. X. On the manufacture of Sugar from the River Ma 
. pit, (Acer eriocarpum, of Linnceus ;) by Dr. John 
Locke. 



It seems not to be generally known, that sugar is afford- 
ed in any considerable quantity, by any oth#r species than 
the sugar maple, (Acer sacch tritium ;Jbut I have found that 
in some parts of New-England, more sugar is made from 
the river, than from the sugar maple. 

The facts I have ascertained, with regard to the ma- 
king of sugar from the river maple, I collected in Fryeburg, 
(Me.) on the Saco river, where large quantities are annually 
made ; but before I state them, I will give some account of 
the two species, the sugar and river maple. 



Botany. 25 H 

The family of maples is distinguished from other plants, 

by the fruit, which consists of two peculiar seed-vessels, 

united at their base, each dilated into a membranous wing 

above, which serves to suspend it awhile in the air as it 
falls. 

1. The Sugar Maple, (Acer sac charinurn, Linn.) called 
also rock maple, has leaves five-parted, and yellowish green 
flowers on flower-stalks. It is one of the largest and lofti- 
est trees in our forests. Its trunk is usually straight and en- 
tire to the height of from 40 to 80 feet, where it suddenly 
unfolds into a dense top, crowded with rich foliage. The 
bark of the older trees is of a grey colour, and marked with 
numerous deep clefts. The wood is firm and heavy, though 
not durable. It is used for various work by carpenters and 
cabinet makers. Micheaux says, that it grows in its greatest 
perfection, between the 43d and 46th degrees of North lat- 
itude, and of course, in the northern part of our States, and 
in Canada. 

The River Maple (Acer eriocarpum of Linnseus,) called 
also White maple,* and by Eaton Silver maple, is distin- 
guished by having its leaves five -parted, and white beneath; 
its flowers reddish yellow, without flower-stalks, and with 
* woolly germe. The trunk frequently divides near the 

ground, so as to appear like several trunks close together. 
These divisions diverge a little as they rise, and often at the 
height of from eight to twenty feet the top commences. It 
] s generally larger in proportion to the trunk, than the top 
of any other tree. The bark has its clefts more distant than 
] n the sugar maple, and is more inclined to scale off. It 
blossoms earlier than the sugar maple. The fruit is larger 
than that of other species, it advances with great rapidi- 
ty towards perfection, ripens and falls in June, and produces 
a plautule the same season, sufficiently hardy to withstand 
J the succeeding winter. The fruit of the sugar maple does 

Rot ripen until October. The river maple is principally 
j found on the banks of rivers, and on the banks of such only 

| as have a clean gravelly bottom, and clear water. It is most 

luxuriant, on such flats as are subject to annual inundations, 
and is usually the first settler on such flats as are making in- 

* Micheaux says, that in the Atlantic States, this species is confounded 
*f»th the common red maple, but in the Western Stales, it fe generally di* 

t|r >guishedand known bv the name of White M i.v 



260 Botany. 

to the bends of streams by alluvial deposits, the opposite 
bank being at the same time worn away. " The banks oi 
the Sandy river, in Maine" says Micheatix, " and those of the 
Connecticut in Windsor, (Vt.) are the most northerly points 
at which I have seen the white maple. It is found more or 
less on all the rivers in the United States, flowing from the 
mountains to the Atlantic, but becomes scarce in South-Car- 
olina and Georgia. In no part of the United States is it 
more multiplied than in the western country, and no where 
is its vegetation more luxuriant than on the banks of the 
Ohio, and of the great rivers that empty into it. There, 
sometimes alone, and sometimes mingled with the willow, 
which is found all along; these waters, it contributes singular- 
ly by its magnificent foliage to the embellishment of the 
scene. The brilliant white of the leaves beneath, forms a 
striking contrast with the bright green above, and the alter- 
nate reflection of these two surfaces in the water, heightens 
the beauty of this wonderful moving mirror, and aids in 
forming an enchanting picture, which during my long ex- 
cursions in a canoe, in these regions of solitude and silence, 
I contemplated with unwearied admiration. " I have seen 
it in Maine, on the banks and islands of the Androscoggin, 



on the Sunday river, a tributary of the Androscoggin, witJ 
remarkable crystaline water, and on the Saco where it is 
abundant, and attains a large size, especially in and about 
Fry eburg, where I found several trees measuring between fif- 
teen and eighteen feet in circumference. I have seen it in 
various places on the Connecticut, particularly at Hanover 
and Windsor, and also on the Ashuelotin Kcene. In seve- 
ral of these places, particularly on the Saco and Androscog- 
gin, it grows in great luxuriance, and occupies considerable 
tracts, nearly to the exclusion of all other trees. I never 
contemplated a picture in landscape with more delight, than 
I have the banks of some of these streams,, when viewed 
from the opposite shore. The tops of the trees present one 
continued range of foliage, which rises like a fleecy cloud, 
changing beautifully in the wind, as the upper green or the 
under white surface is presented to view. This cloud of 
leaves, is supported by the clusters of trunks, like so many 
gothic pillars, forming a variety of deep shaded arches and 
avenues beneath. I mention its beauty, because I think .it 
deserves attention as an ornamental tree. In a poem writ- 



ith 






s 

Botany. 261 

leu in Fryeburg called u The Village," the following lines are 
bestowed upon it. 

" More sacred than the thunder chosen oak, 
" Let not the maple feel the woodman's stroke. 
< 4 Fair maple ! honours purer far are thine 
** Than Venus's myrtle yields, or Bacchus's vine ; 
u Minerva's olive, consecrated tree, 



Deserves not half the homage clue to thee. 
" The queen of trees, thou proudly totver'st on high, 
Ci Yet wave thy limbs in graceful pliancy." 

* * * # * * 



The wood of this tree is light and soft. The sap-wood 
is very white and has been used by cabinet makers to inlay 
their work. The heart-wood is a light mahogany colour 
generally variegated with dark streaks. The wood, and es- 
pecially the bark gives a black colour with the salts of iron. 
In many places thread and other stuffs are coloured black 
with a decoction of the bark of this as well as that of the 
red maple, and ink is made of it. 

In the first volume of Tilloch's magazine is an account of 
- the manufacture of sugar from the sugar maple in the mid- 
dle states by the late Dr. Rush of Philadelphia, from which 
the following particulars are abstracted. 

1. One tree yields from twenty to thirty gallons of sap in 
a season, which will make from five to six pounds of sugar, 
rad in a single instance twenty pounds were made from one 
tree in a season. 

2. One man made six hundred and forty pounds in four 



s. 




week 

- 

3. A man and his two sons made eighteen hundred 
pounds in a season. 

4. That the tree improves by tapping, affording more 
and better sap.* 

5. The sugar is of a better quality than West-India sag* 

6. A farmer in North-Hampton county (Penn.) improv- 
ed the quality of the maple sap by culture, so that he ob- 

* According to ray observations the sap improves in quality but is much 
diminished in quantity. k. 

Vol. II No. 2. 34 



262 Botany. a 

tained one pound of sugar from three gallons, while it re- 
quired five or six gallons from a tree in its wild state. 

7. That a few acres of land planted with maples and im- 
proved as a sugar orchard, would probably be more profit- 
able than the same ground devoted to fruit trees. 

8. That the buds and twigs of the sugar maple are used 



for food for cattle in the winter and spring. 

I had for several years known that Fryeburg was celebra- 
ted in the adjoining country for manufacturing sugar. A 
few months ago I had occasion to visit the pleasant village 
in that town. On enquiring into the subject I learned the 
following particulars : 

1. The sugar in Fryeburg is noi made from the sugar ma- 
ple but from the river maple, (Acer erioanpum) which 
abounds there on the banks of the Saco. 

2. About four gallons of sap afford one pound of sugar. 

3. Two men in ISlfl made twelve hundred pounds from 
two hundred and twenty-live trees, with two taps to a tree, 
equal to five and one third pounds to a tree. 

4. The sap was generally said to be sweeter than that ot 
the sugar maple. 

5. A particular cluster of trunks springing apparently 
from the same root, tapped in several places afforded tvverj-» 
ty gallons of sap in one day ! 

6. Those who make sugar from the sugar and river ma- 
pics growing together, give the preference to the river 
maple. 

7. The sugar is whiter and of a better quality than that oi 
the sugar maple. 

8. A peculiar method of tapping is practised in Fryeburg* 
The incision from which the sap issues is made by driving 
a gouge a little obliquely upward, an inch or more into the 
"wood. A spout or tap about a foot long, to conduct off the 
sap, is inserted about two inches below this incision with 
the same gouge. The two incisions are situated thus : 
One principal advantage of this method is, that the wound 
in the tree is so small that it is perfectly healed or " grown 
over 5 in two years, the tree sustaining little or no injury. 
The other common methods of tapping are two. 1. With 



* 



> 



* Micbeanx says, that the su> p made from the river maple on the Ohio, is 

Whiter and more agrei ie to the ta than (hat from the sugar mujile. 



Botany. 263 

an axe. An oblique incision three or four inches long, is 
made in such a manner that all the sap will be conducted to 
the lower coiner, where it passes into a spout inserted 
with a gouge as above. Disadvantages of this method. 
The surface being much exposed to the air and sun. is pres- 
ently dried, so as to diminish very much the quantity of 
sap. ^ The wound in the tree is extensive and a ruinous de- 
cay is often the consequence, the tree becoming rotten- 
hearted. 2. With an auger. The tree is peforated an inch 
or more with an auger three fourths of an inch diameter, 
and a tube made of elder or sumach is inserted to conduct 
off the sap. The end of the tube is made tapering so as to 
bear only at the outer edge of the tube. Disadvantage. 
The tap presses upon the external grains so as to obstruct 
the flow of sap from them ; and it is from these external 
grains that most of the sap is obtained. The method of 
tipping with the gouge is undoubtedly superior to either of 
the others, but in a sugar maple there might be difficulty 
in inserting the gouge to a sufficient depth on account of its 
superior hardness. 

9. The river maple grows about an inch in diameter in a 
year. This I ascertained by measuring the thickness of the 
concentric grains. There are several sugar orchards in 
Frycburg which have grown up within twenty-five years to 
trees about five feet circumference, and from fifty to seven- 
ty feet high. The seeds are so abundantly distributed there 
by means of their peculiar wings that they spring up in the 
ploughed fields, on the sand flats, in the road, and in every 
place where they can take root. 

It will be seen that in my account of the quantity of su- 
gar made from a tree, &c. there is a singular coincidence 
with Dr. Rush's statements. This is altogether accidental 
lor the quantity varies greatly in all trees according to their 
situation, age, the. season and other circumstances. In 
some seasons only about a pound to a tree is obtained. 

It seems that the superiority of the river over the sugar 
*naple as a sugar tree is not universal ; for Micheaux says 
that on the Ohio only one half the quantity is obtained from 
the river, that is afforded by the sugar maple. 

I have communicated this paper principally for the pur- 
pose of recommending the cultivation of the river maple as 
an ornamental tree, instead of other? less beautiful and less 



j 



264 Botany. 

■ 

useful. It seems to be adapted to this purpose, on account 
of its beauty, the rapidity of its growth and the fine sugar h 

affords. 

Although the idea of Dr. Rush, that the United States 
might be more than supplied with sugar from the maple, and 
the quantity of human suffering consequently diminished, 
by rendering the employment of slaves in the West-Indies 
unnecessary, seems not likely to be realized, yet I think 
the cultivation of the maple ought not to be overlooked, es- 
pecially as it might afford some supply in case the importa- 
tion of sugar should, at any time, be interrupted by political 
disturbances. • 

The river maple would thrive best no doubt in a situation 
similar to that which it occupies in its native state, i. e. on 
the flats of clear streams. That it will grow however in 
other situations seems to be confirmed by the following 
facts. Micheaux states that " in Europe it is multiplied in 
nurseries and gardens. Its rapid growth affords hopes oi 
cultivating it with profit in this quarter of the world." 

Mr. Cook, Preceptor of Fryeburg Academy, informed me 
that he planted some of the seeds in his garden, which is on 
a dry elevated sandy plain, and raised trees from them, 
which grew so rapidly, and monopolized so much ground, 
that he found it necessary in a few years, to extirpate them. 

Boston, April 20, 1820. 



Art. XI. On the Oriental Client, and the Oil which it af- 
fords. 

Rocky-brook, 9th mo. 13th, 1820. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, &C 



I am induced to enquire of readers, and correspondents, 
to thy valuable miscellany, whether the Oriental Chene 
might not be more extensively cultivated in the United 
States for the purpose of extracting its invaluable oil ? It 
is i species of sesamum, (class dydinamia, order angiospcr- 
mia of Linnaeus, Sesamum folius ovato oblongis integris of 
Miller — Digitalis orientalis, sesamum dicta — Toumefort,) 
and is thus described by Miller : — " This plant was intro- 















Botany. 265 

duced into Carolina by the African negroes, where it suc- 
ceeds extremely well. The inhabitants of that country 
make an oil from the seed, which will keep many years, 
and not take any rancid smell or taste ; but in two years 
becomes quite mild, so that when the warm taste of the 
seed which was in the oil when first drawn, is worn off, 

they use it as a sallad oil, and for all the purposes of sweet 
oil/' 

A late writer, (Darby,) speaking of Louisiana, says it 
might indeed be made an universal object of culture. The 
seed vessel is a many seeded capsula, containing round oily 
seeds, which arc used in various ways by the negroes, who 
cook it as a pulse. It has been long known to produce an 
oil, containing all the valuable qualities of olive oil, without 
the same liability of becoming rancid by age. The Chene 
is certainly one of the most productive vegetables that was 
ever cultivated by man. It is known in Louisiana, but 
much neglected. Being brought from the western coast of 
Africa, from the banks of alluvial rivers, its growth is luxuri- 
ant on the fertile borders of the Mississippi and Teche : it 
will also vegetate extremely well on a high dry soil." 

I have been led to the foregoing enquiry from the suppo- 
sition that such an oil would be a great acquisition on many 
accounts, and a knowledge that it may be applied to man} 
useful purposes in mechanics. It is well known that a thin 
fat oil,' which will bear exposure to heat, and air, without 
becoming; rancid, lor a great length of time, is the grand do- 
sideratum in Horolo?v. Provided it is not glutinous, or too 
volatile, the spirit obtained by freezing and pouring off tin 
thinner part that it may not be affected by cold, would 
have many advantages over the different kinds now in use, 
all of which are liable to become rancid, and of course, un- 
suitable for such purposes. The spirit of common olive oil 
is mostly used, but soon becomes unfit ; and the objection 
] s equally applicable to that obtained from spermaceti. 
There have been several methods proposed for remedyim 
tins defect in oils, such as shaking them with pearlash wa- 
ter, or pouring melted led into them, etcetera ; all of which 
pn experiment, have been found objectionable; the first ev- 
idently extracts the thinnest, consequently richest and most 
valuable part, the last renders it acrid and empvreumatic. 



266 Strong's Problem* 



t> 



MATHEMATICS. 



Art. XII. Mathematical Problems, with Geometrical Con- 
structions and Demonstrations, by Professor Throoork 



Strong. 



[Continued from page 64 of this Volume 

Problem IX. 



J.t is required through a given point to describe a circle 
which shall touch two circles given in position and magni-* 
rude. 

Case I. When the two circles are unequal, and the cir- 
cle which touches them does not circumscribe them. 

Const. Let L {Fig. l.pL 2.) be the given point, and 
HBc, HG, E the given circles. It is required to describe 
through L, a circle which shall touch the two given circles. 
Join the centres ay y, of the circles HBC, DGE by xy, and 
extend xy till it meets FG, (FG being drawn, (Prob. vii. 
Case i.) touching the two circles,) in A. Let xy extended, 
cut the given circles in B, C, D, E. Through L the given 
point, and C, D, the two adjacent points, in which AE cuts 
the given circles, describe (Prob. i.) the circle LCD. Join 
LA, and suppose LA produced cuts LCD in K. Through 
the points L, K, describe (by Problem v.) a circle touching 
HBC in H. And this shall be the circle required- 

Demonstrations. For join AH, and extend it till it meet- 
the circle DG in I. It will meet this circle, because it cuts 
off similar segments from the two given circles, (Prob. viii.) 
And let AH meet the circle HLK in I'. Now by the prop- 
erty of the circle AL, KA=AC, AD. But AC, AD=A 
H, AI, (Prob. viii. Cor- 4.) Therefore AH, AI=AL, 
LK. ButAL,AK=AH, AI'. Therefore AH, Al=AH, 
AI. Hence (striking out AH) AI=AI y . Wherefore tb« 
points T, I coincide. Therefore the circle LKH, meets 
the circle DG, E in I. 

It also touches it in this point ; for if the line MO be 
drawn touching KLH, BRII in H, and the line No. 2 touch- 
ing the circle LHI in I, then the angle RHM-=angle in the 



ir 



\ 



*j 















Strong's Problems. 267 

segment RBH, and the angle IHO=RHM=±angle in the 
segment HLKI. But the angle in the segment RBH 
angle in the segment IDEP. Therefore the angle in the 
segment IDEP=angle in the segment HLKJ=angle HIQ, 
or NIP. Whence the angle in the segment IDEP=NIP; 
wherefore NQ touches DEPI in the point I. Conse- 
quently, HLKI touches IDEP in I. Now (by Const.) 
HLKI touches RBH, and passes through L. Wherefore 
it is the circle required. 

Case II. When the two circles are unequal, and the cir- 
cle which passes through the given point circumscribes 
them. 

Const. Let (Fig. 2. ph 2.) as in Case i. the point be 
L, and the circles HBC, DGE. Draw the tangent FG, 
tad extend it till it meet xy, produced in A. Let xy pro- 
duced cut the given circles in C, B, E, D. Through L, 
and C, D, the remote points in which ry cuts the given cir- 
cles, describe (Prob. i.) the circle LCD. Suppose AL 
produced to meet the circumference of this circle in K. 
Through the points, K, L, describe (Prob. v.) a circle 
touching HBC, in H. Then shall this be the circle re- 
quired. 

The points AF, AI being joined as in case I. and the tan- 
gents MO, NQ being diawn, the demonstration employed 

in case n, is applicable to this. 

Case III. When the touching circle circumscribes one 
of the given circles, and touches the other externally. 

Const. Let (Fig. 3. pi 2.) HBC, and HGE.be the 
given circles, and L the given point. Join xy, the centres 
°1 the circles, and extend this line till it cut the circumfer- 
ences of the circles in B, C, D, E. Draw FG, a tangent to 
the circles in the points F, G. Let this cut the line, CE 
*a A. Join AL. Through L, C, D, describe the circle L 
CD. Suppose AL extended cuts this circle in K. Through 
L, K, describe the circle LKH touching BHC in H. Join 
VH, and let A H produced cut DGE in L, and HKL in 
I'. Draw, as in cases I and II, MHO touching the circles 

HKL, BHC, in H, and NQ touching HKI L in I . 

Now hy applying the Demonstration in case I, the circle 
HKI'L, as in former cases will be found to answer the con- 
ditions of the problem. 



268 Strong's Problems. 

Case IV. When the two circles are equal, and the 
touching circle circumscribes both or neither of them. 

Const- Let (Fig. 4. pi. 2.) CKL, BMN be the given 
circles, and A the given point. From A as centre with ra- 
dius = radius of the given circles, describe IQ. Then 
through x f y y the centres of the given circles describe the 
circle l + y touching IQ in the point I. Let O be the cen- 
tre of this circle. From O as centre, and (in Fig 



I-f IA as radius describe the circle CAB, which shall be the 
circle required. 

Dem. For join Oj/B=rOI-f IA. Therefore the circle 
ABC meets the circle BIN, in the point B. But it likewise 
touches this circle in the point B. For at B draw FG at 
right angles to Ot/B. Because this line is at right angles to 
the diameter of ABC in the point B, it touches this circle in 
the point B. For the same reason, it touches MN in B. 
Therefore the circle ABC touches the circle MN in the 
point B. In like manner it may be shown, that ABC 
touches KLC in the point C, and it passes (by Const.) 
through A. ABC is therefore the circle required. 



(F 



IA for OI + IA, the 



construction and demonstration employed in Fig. 4, are ap- 
plicable to Fig. 5, in which the given circles are neither ol 
them circumscribed by the touching circle. 

Cor. 1. In Case I, when the given circles touch, that 
is, when C, D coincide, the circle LCD must be described 
touching AE in the point of coincidence of C, D, after 
which, the construction and proof are as before. 

Cor. 2. In Cases I, II, if the two circles cut each other, 
the solution remains the same ; for it is independent of the 
distance of their centres. But in Case III. when the cir- 
cles cut each other, the problem becomes impossible. 
When they touch, the circle touching them must pass 
through the point of contact of the two circles. 

Cor. 3. Case IV, may be considered as falling under 
Cases I, II, when the point A (See Fig. Cases I, II.) he " . 
comes infinitely distant. But in Case III, the construction 
remains the same, whatever be the magnitude of the circles. 
For there the point A is confined between the centres ot 
the circles. 

Cor. 4. In Case I, if the given point fall in the line AE 
between the points C, D, as in r, make the rectangle Ar. 






! 















Strong's Problems. 20 9 

A*=AC. AD. Then AD : As : : Ar : Ac. But Ar > AC 

therefore AD > Az, therefore the problem is possible, for 
the point z always falls between C and D. Having deter- 
mined the points r, z, use them in the same manner as the 

f)oints C, D were used, and the solution is the same as be- 
ore. 

Cor. 6. In Case HI. when the point is between B and 
D as r, then making; the rectangle Ar. As=AD AC, the 



point z will fall beyond C ; and therefore the problem is 
possible. Using then the points r, z for C, D, the solution 
remains the same. On the contrary when the given point 
is beyond C, r will be between D, and B. Then proceed 
as before. 



Note. — When 



does not 



tall entirely within the other, the point cannot be given 
within one of the circles, but must be without the circle, or 
in the circumference of one of them ; and then the solu- 
• tion will fall under one of the above cases ; when the circles 
cut each other, the point may be given any where, except 
at the points of intersection of the circles ; when one of the 
circles falls wholly within the other, the point must be given 
between the circumferences of the two circles ; in all which 
cases, the construction may be referred to one of the above 



methods. 



Problem X. 



To describe a circle to touch three circles given in posi- 

1 * \ 



tion and magnitude. 
Case I. \\ 



are equal, and 



the touching circle comprehends them all, or none of them. 



Const. Let (F 



given circles, it is required, to describe a circle which shall 
touch all of them. Let A, B, C be the centres of the given 
circles respectively. Through A, B, C, describe the circle 
ABC, (Prob. i.) of which let O be the centre. From O 
as centre, with OA-f- AD as radius describe the circle DEF. 
which shall be the circle required. 

Demonstration. For, join OAD. Now OAD = OA+ 
AD. Therefore the point D is in the circumference of the 
circle DEF. In like manner the points E, F f are in the 

Vol. II No. 2. 35 



270 Strong's Problems. 

circumference of the same circle- But the circle DEP 
likewise touches the three given circles. For at the point 
F, draw G, H at right angles to OF, and it will he a tangent 
to the circles DEF, F, F' at the point F. Therefore the 
circles touching the line GH at the same point F, touch 
each other at that point. In like manner it may be proved, 
that the circle DEF touches the other two circles at E, D, 
rcsDGCtivclv 

Now by using OA-AD for OA + AD, &c. and D', E , 
F 7 , he. for D, E, F, he. this construction and demonstra- 
tion are applicable to the case in which none of the given 
circles are comprehended by the touching circle. 

Case II. When the circles are equal, and the touching 
circle circumscribes one, and touches two, or circumscribes 
two and touches the other. 

Const. Let {Fig. 7. ph 2.) Ey, Dr, Fz be the given 
circles of which A, B, O are the centres. From O, the 
centre of the circle Fz, describe the circle GLM, with ra- 
dius =Q radius of the given circles. Through the points 
A, B, describe the circle ABG touching GLM (Prop, v.) 
in the point G. Let C be the centre of ABG. Then from 
C as centre, and CG — FO as radius, describe the circle D 
EF, which shall be the circle required. 

Demonstration. For join C, O the centres of the circles 
ABG, GLM. Extend co, and it will pass through the point 
of contact of these circles. Join also CEA, CDB. Now 
because CE=CA— AE the radius of the given circles, E 
is in the circumferences of the circles Ej/, DEF, and if at 
the point E a line be drawn at right angles to CA, it will be 
a tangent to the circles Ey, DEF at the same point E. 
Therefore these circles touch each other at the point E. 
In like manner it may be proved that the circles Dr, DEF 
touch each other in the point D, and that Fz, DEF touch 
each other in the point F. Therefore DEF is the circle 
"required. 

By using CA+ AE, &c. for CA-EA, &c. This demon- 
stration is applicable to the Fig. in which the touching circle 

comprehends two of the given circles, and touches the 
other. 

Case III. When two of the circles are equal. 
I. When all the circles or none of them are compre- 
hended. 



1 









Strongs Problems. 27> 

Const. Let (Fig. 9. pi. 2.) ALA 1 , BMB', CNC', be 
the given circles, of which ALA', BMB', are equal, and 
CNC is less than the other two. Let G, H be the centres 
of ALA 7 , BMB', From G, H, as centres, with radius =ra- 
dius of ALA- radius CNC, describe the circles. DD', EE\ 
Through F the centre of the circle CNC', describe the cir- 
cle FDE, (Prob. IX.) touching DD', EE' in D, E, of 

which circle, let O be the centre. Join CD, and it will pass 
through G. Then from O as centre, with radius =OD-f- 
CF (=radius of the circle CNC') describe the circle ABC, 
which shall be the circle required. 

Demonstration. For join ODA. Now because ODA 
radius of the circle ABC' ( = OD + DA, or FC) of which 
is the centre, A is in the circumference of ABC. And 
because ODA passes through G, and GD + DA=radius of 
the circle ALA', A is in the circumference of ALA'. Hence 
ALA 7 , ABC meet in A. And they likewise touch in A. 
For if Ax be drawn at right angles to ADO, A will be a 
tangent to both circles in the same point A. Whence the 
circles must likewise touch in that point. In like manner 
it may be proved that ABC, BMB', ABC, CNC', touch 
each other respectively at the points B, C. ABC is there- 
* fore the circle required. 

Now by using OD -AD' for OD+AD, and A', B', &c. 
for A, B, &c. the demonstration is the same when none of 
the given circles is comprehended. 

2. When the touching circle comprehends both the equal 
circles, and touches the smaller one externally ; or compre- 
hends the smaller circle, and touches the equal circles ex- 
ternally. 

Construction. Let {Fig. I0.pl 2.) Gy, Fa?, f*, be the 
given circles of which Gy=Fx. Let A, B, C be the cen- 
tres of these circles respectively. From A, B, as centres 
with radius = radius of the circle Gy + radius of the circle 
1^ describe the circles Dg-, F/i. And ihrough C, the cen- 
tre of the smaller circle, describe a circle CDE touching 
the circles Dg-, Ft*, in the points D, E, of which circle let 
O be the centre. From O with radius = radios of the cir- 
cle CDE -radius of the circle lz, (L e. OD-GD, or CI,) 

describe the circle GIF, which shall be the circle required. 
Demonstration. For join OD, OE, which will pas? 
through e centres A, B. Now (by Const.) P i^ m the 






• 



27i Strong's Problems. 

circumferences DCE, gD. Therefore since OG = OD 
GD, or OD-C1, and AG = AD -CI, G is in the circum- 
ferences of GIE, Gy ; and if at G a line be drawn at right an- 
gles to OG, it will touch both circles at the same point G. 
Therefore they touch each other at the point G. In like 
manner Iz, GIE ; Ea?, GIE touch respectively in t and E. 
Wherefore GIE is the circle required. Now by using 
OD + GD for OD — GD, the demonstration is the same in 

Fi§ - U \ 

3. When the touching circle circumscribes one of the 
equal circles alone, or one of them together with the small- 
er one. 

Construction. Let (Fig. 12. pi. 2.) Eg-, Hz, Bx, be the 
given circles, of which A, F, C, are the centres. From F 
as centre with radius = radius circle Hz — radius of the cir- 
cle Bx (i. e. FH — BA) describe the circle Gy. And from 
C as centre with radius = radius of the circle Hz or T£»g+ 
radius of the circle Hv describe the circle Dw. Then de- 
scribe through A the centre of the circle Ba?, the circle AG 
D, (Prob. V.) touching (Fig. 13. pi. 2.) Dn, Gy in D, G ; 
of which circle let O be the centre. From O with radius 

radius of the circle AGD — radius of the circle Ba? de- 
scribe the circle HEB, which shall be the circle required. » 

Demonstration. For join OHG, OCED, OBA. The 
line OHE will pass through G, the point of contact of the 
circles Gy, GAD. Now because GH = BA and OG-B 
A = OH, the point H is in the circumferences of the cir- 
cles Hr, HEB. And if a line be drawn at right angles to 
OG at the point H, the circles Hz, EHB will touch it at the 
same point H. Therefore they touch each other at that 
point. In like manner it may be shown that the circles Br, 
BHE, E#, EHB touch each other respectively at the points 
B, E. Therefore EHB is the circle required. 

If instead of OG— BA, OG+BA be used, this demon- 
stration is applicable to Fig. 13, in which one of the equal 
circles, and the smaller one are comprehended by the 
touching circle. 

4. When the two equal circles are less than the other, 
and when the touching circle comprehends all or none ot 
the given circles. 

Construction. Let (Fig. 14.pl. 2.) DND , EME be 
the two equal circles, of which x, y, are the centres, and A 



I 



Strong's Problems. 273 

LA' the other whose centre is G. From G as centre with 
radius = radius of the circle ALA' — radius of the circle 
EME, describe the circle BBg. Then through the points 
x, y, describe the circle xBy touching BB'jf in B, (Prob. 
III.) of which circle let O be the centre ; increasing the ra- 
dius by a line = radius of the circle EME, describe the 
circle ADE, which shall be the circle required. 

Demonstration. For join OB A which will pass through 
G the centre of the circle BB'g\ Now because OA = 
B+BA and GA = GB+BA, A is in the circumferences 
ALA', ADE. Hence if a line be drawn at risht angles to 
A at the point A it will be a tangent to both circles at the 
same point A. Hence the cicles ALA', ADE touch each 
other at the point A. In like manner it may be proved, 
that the circles DND , ADE', EME 7 , EAD, touch respec- 
tively at D, E. " • 

By joining O'A'B', and using A'B', &c. for A, B, &c. arrd 
OB-OA' for OB-f AO the demonstration is the same 
when the circles are none of them comprehended. 

m the touching circle comprehends both of the 
equal circles ; and touches the other externally, or com- 
prehends the larger and touches the other externally. 
b Const. Let (Fig. 15. pi. 2.) ML, #1, Hy be the given 
circles of which Hy=lx. Let A, B, C be the centres of 
these circles. From the centres C, B with radius=radius 
of the circle Hy + radius of the circle ML describe the cir- 
cles EN, DP. Then through A describe the circle AED 









i 






* 



5. Wh 



touching EN, DP in E, D, of which let O be the centre. 

From (Fig. IQ.pl. 2.) O as centre with radius=radius. 
of the circle AED — radius of the circle Hy describe the 
circle LHF1, which shall be the circle required. 

Demonstration. For join OCE which as before shall 
pass through the centre C. Let it cut the circle Hy in H. 
Then because OH=OE — HE or the radius of the circle 
LMH is in the circumference of the circle HFI. There- 
fore if a line be drawn perpendicular to OC at the point it 
*ill be a tangent to both circles Hy, HIF at the point II. 
The circles therefore touch at the point H. In like manner 
it may be shown that the circles 1 1, HFI ; ML, IIFL 
touch respectively at the points I. L. HFI is therefore the 
circle required. By using EO + EH for OE— EH this 






SJ74 Strong's Problems. 

demonstration answers for Figure 16, in which the larger cir- 
cle is alone comprehended. 

6. When the touching circle comprehends one of the 

equal circles, together with the larger, or one of the equal 
circles alone. 

Const. Let (Fig. 1. pi 3.) HPN, MGQ, DER be the- 
given circles of which DER=MGQ. Let A, B, C, be the 

centres of these circles respectively : From A with radius 
radius of the circle HPN + radius of the circle DER de- 
scribe the circle IK : and from B with radius=two radii of 
the circle MGQ describe the circle FL. Through C de- 
scribe the circle CFI touching IK, FL in the points I, F ; 
of which circle let O be the centre. Decreasing the radius 
by a line=radiiis of the circle DER describe the circle HE 
G which shall be the circle required. 

Demonstrations. For join OC. Let OC cut the circle 
DER in the point E. Now because OE=^OC— CE, E is 
in the circumference of the circle HEG. If therefore (F 



) 



erected at 



E, it will touch both circles at that point. Therefore the 
circles DER, HEG touch each other in the point E. In 
like manner it maybe shown that the circles HPN, HEG; 
GQM, HEG respectively touch at the points H, G. There- 
fore HEG is the circle required. 

By using OC + CE for OC—CE this demonstration is 
applicable to Fig. 2, in which the touching circle compre- 
hends one of the smaller circles and touches the other, to- 
gether with the larger circle externally. 

Case III. When all the circles are unequal, 
' 1. When the touching circle comprehends all or none ol 
the given circles. 



Cons. Let (Fig. 3. pi. 3.) AL, HN, MF be the given 

circles of which FM is the least. Let B, K, E, be three cen- 
tres. From B describe the circle DG whose raditis=radius 
of the circle AL — radius of the circle FM. From K de- 
scribe the circle IP, whose radius=radius of the circle NH 
radius of the circle FM. Through E describe the circle 

EDI touching DG, PI in D, I. (Prob. V.) Let O be the 

centre of this circle. From O, with radius=radius of the 
circle DEI+radius of the circle FM, describe the circle 
AFH, which shall be the circle required. 









I 

1 

I 









Strong's Problems. 275 



1 



Demonstration. For join ODA which will pass througl 
the centre B. Now because OA=OD + EM and BA=D 
B-fEM, (if M be the point in which a line joining O, E, 
cuts the circle FM) A is in the circumferences of AL, AFH. 
And if at A a perpendicular be erected both circles will 
touch it at the same point A. Therefore they touch each 
other at that point. In like manner it may be shown that 

NHj AFH, M F, AHF respectively touch at the points H, 

. E. Therefore AFH is the circle required. 

By using OD — EM for OD-f EM this demonstration is 
applicable to fig. 4, in which none of the circles are compre- 
hended by the given circle. 

2. When the touching circle comprehends and touches 

one externally or comprehends one and touches two exter- 
nally. 

Cons. Let (Fig. 5. pi. SJ HK, GM, LE, be the giv- 
en circles whose centres are A, B, C. Let EL be the cir- 
cle which is not to be circumscribed alone. From A with 
radius=radius of HK + radius of LE describe the circle D 
I. And from B with radius of MG, + radius of LE, de- 
scribe the circle FN. Through C describe the circle DCF 
touching DI, FN in D, F, — of which circle let O be the 
centre. Decreasing the radius of this circle by a !ine=ra- 
dius of the circle LE (or in Fig. 6. increasing it by the same 
line) describe the circle HEG, which shall be the circle re- 
quired. 

Demonstration. For join OC and it will cut the circle LE 
in the point E. Because OE=OC — CE, E is in the cir- 
cumference of HEG. Therefore if from E a perpendicu- 
lar be erected, it will touch both circles in the same point 
E. Therefore they touch each other in that point- In like 
manner the circles G, M, HEG ; HK, HEG, touch re- 
spectively at H, G. 

Now by using OC + CE for OC — CE this demonstration 
applicable to Fig. 6. pi. 3. in which one circle is compre- 
hended and the other two touched externally. 

Problem XI. 

It is required to draw a circle through a given point, to 
touch a straight line given in position and a circle given, in 
magnitude and position. 






# 



270 Strong's Problems. 

■ 

Case L When the given circle is not comprehended* 

Const. Let (Fig. 7 pi. 3.) AB be the given straight 

line, H the given point and DIKE the given circle. It is 

required to describe through H, a circle to touch the given 

line and circle. Let C be the centre of DIKE. From C 

draw CF at right angles to AB, cutting the circumference 

of DIKE in E, D. Through F, E, H describe the circle 

FEH (Prob. L) join DH. Suppose DH produced to cut 

the circle FEH in G. Through GH describe the circle 

HGL to touch AB in L (Prob. III.) and this will be the 

circle required. 

Demonstration. For join OL. Let OL cut the circle 

LGH in K and DIK E in K'. Now DE, DF=DH, DG 
DK, DL. If EK' be joined, (Plafc Euc. G. prop. L,) B 
E, DF=DL, DK' ; but BE, DF=DL, DK therefore DL. 
DK=DL, DK . Hence KD=DK'. Therefore the cir- 
cles DIKE LKG meet in E. But they likewise touch in 
that point. For if they do not they must meet in some oth- 
er point. Let them meet in x. Join D.r and extend it to 
cut LHG in y, and AB in z. Then as before, (Euclid. 6. 

p. I,) Dx, D*=DE, DF=DL, DK=Dr, Dy. Therefore 

since Dx, Dz = D;r, Dy, Dz=Dy, the less to the greater 
which is absurd. Therefore the circles do not meet in any 
point but K. Wherefore they touch in that point. But 
(by Const.) GKL touches AB and passes through II. G 
KL is therefore the circle required. 

Case II. When the given circle is circumscribed. 

Const. Let (Fig. 8. pi. 3.) AB be the given line, DIEK 
the given circle and H the given point. From C the cen- 
tre of DIEK draw CF perpendicular to AB, cutting the 
given circle in D, E of which E is not adjacent to the 
straight line. Through F, E, H describe the circle FEH- 
JohrHD. Let HD extended cut FEH in G. Through 
G, H describe a circle touching AB in the point L. and 
this will be the circle required. 

Demonstration. For join LD extended let this line cut 
LGH in the point K and EDI in the point K . Now FD 
DE=LD, DK. But if KE be joined the angle DKE is a 
right angle, and the angles KDE and FDL are equal. 
Therefore FD : LD : : K'D : : DE, whence FD, DE=|' 
D, DK which therefore is equal to LD, DK. Hence V 
K =DK and the points K , K, coincide. Therefore the Of 



* • 









Strong's Problems. 2.1% 

■ 

vies HGL, DIE meet in K. They also touch in that point. 

For if they do not they must meet in some other point ; let 

them meet in x. Join Dx. Let Dx produced cut HGL in 

y and AB in y. Then D#, Dx =LD, DK. But D#E be- 

ing a right angle as before, Dx, D^=FD, DE=LD, DK, 

Therefore D<r, Dy=D#, Dz and Dy = Dz which is absurd. 

Therefore the circles do not meet in x. Now x being any 

point they meet in no point but K. They therefore touch 

in K. Wherfore LGKH is the circle required* 

Case HI. When the civen circle cuts the given stra 
line. 

Const. Let (Fig. 9. pL 3.) AB, be the given straight 
H line, H the given point, and FD'E the given circle. Let 

the circle FD'E cut AB in L, M. Through C the centre 
of the given circle draw CI at right angles io AB in 1. Let 
this line produced cut the circle FD'E in E, F. Through 
H, I, E describe the circle HIF. Join EH. Let this pro- 
duced cut G, HIF in G. Through H, G describe the circle 
GHOD touching AB in O. And this will be the circle re- 
quired. 

Demonstration. For join OE, let EO extended cut E 

/ D*F in D' and GHOD in D. Then (E. 6. p. I.) EO, E 

f D'=EI, FE=EH, EG=EO, ED. Therefore since EO, 

ED=EO, ED\ ED=ED , and the circles FD'E, GHOD 

meet in D. But they also touch in this point. For if not, 
let them as before meet in x. Join Ex cutting AB in y % 
and GHOD. in z. Then joining Fx, the angle ExF is a 
right angle. Therefore EI : Ez : : Ex : EF wherefore E 
I,EF=Ez, Ex. But EI, EF=EO, ED=EH, EG=Ey, 
Ex. Therefore Ex, Ez-=Ex, Ey, md Es = Ey which is 
absurd. Therefore the circles FDE, GHOD do not meet 
IB x. Now x being any point but the point D, they meet in 
no point but D. They therefore touch in D. Therefore 
GHOD is the circle required. 

Note. — When the circle does not cut the line, the point 
1 must be given without the circle and on the same side of 

the line with the circle. When the circle cuts the line the 
point may be given any where except at the point of inter- 
section of the line and circle. If the circle to be described 
is to touch the given circle externally, the point may be giv- 
en any where without the circle or in the circumference, 
except in the points E, F, (see Fig. Case IIL) which an 

Vol. II No. 2. 36 












278 Strong's Problems, 

respectively equi- distant from the points ot intersection ot 
the given circle and line. 

Problem XII. 

It is required to describe a circle to touch a straight line 
given in position, and two circles given in position and 

magnitude. 

Case I. When the touching circle circumscribes both 

the given circle and touches 'the straight line, or circum- 
scribes neither of the riven circles and touches the given 
straight line. 

Const. Let (Fig. 10, pi. 3.) AB be the given straight 
line, GQS, MPO, the given circles, it is required to de- 
scribe a circle to touch at B and likewise touch the circles 
GQS, MPO. Let I and N be the centre of the given cir- 
cles. . From I, with radius=radius of QGS — radius ofM 



GQS > MPO) describe the circle HRK. Draw 



also the line CD parallel to AB, and distant from it by a 
line=radius of the circle MPO. Then through N describe 
the circle NHF touching HRK in H and CD in F. Let L 
be the centre of this circle. From L with radius = radius 
of the circle HFN + radius of the circle MPO describe the 
circle EGO, which will be the circle required. 

Demonstration. For join LHG whicji will pass through 
I. Now because LG = LH-f radius of the circle MPO and 
IG = HI + radius of the circle MPO, G is in the circumfer- 
ences of EGO, SGQ. And if at G a perpendicular be 
erected, it will touch both circles EGO, SGQ at the point 
G. Therefore these circles touch each other at the point 
G. In like manner it may be shown that the circles EGO, 
MPO touch at the point O. But EGO likewise touches 
the straight line AB. For join LFE. Let this line cut the 
circle EGO in E. Now because LE=LF + radius of the 
circle MPO, the point E falls in the line AB. And be- 
cause AB and CD are parallel ZLEA = ZLFC. But Lh 
FC is a right ans;le — (F being the point of contact of the 
circle FHN and line ED) Therefore LEA is a right an- 
gle, and consequently AEB touches EGO in E, wherefore 
EGO is the circle required. 

By using LE +■ radius of MPO for LE — radius of MPO? 
this demonstration is applicable to Fig. 11, when neither ot 
the circles is comprehended. 



1 






. 





















* 






Strong's Problems. 279 






Case II. When the touching circle comprehends one of 
ihe given circles. 

Const. Let (Fig. 12. pi. o.) AB be the given straight 
line and QHP, LRS the given circles, of which LRS is to 
be comprehended by the touching circles. Let G, K be the 
centres of the given circles respectively. From G with ra- 
dius equal to the radius of HPQ + radius of LRS describe 
the circle NMI. Draw also CD parallel to AB and distant 
from it by a line— radius of the circle LRS. Through K 
describe the circle KFI touching NIM in I and CD in F, 
of which circles let O be the centre. Increasing the radius 
by a line=radius of the circle LRS describe the circle RE 
> H, which will be the circle required. 

Demonstration. For join OIH, OKL, OFE : let OIH 
cut QPH in the point H. Now because OH = OI + radius 
of the circle LRS, H is the circle LHE ; and if at the point 
H aline be drawn perpendicular to OH it touches the circle 
LHE at the point H, it will likewise touch QHP in H, 
For if the line OH be extended it will pass through G the 
centre of QHP. Therefore QHP, LEH touch each other 
at H. In like manner LRS, EHL touch each other at L. 
But the circle LEH touches AB. For let OFE cut EHL 
in E. Now the angle OFC being right OF will cut AB at 
right angles. And because OE = OF + radius of LRS, E 
falls in the straight line AB. But it has been proved that 
OFE cuts AB at right angles. Therefore AB touches EH 
L at E. Wherefore EHL is the circle required. 

Note. — The circles must always be on the same side of 
the line ; when they cut the line the touching circle cannot 
circumscribe them. When one of them lies wholly within 
the other the given line must cut one or both of them : oth- 
erwise the problem is impossible. 

Problem XIII. 

There are two points and a straight line given in position, 
j it is required to draw from the points to a point in the 

straight line, two lines whose differences shall be equal to a 
given line. 

Const. "Let (Fig. 13. andl4.pl 3.) AB be the given 
line. C, D the given points and X the given difference. 
From C as centre with, rad his s=X describe the circle LIO. 



.» 



28U 



Strong's Problems. 



t 



* 



Through D draw DE perpendicular to AB, and extend it 
till EG=DE. Through D, G describe a circle IDG 

touching LIO in L The centre of this circle is in the line 
AB, for the chord DG is bisected at right angles by AB. 
Let F be the centre. Then F is the point to be found. 

Demonstration. For join FD, FC. Now the line FC 
will pass through I the point of contact of the circles LIO, 
IGD. Then, FC=FI + IC, and FC— ED=CL But 
CI=a?and FI=FD; therefore FC — FD=a?, as was re- 
quired. 

Problem XIV. 

There are two points and a straight line given in position 
it is required to find a point in the straight line, such that 
the sums of the lines drawn from given points to this point 
shall be equal to a given line, this line never being less than 
the line joining the two points. 

Const. Iiet(Fig. 15. and 16. pi. 3.) AB be the given line 
and C r D the given points it is required to find a point in the 
given line such that the lines drawn from the given points 
to that point shall together be equal to a given line. Draw 
DH at right angles to AB and extend it, till HF=DH. 
From C with radius =the given sum describe the circle EB 
I. Through (P. Ill,) D, E describe the circle DEF touch- 
ing EBI in E. Now because DF is bisected at right an- 
gles by AB, the centre of DEF falls, in BA. Let G be the 
centre then G is the point required. 

Demonstration. For join CG which extended will pass 
through the point of contact of the circles DEF, BEL 
Join also GD. Now CE = CE + GE=CG + GD. But 
CE=the given line. Therefore CG+GD=the given line 
as was required. 



> 



% 






I 



Hare's Blowpipe. 291 



CHEMISTRY, PHYSICS AND THE ARTS. 




Art. XIII. — Strictures on a publication] entitled Clark's 
Gas Blowpipe ; by Robert Hake, M. D. Professor of 
Chemistry in the medical department of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and the real inventor of the compound or 
hydro-oxygen blowpipe, in that safe and efficient form by 
whick the fusion of the most refractory earths, and the vola- 
tilization and combustion of Platinum was first accom- 
\ plished. 

Hos ego versiculos feci, tulit alter honores, 
Sic vos lion vobis niciitlcatis aves, 
Sic vos non vobis Vellera fertis oves, 
Sic vos non vobis melificatis apes, 

Sic vos non vobis fertis aratra Boves. 

Virgil. 

Dr. Clark has published a book on the Gas Blowpipe, 
*n which he professes a " sincere desire to render every 
one his due." That it would be difficult for the conduct of 
i any author to be more discordant with these professions, I 

pledge myself to prove in the following pages, to any reader 
whose love of justice may gain for them an attentive perusal. 

In the year 1802, in a memoir republished in the 14th 
Vol. of Tilloch's Philosophical Magazine, London, and in 
the 45th Vol. of the Annales de Chimie, 1 had given the 
rationale of the heat produced by the combustion of the 
aeriform elements of water, and had devised a mode of ig- 
niting them free from the danger of explosion. I had also 
stated in the same memoir that the light and heat of the 
name thus produced were so intense, that the eyes could 
scarcely sustain the one, nor the most refractory substances 
resist the other, and had likewise mentioned the fusion of 
She pure earths and volatilization of the perfect metals as 
among the results of the invention. 

Subsequently in the first part of the 6th Vol of American 
Philosophical Transactions, an account of the fusion of 

stro mites, and the volatilization of Platinum, was published 
me. 



282 Hare's Blowpipe. 

About the same time my experiments were repeated be- 
fore Dr. Priestly, who gave them the credit of being quite 



original. 






Some years afterwards Mr. Cloud of the United States 
mint, who has distinguished himself by the discovery of pal- 
ladium in gold, having purified platina, so as to make its 
gravity equal to 22, requested me to subject it to my blow- 
pipe. In the presence of this gentleman, I was completely 
successful in dissipating a portion of this pure metal. He 
was so much pleased with my experiments that he made an 
apparatus for himself, simplifying that part which w r as em-^ 
ployed for holding the aeriform agents, by the omission ol 
some appendages which were not necessary to his pur- 
pose.* Thus modified, my apparatus was introduced into 
use by Mr. Rubens Peale ; and has for about ten years 
been employed by him, to amuse visitors at the celebrated 
museum established by his father in Philadelphia. 

It appears by the testimony of Professor Silliman and 
others, that Dr. Hope had during his lectures at different 
times within a period of eight years, employed my blowpipe 
and awarded the invention of it to me. A reference to the 
third edition of Murray's chemistry, published before Dr. 
Clark professes to have attended to the subject, will demon- j 

strate the impressions of the author of that work as the re- 
sults of my experiments which I had published, are there 
quoted solely on my authority. 

The memoir of Professor Silliman, read before the Con- 
necticut Academy of Sciences, May 1812, and republished 
lately in Tilloch's Magazine, but which Dr. Clark has not 
ventured to notice, affords the most unanswerable evidence 
that we had anticipated him in almost every important ex- 
periment. 

Mr. Reuben Haines, corresponding secretary of the Acad- 
emy of Sciences, informed me in 1813, that in the laborato- 
ry of Dr. Pursh in this city, a mixture of the gaseous ele- 
ments of water had been inflamed while issuing in a stream 
from a punctured bladder previously filled with them and 
duly compressed. Any relaxation of the pressure was of 
course productive of an explosion. He on the other hand 
recollects that at that time I proposed this mode of supply* 



* 



It has been erroneously alleged that be simplified the blowpipe 















e 



Hare's Blowpipe. 2S3 

ing the blowpipe, interposing a small receptacle (like a wa- 
ter valve) between the reservoir and the place of exit. 
Cares more imperious prevented the execution of a plan 
which did not promise to be better than that I had befoi 
pursued successfully. 

Some time afterwards Sir Humphrey Davy's discovery 
ofthe influence of narrow metallic apertures in impeding ex- 
plosions, encouraged Dr. Clark and other, to hazard the use 
of a mixed stream of hydrogen and oxygen eas, ignited 
while flowing from a common recipient, instead of allowing 
tliem as I had done, to mix only during their efflux. There 
is another immaterial difference in the modes of operating. 
In mine, hydrostatic pressure is employed to expel the gases 
from a vessel into which they are introduced as generated, 
or by means of a bellows. In the new mode, being pump- 
ed into the recipient by one aperture, they flowed out at an- 
other in consequence of their elasticity. 

Dr. Clark pretends that the process he has employed is 
the best ; admitting this, would it afford him any excuse for 
taking so little notice of mine, or attributing the discovery 
of it to others, especially while professing to give a /air hi 
tory of the invention. 

If I may be allowed to compare small things with great, 
when Mr. Cruikshank and Sir H. Davy improved the gal- 
vanic apparatus by introducing the trough, or modifying and 
enlarging it, did they on that account forget that Volta was 
the inventor of the pile ? was it not still (though no longer 
a pile) called the Voltaic apparatus : 

Dr. Clark, like many others of the same character, find- 
Ir *g that he cannot prove himself and his associates to have 
the merit of originality, endeavours to deprive the real au- 
I thor of it, and accordingly ascribes it to Lavoisier. Had 

J * diis been stated in his first papers, his motives had been less 

Questionable. But why does he not refer to his authorities ? 
In other cases he is very particular in making such refer- 






? 



ences. t 

\ We all know that with a view to recompose water, Lavoi- 
sier caused the gaseous constituents of this fluid to burn 
within a glass globe, into which they entered by orifices re- 
m <*te from each other ; but if he ever caused them to burn 
a * a common orifice in the open air for the purpose of pro- 
ducing heat, wherefore is Pi- Clark the first and only per- 



£84 Hare's Blowpipe. 

* 

son to communicate the fact to the publiek ? How does it 
happen that there is no account of the invention nor ol any 
results obtained by it either in the elementary treatise of 
that great man, or in any of the cotemporary scientific 
journals. On the contrary, in the Elements just alluded to, 
Lavoisier treats of the heat produced by oxygen gas, and 
carbon, as the highest that art could produce.* 

Dr. Clark informs us that Dr. Thomson, now Professor 
of Chemistry at Glasgow, made experiments with the mixed 
gases seventeen years ago, but was induced to abandon the 
undertaking, in consequence of accidents that happened to 
his apparatus. Can any thing more fully display unfairness, 
than that abortive experiments, made subsequently to those 
in which I was successful, should be adduced as subversive 
of my pretensions ? 

Dr. Clark states that the Americans claim the invention 
on account of experiments made by me in 1802. They 
were published in 1802; my apparatus and my first ex- 
periments were made in 1801. 

Had Lavoisier, or any other person, availed himself of 
the heat produced by the union of the gaseous elements of 
water, how 7 could the sagacious Dr. Thomson fail in his 
efforts to retrace a path so well and so recently trodden : or 
if deriving any advantage from the experiments either oi 
the French philosopher, or those which he so imperfectly 
tried, why did he conceal it when occupied during so many 
years in communicating to the world all his chemical 
knowledge in five successive editions of his system ? 

So far were Dr. Thomson's experiments, or his knowledge 
on these subjects, from reaching the facts discovered by me, 
that he appears to have considered the authority of one 
name inadequate to establish what he vainly had endeav- 
oured to effect. Hence, until plagiarism had given them a 
new shape, and perhaps a false gilding, they were totally 
overlooked in his compilations. He neither treated of the 
pure earths as susceptible of fusion, nor of platinum as sus- 
ceptible of volatilization, until many years after I had 
proved them to be so, and promulgated my observations. 

Dr. Clark gives himself great credit for having first pointed 
out the importance of employing the gases in such relative 

* See plate, Fig. L0, (end of the volume) 












flare 7 * Blowpipes 23 






quantities as might enable them fully to saturate each other. 
To me it would seem, where the highest heat is desired, 
evidently absurd to employ them in any other way, because 
if either gas were present in too great quantity to be acted 
upon, the excess would be worse than useless. Is it not 
universally an object with chemists to use ingredients in the 
proportions in which they saturate each other, especially 
when within a given space and time the most intense reac- 

.* • 1 • -■ i »\ mi ■ A * .ft .-* -•-■ 



tion is to be induced ? 
did 



>f< 



publication would wish to convey the idea of my con- 
trivance being so inferior in power to that adopted by him, 
that in a history of the invention, he does not deem it neces- 
sary to quote my experiments, but satisfies himself with ob- 
scure allusions to them, rather in a manner to derogate than 
to do justice. This procedure would be unjustifiable were 
the heat which he has produced decidedly greater than that 
produced by me. But the fact is otherwise. He fuses 
with difficulty Oolite, Iceland crystal, and pure native mag- 
nesia. The fusion of the best magnesia of the shops, and 
of quick lime from pure lime stone was among my first ef- 
forts, and was mentioned in a preface, omitted in republish- 
ing my memoir. Lately I have fused a piece of oyster- 
shell lime, which is perhaps as pure as any to be obtained 
by artificial purification. 

Dr. C. has employed platina in some cases to secure re- 
fractory earths while exposed to the action of his instrument, 
. although this metal, is dissipated by the heat of mine. 

That in his inferences in respect to the decomposition ol 
the earths, he did not anticipate Professor Silliman or my- 
self, must be evident from the passages in our memoirs, 
which I shall presently quote. I doubt if time will shew 



nervations on this subject. 



>/ 



But while the superiority of the temperature attained by 
mixing the gases before emission is thus questionable, there 
are great and undeniable advantages in having them pro- 
pelled from different reservoirs. First, a degree of security 
from explosion, which cannot be attained with one common 
recipient.* 2d. The possibility of operating on a large 

* Where the gases are kept unmixed in separate reservoirs, and meet only 
tiear the point of efflux in an orifice sufficiently large, as was the case with 
the original compound blowpipe, explosion is obvion«!v impossible. It the 

Vol. IT No. 2. 37 



ibti Mare's Blowpipe. 

calo without danger. 3d. The power of rarying the rela- 
tive proportions of the gases so as to oxydate, or deoxydate, 
as may be desirable- This power is given by the common 
blowpipe, though in a different way, and is well known to 
be very useful. 

To me it is ludicrous that the author should suppose an} 
analogy to exist between the phenomena of the gas blow- 
pipe, and those of volcanoes. 

In order to put the gas blowpipe into operation, it is in- 
dispensable that there should be hydrogen and oxygen gases 
confined under moderate and equable compression, so as to 
llow out regularly from a common aperture, at which they 
may be ignited. How are these requisites to be obtained 
in nature ? Whence the pure hydrogen or oxygen ? Has 
Dr. Clark, or any other person, known them to be extri- 
cated in purity ? Is not the former always carburetted or 
sulphuretted, and the latter never purer than in the atmos- 
phere ? When obtained by art, fire is requisite to liberate 
oxygen, but in nature the iumes of the fire would con- 
taminate any gas which it might evolve ; and it ought not 
to be forgotten that the circumstances which are favorable 
to the evolution of oxygen, are inimical to the liberation ol 
hydrogen. Again, supposing the gaseous materials gene- 
rated, where is the presiding demon with the genius to de- 
sign, and skill to regulate that due admixture of them which 
the author exults in having discovered to be necessary, and 
granting that there could be in nature any competent substi- 
tute for {human agency in a process so intricate, by what 
means, in operations so rude and extensive, is that retro- 
cession of the flame to be prevented, to obviate which, is 
operating with his minute apparatus, a capillary tube has 
been found indispensable. In subterranean caverns, the 
gaseous elements of water might create explosions, but 
could never support the permanent heat requisite to fuse an 

orifice be made smaller, and the gases mix at a greater distance from the 
place of efflux, valves should be interposed in the pipes, or the gases should 
be kept under equable pressure, as it is possible that if subjected to unequal 
pressure, the gas which is more pressed, may pass from one reservoir to the 
other, on leaving the cocks open accidentally. This, however, is an over- 
sight not likely to take place, as it is so evidently accompanied by a waste 
of the gas, that an operator will hardly be so careless as not to close the 
cocks when the flame is not wanted. Closing them is in fact the usual 
mode of extinguishing the flame. 



Hurt's Blowpipe* 287 

ocean of lava. The only difficulty this subject presents, is 
that of explaining the nature of volcanic tires, the inces- 
sant existence of which is self-evident. The access of the 
atmosphere is necessary to fire in all its ordinary forms. In 
that of volcanoes, it appears to subsist without any adequate 
supply of this principle. Dr. Clark, far from relieving us 
irom this difficulty, has increased it, by alleging the neces- 
sity of another aeriform substance. A better solution, as I 
should suppose, was long ago afforded by a reference to the 
combustion of metals by sulphur, in the vapour of which 
some of them burn more readily than in the atmosphere. 
Lately the metallic origin of earthy matter being discov- 
* ered, it has been supposed possible, that at some distance 

from its surface the globe may consist of a great metalloidal 

J nucleus, which acting on water, may produce intense igni- 

tion. Those who have seen the consequences of moisten- 
ing (flick lime, may easily conceive that tremendous effect 

I might ensue from reaction between water and calcium, or 

any of the same family of substances. In this case hydro- 
gen would be produced, but there would be no oxygen, 
Of the existence, however, of subterraneous fires in volca- 
nic regions there can be no doubt, whatever may be the 
theory of their origin. The obvious proximity of springs, 
rivers, and even of the sea itself, with the well known force 
of steam, renders it easy to point out the proximate cause 
ef earthquakes, or of volcanic explosions and eruptions, 
without calling in the gas blowpipe to our assistance. 

That Dr. Clark could not without great injustice brin 
forward his mode of operating, otherwise than as another 
mode of doing what I had previously accomplished, nor 
bis experiments, unless as an extension merely of the re- 
searches made by Professor Silliman and myself, will be 
perfectly evident, if it be considered that we all employed 
a flame of the gaseous elements of water, in the one case 



*■ 






s 



o 



mixed during the efflux, in the other before ; and that the 
most important results in both instances will, on compari- 
son, be found nearly the same. 

The mode of confining and propelling the gases through 
the pipe or pipes to the place of efflux, b irrelevant to the 
question. There are many methods by which this object 
may be accomplished. The principle of the apparatus 
used by Dr. C. will be found the same a* that of the air 









288 



Hare's Blowpipe. 



vault employed in England to regulate the blast ol large 
bellows at founderies and forges. Mr. Brook was the first 
to apply it to the regulation of a blowpipe, and published 
his account of it in April 8th, 1816. 

; I will proceed to quote and exhibit simultaneously, the 
observations and experiments of Dr. Clark, and of Profes- 
sor Silliman and myself. As Tilloch's Philosophical Mag- 
azine is universally accessible, I shall refer to it for the me- 
moirs of Silliman and myself: to vol. 14 for mine, to vol. 
50 for his.* For Dr. Clark's experiments, commenced in 
1816, I shall quote his book on the gas blowpipe, publish- 
ed 1819. 



Experiments on Lime. 



Hare, page 304. " Lime and magnesia are extreme!} 
difficult to fuse, not only because they are the most refrac- 
tory substances in nature, but from the difficulty of prevent- 
ing them from being blown on one side by the flame : nev- 
ertheless, in some instances, by exposure on carbon to the 
gaseous flame, small portions of these earths were convert- 
ed into black vitreous masses. Possibly the black colour 
of these products of fusion, may have been caused by iron 
contained in the coal ; for in the high temperature of the 
gaseous flame, a powerful attraction is exerted between iron' 
and the earths." 

Hare, page 306. " There is a peculiar species of native 
coal found on the banks of the Lehigh in this State, which 
is extremely difficult to ignite ; which, when exposed to a 
high degree of heat and a copious blast of air, burns, yield- 
ing an intense heat without either smoke or flame, and 
leaving little residue. By exposure to the gaseous flame 
on this coal, both magnesia and lime exhibited strong symp- 
toms of fusion. The former assumed a glazed and some- 
what globular appearance, the latter became converted into 
a brownish semivitreous mass "' 

Silliman, page 109. " A piece of lime from the Carrara 
marble, was strongly ignited in a covered platinum cruci- 
ble ; one angle of it was then shaped into a small cylinder, 



* These experiments wei-e performed in December. \H\\. and published 
in Bruce's Journal in 1812. 






i 









Hi 



are's 



Bio 



u-pipe 



289 









about one-fourth of an inch high, and somewhat thicker 
than a great pin. The cylinder remained in connection 
with the piece of lime. This was held by a pair of for- 
ceps, and thus the small cylinder of lime was brought into 
contact with the heat without danger of being blown aw T ay, 
and without a possibility of contamination. There was this 
further advantage (as the experiment was delicate, and the 
determination of the result might be difficult) that as the cyl- 
inder was held in a perpendicular position, if the lime did 
really melt, the column must sink and become at least to a 
degree blended with the supporting mass of lime. When 
die compound flame fell upon the lime, the splendor of the 
light was perfectly insupportable by the naked eye, and 
when viewed through deep coloured glasses (as indeed all 
these experiments ought to be) the lime w r as seen to be- 
come rounded at the angles, and gradually to sink, till in the 
course of a few seconds, only a small globular protuberance 
remained, and the mass of supporting lime was also super- 
ficially fused at the base of the column for a space of half 
an inch in diameter. The protuberance as well as the con- 
tiguous portion of lime was converted into a perfectly white 
and glistening enamel. A magnifying glass discovered a 
few minute pores, but not the slightest earthy appearance. 
This experiment was repeated several times and with uni- 
form success ; may not lime therefore be added to the list 
of fusible bodies ? 

Clark, page 47. " Lime in a state of perfect purity and 
m the pulverulent form being placed within a platinum cru- 
mble, and exposed to the flame of the gas blowpipe, its up- 
per surface became covered with a limpid botyroidal glass, 
resembling hyalite ; the inferior surface was quite black. 
Jts fusion was accompanied by a lambent purple flame. 
Fhis colour therefore may be considered as a characteristic 
«W of one at least of the oxydes of calcium." 

.Clark, page 49, No. 6. " Compact transition limestone 
(limestone of Parnassus.) The specimen was taken from 
the summit of Parnassus by the author. It was fused, but 
u " ; th great difficulty exhibiting after fusi 



fusion a white milky 



enamel with points of intumescence that were transparent 









29© Mare's Blowpipe* 

Experiments on Magnesia. 

Sillimau, page 110. u The same circumstances that ren- 
dered the operating upon lime difficult, existed in a still 
greater degree with respect to magnesia ; its lightness and 
pulverulent form rendered it impossible to confine it for a 
moment upon the charcoal ; and as it has very little cohesion 
it could not be shaped by the knife as the lime had been. 
After being calcined at full ignition in a covered platinum 
crucible, it was kneaded with water, till it became of fhe 
consistency of dough. It was then shaped into a rude cone 
as acute as might be, but still very blunt. The cone was 
three fourths of an inch long, and was supported upon a 
coiled wire. The magnesia thus prepared was exposed to 
the compound flame ; the escape of the water caused the 
vertex of the cone to fly off repeatedly in flakes, and the top 
of the frustrum that thus remained gave nearly as powerful 
a reflection of light as the lime had done. From the bulk 
of the piece (it being now one fourth of an inch in diameter at 
the part where the flame was applied) no perceptible sink- 
ing could be expected. After a few seconds the piece be- 
ing examined with a magnifying glass, no roughnesses or 
earthy particles could be perceived on the spot, but a num- 
ber of glassy smooth protuberances whose surface was a per- 
fectly white enamel. This experiment was repeated with 
(he same success. May not magnesia then be also added 
to the table of fusible bodies ? 

Notwithstanding the previous publicity of these result- 
obtained by my friend and myself, Dr. Clark in the follow- 
ing note, endeavors to convey an impression of the incom- 
petency of my apparatus to fuse lime and magnesia. Note 
5, page 46. " Professor Hare in America could not ac- 
complish the fusion either of lime or magnesia by means ol ^ 
his hydrostatic blowpipe. See Annales de Chimie, tome 
45 page 126." But why overlook Silliman's experiments. 



It is moreover strange that an English writer should refer 
his readers to the French Annales in preference to a Lon- 
don magazine, for a memoir which he knew to be published 
in both.* 

M mentioned above thai I bad lately fused a piece of oyster shell Bine- 
It was exposed to the flame within an envelope of platiua foil which was 
<oon redtie ed to a fluid globule. The application of the heat beingsuspeu'*- 















Hare's Blowpipe. 291 

Clark. Pare Oxide of Magnesium (Magnesia.) 

* 

Fusion per se, extremely difficult. When the earth is 
made to adhere (by moisture with distilled water and sub- 
sequent desiccation) and placed upon charcoal it is fusible in- 
to a whitish glass ; but the parts in contact with the char- 
coal acquire an imposing pseudo metallic lustre with a pur- 
ple coloured flame. 

Clark. Hydrate of Magnesia (pure foliated Magnesia 

from America.) 

"This substance is incomparably refractory ; with the 
utmost intensity of the heat of the gas blowpipe, it is ulti- 
mately reducible to a white opake enamel invested with a 
two superficies of limpid glass. Its fusion is accompanied 
with a purple coloured flame. 

Experiments on Corundum. 

Silliman, page 112. "Corundum of the East-Indies 
was immediately and perfectly fused into a grey globule." 
% ' Corundum of China the same with active ebullition.'' 

Clark, page 56. Common corundum (greenish gre\ 
crystalized primary corundum from the East-Indies,) fusibh 
but with difficulty, into a greenish coloured translucent glass 
nearly transparent, which at last becomes melted into a 
" e ad like form ; or other wise exhibits upon its surface mi- 
nute cavities caused by the escape of gas during its fusion- 
I his gas is probably the same which pure silica more 
abundantly exhibits. A slightly coloured greenish flame 
accompanies the fusion of corundum." 

* 

Experiments on Sappar. 

Silliman, u Sappar or kyanite perfectly and instantly 
*used with ebullition into a white enamel/' 

i 

* d (when both substances had become cold.) This enabled me to make it 
receive the greatest heat of the flame on renewing: the process. The lime 
Uien melted into a liquid, which subsiding round the globule of platina, 
'•*used it to appear after cooling as if set in enamel. 



292 Hares Blowpipe. 

Clark, page 57. " This mineral owing to its refractor/ 
nature was used by Saussure as a supporter in experiments 
with the common blowpipe. It fuses very readily into a 
snow white frothy enamel." 

Experiments on Zircon. 

Silliman, page 112. Zircon of Ceylon, melted with 
ebullition into a white enamel." 

Clark, page 58. " One of the most refractory substan- 
ces, exposed to the heat of the gas blowpipe it becomes 
first opaque and of a white colour ; and afterwards its super- 
ficies undergoes a partial fusion and exhibits a white opaque- 
enamel resembling porcelain.* 

Experiments on the Spinelle Ruby. 

Silliman, page 112. " Spinelle ruby fused immediately 
into an ellipitical red globule." 

Clark, page 58. " Fuses readily and undergoes a partial 
combustion and volatilization with loss of colour and of 
weight. One of the solid angles of an octahedral chrystal 
was entirely burned off, and volatilized in one of these ex- 
periments." 

Experiments on Sit ex, Alumine, Barytes. 

Hare, page 304. u By exposure to the gaseous flame 
either on supports of silver or of carbon, barytes, alumine, 
and silex were completely fused. The products of the fu- 
sion of alumine and silex were substances very similar to 

each other and much resembling white enamel." 

Silliman, page 109. " Silex, being in a fine powder it 
was blown away by the current of gas, but when moistened 
with water it becomes agglutinated by the heat and was then 
perfectly fused into a colourless glass." 

Clark, page 59. " Pure precipitated silica (peroxide of 
silicium) becomes instantly fused into an orange coloured 
transparent glass. The colour may be due either to the 

* I might say here with f ruth, Professor Clark in England was unable to 
fuse zircon in his mode of operating with the gas blowpipe. 



-v 






I 



Hare's Blowpipe* 203 

charcoal serving as a support, or to the carbon of the oil 
nsed for making it into a paste. 

On the reduction of the earths to the metallic state. 

Hare, page 394. " The result of the fusion of barytes 
was a substance of an oak coloured cast, which after long 
exposure sometimes exhibited brilliant yellow specks. If 
Jt be certain that barytes is an earth, these specks must have 
been discoloured particles of the silver support, or of the 
pipes from which the flame issued." 

Silliman, page 113. " During the action of the com- 
i pound flame upon the alkaline earths provided they were sup- 

ported by charcoal ; distinct globules often rolled and dart- 
ed out from the ignited mass and burnt sometimes vividly 
and with peculiarly coloured flame. From the nature of 
the experiments it will not be easy to prove that these glo- 
bules were the basis of the earths, and yet there is the 
strongest reason to believe it. Circumstances could scarce- 
ly be devised more favorable to the simultaneous fusion and 
decomposition of these bodies ; charcoal highly ignited for 
a support and an atmosphere of hydrogen also in vivid and 
intense ignition. That the oxygen should be under these 
circumstances detached is not surprising ; but the high de- 
1 gree of heat and the presence of oxygen necessarily burn up 

J the metalloids almost as soon as produced. If means could 

be devised to obviate this difficulty the blowpipe of Mr. 
Hare might become an important instrument of analytical re- 
search. We can scarcely fail to attribute some of the ap- 
pearances during the fusion of the leucite to the decompo- 
sition of the potash it contains. This impression was much 
strengthened by exposing potash and soda to the com- 
pound flame with a support of charcoal ; they were evident- 
ly decomposed ; numerous distinct globules rolled out from 
them and burnt with the peculiar vivid white light and flash 
which these metalloids exhibit when produced and igni- 
ted in the galvanic circuit. It is hoped these hints may pro- 
duce a further investigation of this subject. This commu- 
nication has already been extended further than was con- 
templated ; but on concluding, it may be allowable to re- 
mark that there is no bodv in all probability except a few of 
Vol. II Xo. 2. * 38 












#94 Hare's Blowpipe. 



ion 



by heat." 

Is there any apology for the manner in which Dr. Clark 
has brought himself and his friend before the public on this 
subject without the smallest acknowledgments for these 



suggestions ? 



Clark's Gas Blowpipe. 



In proceeding to state the revival of two of the metals of 
the earths before the flame of the gas blowpipe, and of other 
metals under similar circumstances, it may be proper to pre- 
fix the ingenious theory of the Reverend J. Holme of St. 
Peters 5 College, Cambridge, respecting the cause of the de- 
composition that takes place. " It is entirely owing to the 
powerful attraction which hydrogen has to oxygen at such an 
exalted temperature." The reduction or decomposition ol 
oxydes when exposed to the " gaseous flame"* is therefore 
often instantaneous, and it is as instantly followed by the 
combustion of the minute particles thus revived, and ulti- 
mately by the deposition of the regenerated oxyde which is 
a result of that combustion. Hence the coloured flame: 
hence also the appearance of an oxyde in a state of incom- 
parably extreme division upon the supports used whether of 
metal or charcoal ; an irrefragable test of the revival of the 
metal from whose combustion this newly formed oxyde has 
been derived. 



» 

Experiments on Strontites. 

Hare, 1st part 6th Vol, American Philosophical Transac- 
tions, page 100, republished Annales de Chimie, Vol. 5. 
page 81. " About the same time I discovered strontites to 
be a fusible substance ; for having obtained a portion o( th'^ 
earth pure, from a specimen of the carbonat of strontites of 
Argyleshire in Scotland, I exposed it on charcoal to the 
flame of the compound blowpipe after the -manner describ- 
ed in my memoir above alluded to. It became fused into 
a blackish semivitreous mass in shape somewhat semi-glob- 
ular." 



* The very phrase nsed by me in my original memoir 









Hare's Blowpipe. j295 

Clark. Here a different process is necessary ; the revi- 
val of the metal is rendered more difficult owing to the pul- 
verulent state of the earth. The particles must he made to 
adhere before fusion can be accomplished, and this oxyde 
being much more refractory than the preceding is almost in- 
fusible per se even with the aid of the gas blowpipe." 
Thus he admits that a substance is almost infusible in his 
hands which has been repeatedly fused under mine. 

Experiments and observations on the fusion, volatilization 

and combustion of the perfect metals. 

Hare, page 305. " Had I sufficient confidence in my 
own judgment I should declare that gold, silver and platina 
were thrown into a state of ebullition by exposure on car- 
bon to the gaseous flame ; for the pieces of charcoal on 
which they were exposed became washed or gilt with de- 
tached particles of metal in the parts adjoining the spots 
where the exposure took place. Some of the particles of 
the metal thus detached exhibited symptoms of oxidation." 

Combustion of pure Gold. 

Clark, page 90. " As this experiment affords decisive 
evidence of the combustion of gold, and of course its com- 
bination with oxygen, and also exhibits the oxyde under a 
v ery beautiful appearance, it may be considered as one of 
the most pleasing experiments with the gas blowpipe." 

Experiments on Platinum particularly. 

] Hare, page 304. " Platina was fused by exposure on car- 

bon to the combustion of hydrogen gas and atmospheric air. 
■But the fusion of this metal was rapidly accomplished by 
the gaseous flame, either when exposed to it on carbon or 
upon metallic supports. 

A small quantity of this metal in its native granular form 
being strewed in a silver spoon and passed under the gase- 
ous flame, the tract of the flame became marked by the ag- 
glutination of the metal ; and when the heat was for some 
tune continued on a small space, a lump of fused platina be- 
came immediately formed. About two penny weights of 






296 Hare's Blowpipe 

the native grains of platina when subject to the gaseous 
[lame on carbon, became quickly fused into an oblate sphe- 
roid as fluid as mercury. This spheroid after being cooled 
was exposed as before ; it became fluid in less than the 

fourth of a minute." 

Hare, 1st part 6th Vol. Philosophical Transactions, page 
99, republished Annales de Chimie, Vol. 60, page 81. 
" Beins; induced last winter to reinstate the apparatus by 



which these experiments were performed, I was enabled to 
confirm my judgment of the volatilization of platina by the 
observations of Dr's. Woodhouse and Seybert ; for in the 
presence of these skilful chemists I completely dissipated 
some small globules of this metal of about the tenth ot an 
inch diameter. In fact I found platinum to be equally sus- 
ceptible of rapid volatilization, whether exposed in its na- 
tive granular iorm, or in that of globules obtained from the 
orange coloured precipitate of the nitro muriatic solution by 
the muriat of ammonia." 

Silliman, page 3. " Platinum was not only melted but 
volatilized with strong ebullition."* 

Clark, page 92, " The fusion of this metal owing to the 
great improvements here mentioned in the mode of using 
the gas blowpipe, is now become so easy that this metal 
melts faster than lead in a common fire. It is no longer 
necessary to make use of wire in exhibiting its fusion and 
combustion. The cuttings which are sold by the manufac- 
turers of platinum utensils are placed in a cupel, either 
mounted on a stand or held in a pair of forceps. The 
mouth of the jet is bent downwards so as to admit of a per- 
pendicular direction of the gaseous flame upon the metal in 
the cupel. The flame is then suffered to act upon the pla- 
tinum, about a quarter of an ounce of the metal being pla- 
ced in the cupel at first, as soon as this begins to melt more 
may be added until a cupel of the common size is nearly 
full of the boiling metal ; and in this manner a mass of pla- 
tinum weighing half an ounce at the least, may be obtained 
in one brilliant bullet. This when rolled out so that all air 

* The fusion and combustion and complete dissipation of platinum, goMj 
silver, nickel, cobalt, and most of the metals, and the fusion of the principal 
earths and of their most refractory compounds, by the use of Professor 
Hare's compound blowpi|>e, have been the familiar and easy r lass erpert- 
fttents of every course of chemistrv in Yale College for these eight years. 
fEp] 



T 



• 


















Hare sufficiently show that science is not a little i 
that gentleman for his ingenious and beautiful imn 



Hare's Blowpipe. 297 

holes being removed the mass possesses a uniform density 
will be found to have a specific gravity equal to 20,857. 
During the fusion of the metal its combustion will be often 
if not alway apparent. It will burn with scintillation and 
particles of the black protoxide of platinun, if care be used, 
may be caught upon a sheet of white paper while the corn- 
bastion is going on." 

He would here evidently wish the reader to adopt the 
false impression that the facility with which platinum may 
be fused is owing to " the great improvements" made four- 
teen or fifteen years after I had devised and used them. 
Will Britons tolerate such conduct in their professors ? 

Silliman, last page. The experiments which have now 
been related in connexion with the original ones of Mr. 

indebted to 
ent'wn. It 
was certainly a happy thought and the result of very philo- 
sophical views of combustion, to suppose that a highly com- 
bustible gaseous body by intimate mixture with oxygen gas 
must when kindled produce intense heat, and it is no doubt 
to this capability of perfectly intimate mixture between 
these two bodies and to their great capacity for heat, that 
the effects of the compound blowpipe are in a great measure 
to be ascribed. 

Clark, Journal Royal Institution, page 122. M I consid- 
er this improvement of the blowpipe, one of the most valu- 
able discoveries for the sciences of chemistry and mineralo- 
gy that have yet been made " and thus does he modestly 
<laim to his modification the whole merit of the discovery. 
for it must be observed, he does not in saying improvement 
°n the blowpipe," allude to the compound blowpipe con- 
trived by me but to the ordinary blowpipe of the mechanic 
W mineralogist. Other instances might be adduced, but it 
13 presumed that more than enough hns been brought for- 
ward to shew, that if the merit of this invention is to be 
awarded according to the motto of " suum cuique" adopted 
by Dr. Clark, there would be little left for himself and his 
coadjutors. 

I subjoin a few drawings of the compound blowpipe in 
rts different forms, and of some varieties of apparatus which 

roay be used (or supplying it with hydrogen and oxygen 
gas. 



298 Hare's Blowpipe. 

Explanation of the Plate at the end of the Volume. 

Fig. 1. Original compound blowpipe, consisting of two 
common brass blowpipes soldered at their points into two 
perforations in a frustum of silver or platina,* after receiv- 
ing the blowpipes. These perforations converge till they 
form one, the open end of which is their common orifice. 

Fig. 2. An enlarged representation of the frustum. It 
may be of brass, the orifice being protected by platina, as 
the touch-holes of guns are sometimes. The whole of the 
instrument being comprised in fig. 1st, injustice has evi- 
dently been done by those who have spoken of it as cum- 
brous or requiring simplification.-j- 

Fig. 3. The compound blowpipe under another form. 
A. is a brass ball with two arms, furnished with coupling 
screws, for attaching the instrument to the tubes through 
which the gases are to be supplied. B. is the pipe which 
receives and emits them as mixed for ignition. It is screw- 
ed into a perforation in the ball at right angles to another 
perforation bored through the common axis of the ball and 
arms. This pipe is made of stout brass wire, drilled so as 
to admit a piece of hollow platina wire about three-fourths 
of an inch long, to be inserted at one end. The platina 
wire is rendered firm without solder, by passing the brass 
wire with the platina in it through a wire plate by the wire- 
drawing process. The bore of the platina wire may be 
reduced to any size less than at first, by successive draw- 
ings through holes gradually smaller. Hence, by having 
the bore in the first instance made larger than can be want- 
ed in any case, it is easy to produce pipes with orifices of 
every desired diameter. 

Fig. 4. Exhibits the form above mentioned on a smaller 
scale, attached to the supply tubes. The latter have cocks 
and conical screws, for fastening them into a table, and also 
coupling screws, for connecting the instrument with the 
pipes employed to convey the gases to it, from the air hold- 
ers in which they may be kept. 

* The appellation, compound blowpipe, was given to this instalment by 
Frofessor Sillimau, as he uses two blowpipes meeting in a frustum. 

t It has been said that Mr. Cloud simplified it ; this is of course a gross 
error. If he simplified any thing, it was that part of the apparatus in which 
tfc* gase* are confined. 



Hare's Blowpipe. 299 

J For this purpose, almost any kind of gasometer or air 

holder will answer ; or two boxes or kegs, into which the 
gaseous materials may be pumped by a condenser, as in 
the case of Mr. Brooks' apparatus, used by Clarke. Fig. 
9. A. reservoir, C. bladder holding gas, B. condenser, D. 
blowpipe. 

■ In default of a better mode, two smaller tubs or kegs, or 
air tight boxes inverted into larger ones, might be resorted 






. 



to. Being filled with water, this fluid might be displaced 

by gas delivered from the vessels generating it, and the gas 

thus collected would be propelled by the pressure of the 

water through tubes connected with the compound blow- 
pipe. 

Professor Silliman uses chests sunk in his pneumatic cis- 
tern, and filled by bellows pumps,* as in my original appa- 
ratus. I now employ sometimes the shelves of my pneu- 
matic cistern, which are made like inverted trays ; so that 
hell glasses filled with gas may be emptied into them by 
the hand. 

A more commodious apparatus is represented by fig. 6th. 
At A. is a cistern, divided by a partition into two apart- 
ments, in which there are two gasometers, not differing ma- 
terially from those used for confining carburetted hydrogen 
for gas lights, excepting that one of them is so contrived a? 
to act as a self-regulating reservoir of hydrogen generated 
within it. A tray of copper full of holes, is supported by 
a sliding band or screw on the pipe in the centre, so as that 
it may be fixed at any desired elevation. This tray beins: 

J covered by a stratum of granulated zinc, diluted sulphuric 

acid is poured into the containing vessel till all the atmos- 

J pheric air is expelled from the gasometer through the pipe 

ited in its axis and communicating with the blowpipe 
seen with its table annexed to the cistern. The cock of 
this pipe being then closed, the action of the acid solution 
°n the zinc causes hydrogen to be rapidly liberated, which 
fills the gasometer; and if the latter be prevented from ris- 
ing too high, depresses the acid below the metal so as to 
suspend its action, until the escape of the gas through the 
blowpipe being permitted, (by opening the cock) the acid 
rises again over the metal and" the evolution of gas recom- 

* Or more frequently by conveying the gases as they are evolved from 
'he materials, through tubes immediately into the boxes, 



situated 



300 flare* s 




mences. The elevation of the sides of the gasometers 



^ 



above the horizontal partition or diaphragm, constitutes an 
external cavity, in which water may be poured so as to load 
them sufficiently. A. B. C. D. cistern, E. F. partition di- 
viding if, H. gasometer, or self-regulating reservoir of hy- 
drogen, G. gasometer for oxygen, 1. 1, two pipes closed at 
top and inserted air tight into the gasometer, L. M. two 
smaller pipes in the axis of those last mentioned, open at 
top, passing water tight through the bottom of the cistern 
and communicating with the blowpipe n. o. m. m. exten- 
sion of the pipe M. by means of which, oxygen may be in- 
troduced from the iron bottle f* P. P. rods which pass 
through holes in a sort of gallows, so as to regulate the 
movements of the gasometers, and stop them by the bands 
and screws R. R. at any height desired ; Q. Q. cocks, lor 
draining the pipes L. and M. of any moisture which may 
condense in them. 

This method of affording a regulated production and 
-tore of hydrogen gas, is somewhat analogous to that oi Ga) 
Lussac ; but has this superiority; that the pressure is more 
equable, need not be greater than useful, and may be 
lessened at pleasure, so as not to have the tendency to leak- 
age through the cocks, or any pores in the apparatus use- 
lessly increased. Hydrogen is peculiarly subtile, and will 
escape when other gases will not. 

Fig. 6, and Fig. 7,f represent self-regulating reservoirs 
of hydrogen, more closely upon the principle of Gay Lus- 
sac. I had availed myself of this principle to regulate the 
production of fixed air from carbonat of lime before I heard 
of its adoption by that eminent chemist. A (Fig. 8 ? Ed.) 
a partition dividing the cask into two apartments, the lower 
the largest. BBa false bottom, full of holes, raised above 
an inch from the real bottom of the cask. C a copper or 
leaden pipe, inserted at its upper end into the partition, and 
extending downwards a little beyond the false bottom. B 

* The iron bottles used in commerce to confine quicksilver answer admt 
rably well. The narrow end ot* a gun barrel usually fits them, and it do! 
Iar«;e enough, a section may be made near the breech where the banc 
thickens. . 

If may be luted into the bofffe with clay or lime and white of eg°> and a 
nger j'ipe is then easily luted to the breech, where it cannot be injure 



lo 

by the fire. 



i Fig. 7 and 8 ?—i:ditor. 



t 















I 






Hare's Blowpipe* oOi 

B, a conical brass screw plug, inserted into a hole in the 
cask, to be removed or reinserted, as may be convenient. 
E a plug of wood for closing the pipe B. F a cork for 
regulating the escape of gas. The plug D being removed, 
and zinc in pieces introduced by the hole so as to cover the 
false bottom, diluted acid is to be poured into the cask, till 
the lower apartment becomes full. The cock F bein^ 
closed, the hydrogen produced by the chemical action soon 
expels so much of the acid from the lower compartment of 
the cask, as to depress it below the zinc, when the action 
stops, till the expenditure of the gas allows the acid again to 
reach the metal. The plug E is of use to prevent the acid 
from pressing on the gas below, when pressure is not want- 
ed, Fig. 7 may be understood by its analogy with Fig 6, 
(Fig. 8? Ed.) being merely another mode of putting the 
same principle into operation. Casks of the form of Fig. 
6, (Fig, 8 ? Ed.) may be used as oxygen gas holders. The 
lower apartment is to be filled with water, the cock closed, 
and the plugs E, D put into their places so as to be quite 
tight. The pipe G only is to be open, and through this, the 
end of a tube is to be introduced, proceeding from a vessel 
in which oxygen may be generated. The gas displaces the 
water, which, as it flows out is to be caught and poured in- 
to the upper apartment of the cask. When the lower apart- 
ment becomes full G is to be closed- It is then only neces- 
sary to remove the plug E, in ordei to allow the water to 
press upon the gas, and propel it, when requisite, through a 
tube to the blowpipe. 



Fig. 11 represents a contrivance, by which any vessel, 



with but one orifice, as a bottle, a demijohn, or carboy, 
may be made to act as an air holder ; so that a number 
may be filled with oxygen gas over a preumatic cistern, may 
be laid by, and then used as wanted. The cylinder A is to 
be inserted in the place of the cork or stopple. This cylin- 
der has two perforations nearly collateral, one not more 
than one quarter of the diameter of the other. The smaller 
one, B, communicates with a small tube, furnished with a 
cock and coupling screw, for attaching a longer tube, com- 
municating with the compound blowpipe. The larger per- 
foration at C opens into a wide cylinder of sheet metal^ — 
Into this cylinder another vessel, with a long neck, is in- 
verted, after being filled with water. This fluid will of 

Vol. II No. 2% 30 



302 Chemical examination of the Hop. 

course run into the bottle, until the gas within is so much 
condensed, as to resist the pressure of a column of it suffi- 
ciently high to reach the orifice of the inserted vessel. 

When this takes place, no more will descend, until by 
opening the cock, a portion of gas escapes : but as long as 
it is escaping, a proportionable quantity of water will come 
down, so as to keep the gas under an equable pressure, and 
of course an even flow towards the blowpipe. 

Fig. 10, represents Lavoisier's apparatus for the recom- 
position of water, which Dr. Clark so uncandidly insinuates 
as suggesting the contrivance of the hydro oxygen blow- 
pipe. At a, is a tube, by which, to exhaust the vessel A of 
air. At b, is another tube for supplying oxygen. At cc, 
a third tube for supplying hydrogen, to be ignited by a 
spark from the knob of the bent wire below it. 



Art. XIV. — An Experimental Inquiry into the chemical 
properties and economical and medicinal virtues of the 
Hamulus Lupulus, or Common Hop, by Ansel W. Ives, 
M. D. of New- York. 

The hop is a hardy perennial plant, which grows spon- 
taneously in the northern parts of Europe and America.* 
It belongs to the class Dicecia, and order Pentandria, of 
Linnaeus. The plant which bears the male flowers is not 
cultivated, and is called the wild hop.f The common do- 
mestic hop, which is the female plant, is now to be the sub- 
ject of investigation. Its general character is too well and 
too universally known to need description. The hopj has 
been regarded from time immemorial as an indispensable 
ingredient in malt liquors. It was introduced and cultiva- 
ted for that purpose in England about the year 1549, and 
has since been used so extensively in that country and in 
many others, as to have become an important article of com- 

* That the Humulus is a native of America, has been confirmed by the 
observation of Micheaux, Nuttail, Eaton, Torrey, and otbers. 

t A very accurate drawing and minute dissection of the male and female 
bop-plant, may be found in * Lamarch's Encyclopedia/' part 22d, plate 



815. 



J Writers have generally used the term hop-plant to distinguish the whole 
Vegetable, and the hop to designate that part of it used in brewing- 





















Chemical examination of the Hop. 3Qo 

merce. It has long been known, also, to possess some vir- 
tue as a medicine, and a general description of its character 
and properties is recorded in most Pharmacopoeias, 

Not having seen any accurate analysis of this article, and 
considering it important that the physician should know in 
what part of the plant its medicinal virtue resides, I com* 
menced some experiments with a view to ascertain this 
object. The facts which were developed in the progress 
of the investigation, were, to me, novel and unexpected; 
and the results to which they obviously led, altogether dif- 
ferent from what I had anticipated. The medicinal char- 
acter of the hop was, therefore, now regarded as a subject 
of minor importance ; for however desirable might be the 
merit of introducing to general use, a new and eligible form 
of medicine, that consideration would excite, comparatively, 
but little solicitude, while there existed a hope of effecting 
an improvement in domestic economy, which would be 
materially interesting to a great portion of the civilized 
world. 

A quantity of hops was procured, which had been kept 
for domestic purposes, in a small bag, for three years. 
When they were taken from the bag, there remained about 
two ounces of an impalpable yellow powder, which, by 
sifting, was rendered perfectly pure. This substance has 
probably been observed by most persons acquainted with 
the hop, and I suspect has generally been mistaken for 
pollen, but it is peculiar to the female plant, and is proba- 
bly secreted by the nectar ia. It seems to have been more 
correctly appreciated by those accustomed to the domestic 
use of hops, than by many others professing a more scien- 
tific knowledge of their culture, properties, and use. I have 
not been able to find any notice of this powder in books, 
and know not that it has "been designated by any appropri- 
ate term. In the following inquiry, therefore, it will be 
called Lupulin. 

Exp. 1. — One drachm of lupulin was boiled with tw© 
ounces of water, in a small retort, till a third part of the 
water had passed over into a receiver. The fluid that came 
over indicated slightly the peculiar aromatic flavour of the 
hop ; it was perfectly transparent, very little discoloured, 
and exhibited no appearance of a volatile oil. The water 
remaining in the retort was aromatic and bitter. W hen 



JO-i 



Chemical examination of the Hop, 



filtered and evaporated, it yielded ten grains of a pale yel- 
low extract, intensely bitter, and possessing in a high de- 
gree the peculiar aromatic taste of the hop. 

Exp. 2. — Two ounces of the best merchantable hops 
were distilled in a retort, with six ounces of water, till half 
of the fluid had passed over into a receiver of water. The 
water in the receiver was slightly impregnated with the 
odour of the hop, but there was no appearances of volatile 
oil. 

Exp. 3. — Two drachms of lupnlin were boiled in a re- 
tort with three ounces of alcohol. The alcohol came over 
strongly impregnated with the aroma of the lupulin ; but 
there was no visible indication of an essential oil. The re- 
maining alcohol had assumed a brilliant yellow colour, and 
a pleasant but intensely bitter taste ; when filtered and 
evaporated, it yielded one drachm of extract of the consis- 
tanee of soft wax.* 

Exp. 4. — A saturated decoction of the lupulin was pre- 
pared with pure water. It was opaque and of a pale yel- 
low colour. By adding to a portion of it a solution of the 
sulphate of iron, the colour was changed to a deep purple, 
approaching to black ; a solution of animal gelatine, threw 
down a copious ash-coloured precipitate*, which left the su- 
pernatant liquor transparent and clear. This liquor was 
now decanted ; by adding to it a solution of iron, it was 
changed to a pale blue ; the acetate and subacetate of lead,^ 
caused a copious curdy yellow precipitate ; the nitrate of 
silver, a greenish flocculent precipitate; muriate of tin, when 
first added, produced no change, but after standing a short 
time, a brown precipitate ; a solution of sulphate of alu- 
mine caused no immediate change, but by boiling with the 
decoction, it separated a dense precipitate. Silicated pot- 
ash, alcohol, and vegetable blue, induced no change. 

Exp. 5. — Two drachms of lupulin in four ounces of wa- 
ter, were digested six hours in a sand bath. The infusion 



yielded by evaporation six grains of aromatic and bitter 



* These experiments, with some variation, were frequently repeated, 
with the view to detect, if practicable, the volatile oil which is so frequent- 
ly mentioned by authors as essentia! to the flavour of beer. The result was 
uniformly the same. The peculiar aroma of the hop was always obvious 
to the smell and taste, but I was never able to separate it in the form of a 
essential oil. 



i 






Chemical examination of the Hop. 305 

extract. Two ounces of proof spirit were added to the 
same lupulin, and subjected to a moderate heat twelve 
hours; when filtered and evaporated, there remained six 
grains of a resinous extract. The same lupulin was digest- 
ed thirty minutes in boiling alcohol, from which was ob- 
tained by evaporation sixty-two grains of extract. The 
extract obtained by the second process was soluble in pure 
alcohol, and when water was added to the solution, it be- 
came turbid and milky. 

Exp. 6. — The lupulin used in the last experiment, was 
boiled in strong caustic ammonia. When filtered and su- 
persaturated with distilled vinegar, a copious precipitate 
ensued, which was insoluble in alcohol, and possessed the 
sensible properties of an impure wax* The three last ex- 
periments show pretty satisfactorily, that the most impor- 
tant proximate principles of the lupulin are resin, wax, 
tannin, gallic acid, a bitter principle, and an extractive mat- 
ter* The following experiments were instituted for the 
purpose of ascertaining more accurately their respective 
proportions, as well as the aggregate amount of soluble 
matter in a given quantity of lupulin. 

Exp. 7th. — Two drachms of lupulin were infused five 
hours in boiling water. To the filtrated infusion, were ad- 
ded at intervals, five grains of animal gelatin in solution; 
when it ceased to produce any precipitate, and the super- 
natant liquor became transparent and clear. The sediment, 
when dry, weighed ten grains. An ounce of alcohol was 
added to the filtered solution, but it caused no change ; by 
evaporation, it yielded fifteen grains of a very bitter extract. 
The same lupulin was digested again in boiling water — an- 
nual gelatin added to the filtered solution, induced no pre- 
cipitate ; by evaporation, an additional quantity of si^ 
grains of the watery extract was obtained. 

Exp. 8th. — The extract obtained in the last experiment, 
was put into pure alcohol, and frequently agitated. After 
twenty-four hours it was filtered ; ten grains had been re- 
dissolved by the alcohol, and an insoluble mass, weighing 
eleven grains, was left upon the filter. 

Exp. 9th. — The same lupulin which was used in the 
seventh experiment, was now digested in alcohol. The in- 
fusion was highly bitter, and of a fine yellow colour ; it gave 
hy evaporation twenty-four grains of resin. By digesting 



306 Chemical examination of the Hop. 

in a second portion of alcohol, twelve grains more of resii 
were obtained, less bitter, but otherwise like the last* 

Exp. 10th. — The lupulin which was the subject of the 
last experiment, after having been thus boiled in water, and 
digested in alcohol, was put into a small retort, and boiled I 

in two ounces of ether. While boiling, it was filtered into 
a vessel containing cold water, by which means twelve 
grains of wax were obtained.* ; 

Exp. 11th. — Half an ounce of lupulin was boiled sue- j 

cessively in water, alcohol and ether. On weighing the in- j 

soluble residuum, it was found that five eighths of the whole \ 

had been taken up by the solvents. I 

From the foregoing experiments, all of which were, with ^ \ 

some variation, frequently repeated, I infer, that the lupu- 
lin contains a very subtle aroma, which is yielded to water 
and to alcohol, and which is rapidly dissipated by a high 
heat; that no essential oil can be detected by distillation in 
any portion of the hop ; that the lupulin contains an ex- 
tractive matter, which is soluble only in water ; that it con- j 
tains tannin, gallic acid, and a bitter principle, which are J 
soluble in water, and in alcohol ; that it contains resin, j 
which is dissolved by alcohol and by ether, and wax, which 
is soluble only in alkalies and in boiling ether ; that it con- 
tains neither mucilage, gum, nor gum-resin ; that the aro- 
matic and bitter properties of the lupulin are more readily 
and completely imbibed by alcohol than by water, and much 
sooner by both when they are hot than when they are cold; 
that about five-eighths of the whole substance is soluble i» 
water, alcohol and ether, there being about three-eighths ot 
it vegetable fibrous matter- These proximate principles 

exist in very nearly the following proportions : In tvvo 

drachms (or one hundred and twenty grains) of lupulin* 
there is, 

•The usual method of separating wax from vegetables, by boiling them 
in caustic Ammonia, and then super-saturating the alkali with vinegar, or 
with diluted j>ulphoric acid, is tedious, and the results unsatisfactory. The 



held in solution by boiling ether, is thrown down as soon as the ether i> 
cooled by the water, and its specific gravity being greater than that ot 
ether, and less than that of water, it forms a beautiful partition between 
them. If the ether be suffered to evaporate, the wax may be taken from 
the water entire 


















i. 



Chemical examination of the Hop. 307 

Tannin, 5 — 

Extractive matter, 10 *"" 

Bitter principle, . . . , # , 11 

W ax, , 12 " 

Resin, 36 " 

A woody fibrous substance, or Lignin, .... 46 " 

Exp. 12. — Two drachms of the leaves,* from which all 
the lupulin had been separated, were digested twelve hours 
m six ounces of boiling water. The infusion was bitter, 
and exceedingly unpleasant to the taste ; it possessed none 
of the aromatic flavour and peculiar bitter of the lupulin. 
When filtered and evaporated, it yielded five grains of nau- 
seous extract. The same leaves were again digested in six 
ounces of proof spirit : after twelve hours, the infusion was 
filtrated, and, by evaporation, yielded five grains of extract, 
similar to the last. The same leaves were digested twenty- 
four hours in alcohol ; the infusions manifested none of the 
sensible properties of the hop ; it gave by evaporation four 
grains of extract. The taste of none of the extractive mat- 
ter obtained from the leaves was sufficiently characteristic of 
the hop to designate that it was obtained from that article.f 

From this, and other similar experiments, leading to the 
same results, I think it is conclusively proved, that the vir- 
tue of the hop resides exclusively in the lupulin ; that the 
leaves contain a nauseous extractive matter, which is im- 
parted to water and to alcohol, and which, instead of adding 
to the bitter and aromatic flavor of the lupulin, partially 

neutralizes or destroys it. 

The obvious inference from these results was, that the 
lupulin was the only part of the hop essential to economi- 
cal purposes; an inference so little anticipated, that it be- 
came an important subject of enquiry, whether that part of 
the plant was duly estimated by practical brewers — wheth- 
er it had been regarded by authors as preferable to the 
leaves, and if so, what impediment or what consideration 
Prevented its being separated from the chaff. 



ft will be understood that by the hares are meant the calices which form 
the flower, or that part of the hop commonly used in brewing. 

t ft is necessary to remark that great care was taken to procure the leaves 
tor this experiment perfectly free from the lupulin, v\ hich is ordinarily at- 
tached to them in great abundance. This cannot be done by threshing 
them. 









308 Chemical examination of the Hojj. 

On making enquiry of a number of brewers in this city, 
it was ascertained that there was about one in three who 
considered this powder useful, in common with other parts of 
the plant. It was known to all that hops were used princi- 
pally for their antiseptic powers, or to preserve the beer 
from acetous fermentation ; but neither practical brewers, 
nor scientific writers on brewing, appear to have noticed this 
substance particularly. By some of the former, it is re- 
garded as useless* When at one brewery I asked for some 
of the yellow powder that was found at the bottom of the 
hop bags ; I was told that I could find but little there, as 
but a few days ago they had swept half a bushel of it from 
the store, 

I was now resolved to ascertain, if possible, the propor- 
tion of lupulin in the merchantable hop, and also whether it 
could be completely and readily separated from the leaves. 
Accordingly, six pounds of pressed hops were taken from the 
centre of a bag, containing some hundred pounds, and ex- 
posed to heat till perfectly dry. They were then put into a 
light bag and by threshing, rubbing and sifting, fourteen 
ounces of the pure powder was separated in a short time and 
w r ith very little labour. 

Though the quantity thus obtained was surprisingly great 
there was obviously a considerable proportion remaining 
which could not easily be separated from the chaff. 1* 
therefore the hops were gathered when the lupulin existed 
in the greatest abundance, and, instead of being pressed and 
packed, were exposed to the sun till perfectly dry, there is 
little doubt but six pounds would yield a pound of the pow- 
der in question.* 

The foregoing experiments were not completed till late 
in the spring, when the best season for brewing was passed, 
but with the advice, and by the direction of Robert Barnes, 
Esq. (an experienced and scientific brewer, zealous for the 
improvement of his art) two barrels of beer were macte in 
which nine ounces of the lupulin were substituted for five 
pounds (the ordinary quantity) of hops. The result con- 
firmed the most sanguine expectation. Though the quanti- 

* Nothing conjectural would hero have been introduced, but with a view 
to show, as accurately as possible, the pro* ortion of lupulin, that the requi- 
site quantity may be known in case it should be substituted for the leaves al 
hops in brewing. 



i 









I 






Chemical examination of the Hop. 309 

ly of lupulin was less than what (according to the foregoing 
statement) usually enters into the same quantity of wort, 
and though the weather during the month of June was un- 
usually warm and therefore unfavourable to its preservation, 
still the beer, which is now five weeks old, is very fine. It 
is pleasantly aromatic and bitter, and in a perfect state of 
preservation. 

To ascertain the preservative property of the lupulin by a 
more direct experiment, equal quantities of the beer were 
put into separate vials and exposed, unstopped to the sun. 
To the beer in one vial was added a scruple of lupulin. 
The beer to which none was added, became mouldy and 
sour in ten days, the other was unchanged at the expiration 
of fifteen days. 

Having, as 1 conceive, demonstrated that the lupulin, 
alone, contains the bitter principle and the aromatic flavour 
of the hop, which are essential to the excellence and preserv- 
ation of malt liquor, and having shown also the feasibility of 
separating it from the leaves to which it is attached ; I shall 
proceed to enumerate some of the most obvious benefits 
which would result from these facts, should they be found 

applicable to practical use. 

1. It would diminish the expenses of transportation. — In 
this the saving would be enormous. The hops which are 
now brought to this city are cultivated in the eastern states, 
and in the western parts of this state, and the expense of 
transportation is from one to two cents a pound. This is 
on account of their bulk, rather than their weight. Were 
the lupulin separated from the leaves, it being but about the 
sixth part in weight, and not one twentieth in bulk, it might 
be compressed into casks, and thus transported with con- 
venience and at a small expense. In short the difference 
would not be less than that of sending wheat to market be- 
fore and after threshing. Might it not also, for the same 
reason, become a profitable article of export? 

2, It would lessen the difficulty and expense of storage. 
Notwithstanding the present mode of pressing hops into 
bags (which is done not less to diminish their bulk than to 
preserve their virtue) their storage is, as it ever has been, an 
important item of expense, as well as a very great burdea 

to the brewer. 

Vol. If No. 2. 40 






* 



310 Chemical examination of the Hop. 

3. One object in pressing the hop into bags is, to preserve 
it from the injury of the air ; a long exposure to which, it is 
said partially destroys its virtue. Whatever may be the 
cause, it is well known that the value of hops is diminished 
by age. This could not result to the lupulin any more than 
to our imported teas, were it packed in casks which would 
secure it perfectly from the air. 

4. The brewer would evade an enormous loss, which he 
jqow sustains in the wort absorbed by the hops. Dr. Shan- 
non, who has perhaps devoted more time and talent to the 
subject of brewing than any other English author, has de- 
monstrated by a series of experiments, that one barrel of 
wort is absorbed by every sixty pounds of hops in the or- 
dinary process of brewing.* The quantity of beer manu- 
factured annually in London is upwards of one million five 
hundred thousand barrels,f and the least quantity of hops 
used in making it is two and a half pounds to the barrel, or 
three millions seven hundred and fifty thousand pounds; 
now as a barrel of wort contains not less than three bush- 
els of malt, it follows, that the quantity of malt thus annual- 
ly lost by absorption, is one hundred and eighty seven thou- 
sand five hundred bushels — the price of which may be fair- 
ly estimated at as many dollars. 

5. It will lessen the temptation to the fraudulent practice 
which now prevails, of adulterating beer with other vegeta- 
ble bitters. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of parliament 
there is no article which is the subject of such varied and 
extensive fraud in England at the present day as that ol 
beer. As a substitute for the hop,J the coculus indicus, 
quassia and wormwood have all in turn been used ; but all 
of them are so far inferior, both in their flavour and in their 
antiseptic or preservative properties, that the use of all veg- 
etables in the manufacturing of beer, excepting malt and 
hops, is by law forbidden. By the improvement which is 
now proposed, so great would be the diminution in the 
price of the hop, from its being made an article of easy and 

* Vide, Dr. Shannon's Treatise on Brewing 



i Edinburgh Encyclopedia, Vol. 2. 

t Accams Treatise on (he adulteration of food. Abo, Edinburgh Ke 
view, No. 6o. 






Chemical examination of the Hop. 311 

cheap transportation, that there would be little inducement 
for using any other article in its stead. 

6. The lupulin is exceedingly bitter but not unpleasant, 
whereas the nauseous extractive matter of the leaves, which 
by boiling, is imparted to the beer, is unpleasant to the taste, 
and, when highly concentrated is frequently ungrateful to 
the stomach. It is believed that few persons ever relished 
the peculiar bitter of the strong beer, until, by drinking it 
habitually their taste becomes vitiated as is the case in the 
use of opium and tobacco. Soon after hops were intro- 
duced into use in brewing in England, the citizens of Lou- 

J - • • • 

don petitioned parliament to forbid their use in the king- 
dom, as they were a nuisance, " and spoiled the taste of 
their drink" The leaves then are not only useless, but 
prejudicial to the flavour of beer. 

On the virtues of this substance as a medicine } I shall at 
present be very brief, as it will probably be made a subject 
lor future consideration. It has already been observed that 
the hop has long been regarded as a medicine of some 
value. In France it has been used as a tonic and prescrib- 
ed in dyspepsia and scrofula. In this country it has been 
most valued for its narcotic powers, and used in cases when 
opium was inadmissible. The most common preparation is 
a saturated tincture of the leaves. To this there are two 
important objections. 1. To give enough of the tincture 
of the leaves to induce sleep, the quantity of alcohol is ne- 
cessarily so great as sometimes to do injury to the patient. 
^- When given in large doses, it frequently produces nau- 
sea and sometimes vomiting. The first of these objection^ 
requires no proof, the second is confirmed by my own ob- 
servation and by the experiments of Dr. Bvyoiky in his in- 
augural dissertation on the hop. This last effect is proba- 
bly owing to the extractive matter in the leaves, for I have 
never seen it produced by the lupulin. I have prescribed 
the powder in substance, the infusion, decoction, alcoholic 
tincture and the extract. As its aromatic and bitter proper- 
ties are imparted to water, the infusion is an eligible prepa- 
ration as a tonic and stomachic ; but if given with a desire 
to produce sleep, the tincture is the best preparation. As 
it has been demonstrated, both by positive and negative tes- 
timony that the narcotic principle exists in the resin only, 
the tincture should always be made with alcohol and no' 






312 Hare's Eudiometers, tyc. 

with proof spirit* It is more difficult and expensive to pre- 
pare the extract than the tincture, and the latter in most in- 
stances is the most eligible preparation. 

Its virtues are aromatic, tonic and narcotic ; and it is, I 
believe the only article in which these properties are com- 
bined. Our country abounds with vegetable bitters and 
tonics, many of which are more powerful than the hop, but 
there is perhaps none which can so properly be denomina- 
ted a stomachic. That family of symptomatic diseases 
which are the consequence of exhausted excitability, or 
more directly of an enfeebled and deranged state of the 
stomach and bowels, are certainly much relieved by this 
medicine. It frequently induces sleep and quiets great 
nervous irritation, without causing costiveness or, impairing 
like opium the tone of the stomach, and thereby increasing 
the primary disease, As an anodyne it will be found ineffi- 
cient compared with opium. The saturated alcoholic tinc- 
ture, in doses of from forty to eighty drops, will induce sleep 
with as much certainty as opium in cases of long watching 
from nervous irritability; but the same cannot be said of its 
efficacy in relieving pain. This substance then, is not com- 
mended as a medicine which ought to supersede the use of 
others of acknowledged virtue, but as a useful auxiliary, 
which undoubtedly possesses properties in some respect 
peculiar to itself, and as the part of the hop altogether pre- 
ferable to any other, or to the whole as it is ordinarily used 
in tincture. 



Art. XV. Account of new Eudiometers, fyc. invented by 
Robert Hark, M. D. Professor of Chemistry, fyc. M 
the Medical department of the University of Pennsylva- 



nia. 



Among the operations of chemistry, none probably are 
more difficult than those called Eudiometrical, in which ae- 
riform substances are analyzed. 

Elastic fluids are so liable to contract or expand with the 
slightest change off iperafture or pressure, that it is requi- 
site to have the surface of the portion under admeasuremen! 
exactly in the same level with that of the water or mercury 












Hare's Eudiometers, fyc. ol3 






employed to confine it, and the heat of the hand may ren- 
der the result inaccurate. There is no simple mode of 
causing the surface of the gas in a measure glass to form a 
plane corresponding with the brim of the measure glass 
containing it. The transfer of small portions of gas without 
foss, especially from large bells into small tubes is very diffi- 
cult. Hence there is trouble, delay and waste. 

I shall proceed to describe some instruments which I have 
lately invented, and which appear to be free from the dis- 
advantages above described. They are all essentially de- 
pendent on one principle for their superiority.* 

A recurved glass tube is furnished with a sliding wire of 
iron or copper, graduated into two hundred parts. The 
process of making wire by drawing it through a hole, ren- 
ders its circumferences of necessity every where egual and 
homologous. Consequently equal lengths will contain 
equal bulks. 

The wire slides through a cork soaked in bees-wax and 
oil, and compressed by a screw, so that neither air nor water 
can pass by it. 

The length of the longer leg is fifteen inches, that of the 
shorter one six inches. The bore of the tube is from -A to 
j% an inch in diameter, but converges towards the termina- 
tion of the shorter leg to an orifice about large enough to ad- 
mit a brass pin. Over this a screw is sometimes affixed, so 
as to close it when necessary. 

The tube being filled with water or mercury, and the 1 
wire pushed into it as far as it can go, on drawing this out 
again any desired distance, an equivalent bulk of air must 
enter the capillnry orifice if open. By forcing the rod back 
again into the tube, the air must be proportionably excluded. 
Thus the movements of the sliding wire are accompanied 
by a corresponding ingress or egress of air, and to know 
how many divisions of the former have been pushed into 
the tube, or withdrawn from it, is the same as to know how 
much air has been drawn in or expelled. 

If, instead of allowing the orifice to be in the open air, it 
he introduced within a bell glass, holding gas over the pneu- 
matic apparatus, on pulling out the wire, there will be a 
-corresponding entrance of gas into the instrument; and it 
njust be evident that if the point of the gas measures be 

* See the plate at the end of the volume. 



\ 






314 Hare's Eudiometers, tyc. 

transferred to the interior of any other recipient, the gas 
which had entered, or any part of it, may be made to go in- 
to any such recipient by reversing the motion of the wire* 
As the hands are, during this operation, remote from the 
part of the tube which contains the aeriform matter, no ex- 
pansion can arise from this source, and the operation is so 
much expedited, that there is much less chance of variation 
from any other cause. By taking care to have the surface 
of the gas in the bell glasses below that of the fluid in the 
cistern, the density of the former will be somewhat too 
great, but on bringing the orifice of the gas measurer on a 
level, with the surface of the fluid in the cistern, the gas, no 
longer subject to any extra pressure, will assume its proper 
volume, the excess being seen to escape in bubbles. Should 
the tube in lieu of water, be filled w T ith any solution, calcu- 
lated to absorb any gas, of which the proportion, in any 
mixture, is to be ascertained, and if the quantity of absorp- 
tion which can take place while the wire is drawing out, is 
deemed unworthy of attention, we have only to introduce 
the shorter leg of the tube into the containing vessel, as 
above described, and draw out the wire to two hundred on 
its scale, then depressing the point below the surface ol the 
fluid in the pneumatic cistern in the usual time with due ag- 
itation, all the gas which the fluid can take up, will disap- 
pear. The quantity will be represented by the number ol 
divisions which remain without the tube, after pushing in 
the wire just so far, as to exclude the residual gas. 

Should it be deemed an object to avoid the possibility ol 
any absorption during the time occupied in the retraction of 
the sliding wire, or should it be desired to expose the gas to 
a larger quantity of the absorbing fluid, an additional vessel 
is used, which is of an oblate spheroidal form, with a large 
neck, ground to fit on the shorter leg of a gas measurer, and 
furnished at the opposite apex with a tube, of which th* 
bore converges to a capillary opening, surmounted by a 
screw, as already described, on the point of the gas measurer 
simply. This vessel (in shape not unlike a turnip) is filled 
with the absorbing fluid, and the gas measurer being dub 
charged with gas as above described, inserted into it. Bv 
the action of the sliding wire, the gas is propelled into the 
spheroid, where, by agitation and time the absorption is 
completed. Meanwhile the orifice of the spheroid should 






Hare's Eudiometers, fyc. 315 

be kept open, and under water, so as to permit the latter to 
take place of that portion of the gas which disappears. 
Whatever remains unabsorbed, is expelled from the glass 
spheroid, as in the case of the tube when used alone ; and 
the divisions on the rod remaining without, will shew how 
much the fluid has taken up. 

When atmospheric air, or oxygen gas is to be analyzed 
by nitrous gas, the glass spheroid is filled with water, and in- 
verted with its orifice closed over the well of the pneumatic 
cistern. It should be supported by a wire stand, so as to 
leave the neck unobstructed. Any number of measures of 
nitrous gas, and of oxygen gas, or atmospheric air, may 
then be drawn into the measurer, and expelled into the 
spheroid successively, and the absorption estimated as al- 
ready explained. When the residuum is too great to be ex- 
pelled by returning the whole of the rod into the tube, by 
depressing the orifice of the spheroid just under the surface 
of water, the wire may be again gently retracted, water 
taking its place ; and the movement may thus be alter- 
nated, till the whole of the remaining gas is excluded. 

n order to apply this principle to Volta's process of as- 
certaining by explosion the quantity of hydrogen or oxy- 
gen gas present, in a mixture, the gas measurer is made as 
much stronger, as eudiometers are usually, when intended 
to be so used. It is in like manner drilled so as to receive 
wires for passing the electric spark. The instrument being 
charged with the gases successively in any required propor- 
tion, closed by the screw, and an explosion accomplished ; to 
fill any consequent vacuity, the orifice is to be opened just be- 
low the surface of water or mercury. The quantity destroy- 
ed by the combustion is then ascertained by the sliding wire. 

This experiment is more accurately performed by means 
of mercury than water. From this fluid, concussion, or 
even the partial vacuum produced by the gaseous matter, 
way extricate air, and thus vitiate results. There ought 
always to be a considerable excess of gas not liable to be 
acted on. The activity of the inflammation is lessened, 
and the unconsumed air breaks the shock. 

I have found the galvanic ignition produced by a small 
ealorimotor preferable to the electric spark. Suppose a 
piece of iron wire to be filed down in the middle for about 
one half of an inch to about one third of the original diam- 



1 



316 Hare's Eudiometers and Calorimotor* 






eter. The whole is cemented into the perforation drilled 
in the tube, so as that the smallest part may extend across 
the bore. The wire should then be cut off at about one 
third of an inch from the tube, so as to stand out from it 
on each side about that distance. If these protruding wires 
be severally placed in the forceps of a calorimotor and the 
plates subjected to an acid, the small part of the wire within 
the tube is vividly ignited, and any gas in contact with it 
must explode. The interior wire is best made of platina, 
and may in that case be screwed into two larger pieces of 
a baser metal ; or a baser metal may be fastened on it, by 
drawing through a wire plate, and the platina duly denuded 
by a file where it crosses the bore. 

The calorimotor which I have used for this purpose, con- 
sists of eleven plates of copper, and a like number of zinc, 
placed alternately within one-fourth of an inch of each 
other; those of the same kind of metal being all associated 
by means of a metallic stratum of tin cast over them. The 
two heterogeneous galvanic surfaces thus formed, have each 
soldered to them a wire in a vertical position, and slit, so 
as to present a fork or snake's mouth. The wires are just 
so far apart as to admit the gas measurer between them, so 
that the wires of the latter may easily be pressed into the 
snake mouths. It is better that the wires of the gas meas- 
urer should be flattened in such manner as to present a 
larger surface for contact. There must also be an oblong 
square box or hollow parallelopipedon of such a width as 
just to admit the calorimotor, and more than double its 
length and depth. The calorimotor is placed within this 
box, at one end of it, about an inch below the brim. Dilut- 
ed acid is poured in so as to occupy the lower half of the 
vessel, until it nearly reaches the plates. A plunger, con- 
sisting of a water tight box, or solid block of wood, is then 
made to occupy the other side of the little cistern. The 
depression of this causes the rise of the acid among the 
plates in the calorimotor, and consequently the ignition ol 
a wire forming a communication between the surfaces. 

This apparatus may be constructed in the circular form, 
by so placing two concentric coils, or several concentric 
hollow cylinders of copper and zinc, alternately within the 
upper half of a glass jar as to admit of a plunger in the mid- 
dle^ which in this case may be of an apothecaries stopper 















Hare's Eudiometers, fyc. 317 

round or bottle. The acid solution must occupy the lower 
half of the vessel, unless when the plunger raises it. 

I am under the impression that there is no form in which 



a pair of galvanic surfaces can be made so powerful in pro- 



portion to their extent, as in that above mentioned. The 
zinc is every where opposed by two copper surfaces by 
having this metal only a small fraction in excess. 

Explanation of the Plate. 

(See the end of the volume.) 

Fig. I. Sliding rod eudiometer or gas measure, sur- 
mounted by its spheroidal recipient, r r, sliding rod gradu- 
ated into twenty divisions, each subdivided into ten, so as 
to make two hundred parts. At m f, are male and female 
screws, (forming- what mechanics call a stuffing box,) by 
means of which a cork soaked in beeswax and oil is com- 
pressed about the rod. At n, is the neck of the recipient, 
ground to fit the recurved tube which enters it. At S, is 

a screw, by which to close the capillary orifice of the recip- 
ient. 

Fig. 2. Eudiometer upon the same principle, but made 
stouter, in order to resist the explosion of inflammable mix- 
tures. W W, wire to be ignited. 

Fig. 3. Displays a construction of the sliding rod, by 
which, when desirable, greater accuracy may be attained in 
the measurement of gas. A smaller rod or wire is made to 
slide within the larger. Whatever may be the ratio (in 
bulk) of the rods to each other, the lesser may be graduated 
to give thousanths, by ascertaining how far it must be mov- 
ed to produce the effect of a movement of one division on 
the larger rod, and dividing the observed distance into ten 
parts. 

Fig. 4. Represents an apparatus adapted to explode an 
inflammable mixture, as mentioned in the preceding article, 
and so contrived to be a substitute for the well known ap- 
paratus in which an electrophorns is employed to ignite hy- 
drogen gas. Moisture in the air suspends the action of that 
apparatus, but does not interfere with the one here repre- 
sented. 

Vol. II No. 2. 4J 



316 



Mare's Eudiometers, fyc. 



A A, a cistern divided by a water tight partition, which 
separates the air holder G, from a calorimotor situated un- 
der C, and a plunger P, contained in the other part of it. 
W W, wires severally soldered to the different galvanic sur- 
faces, and forked or slit at their ends, so as to embrace the 
wire of an eudiometer for the explosion of inflammable 



ding article. 



At f f, are 
holding a 



mixtures, as mentioned in the pr 

forceps (severally soldered in the same way) for 

wire to be ignited by the galvanic influence. 

These wires and the plates with which they are connect- 
ed may be seen at fig. 5, where there is an enlarged drawing 
of the calorimotor and its wires. 

It is supposed to be situated below the edge of the cis- 
tern, which is supplied with diluted acid reaching within a 
little distance of the plates. 

c, a cock soldered to a pipe communicating with the in- 

h h. a gallows and guide wire, for 
regulating the rise of the gasometer. 

The construction of this will be better comprehended 
from fig. 6, where t represents the tray for holding the zinc, 
by means of which hydrogen is to be evolved. The tray is 
supported on the pipe in the axis of the vessel by a sliding 
band and screw, so that it may be raised or depressed at 
pleasure. When this tray is covered with granulated zinc, 
and the lower vessel is filled with acid so as to cover it, 
hydrogen must be generated until it occupies so much of 

as to depress the acid from off the zinc 



side of the gasometer. 



the air holder 



Supposing the apparatus thus prepared, on depressing the 
plunger at P, fig. 4, the acid in the cistern A A, will be 
forced up among the galvanic surfaces, and cause the wire 
at f f to be ignited. ' " .-.«.< 



i 



Turning the cock while the wire is 



*ed hot the hydrogen will be emitted and inflamed 


















Analysis of the New- Jersey Ores of Zinc. 3M 



Art, XVL Analysis of two Zinc Ores from the United 
States of America ; by M. P. Bert hi er, Engineer in 
the royal Corps of Mines, (translated by the Editor from 
the A /males des Mines 3d Livraison Ann. 1819.*j 

These two minerals occur together and are very abun- 
dant. They compose the "principal part of a very thick 
and extensive metalliferous bed contained in a grauwacke 
formation in New- Jersey. They occur principally in 
Franklin, Sparta, Stirling, Rutgers, in the county of Sus- 
sex : they are accompanied by white laminated carbonate 
ol lime, quartz, a peculiar greenish yellow garnet, and some 
other substances. One of these minerals (the zinc ores) 
is orange red, the other is of a metallic black. We wilt 
examine them successively. 



1. The Manganesian Ox id of Zinc. 

It is to Bruce that we owe the knowledge of the red 
mineral.f In 1814, he published a description and analy- 
sis of it in the American Journal, (vol. 1, page 96 :) he 
iound it composed of 

Oxid of zinc, ------ 0.92 

Oxid of manganese and iron, - 0.08 

It was named from its composition manganesian oxid of 
zinc. I have subjected this ore to many trials, and have 
repeated the analysis in many forms ; like Bruce, I have 
found only oxid of zinc and oxid of manganese, but in pro- 
portions a little different from his, as will appear below. 

The manganesian oxid of zinc is of an orange red, ap- 
proaching blood red. It is in amorphous grains irregularly 
disseminated in the mass of the mineral : the fracture is 



la 



* The importance of these two ores, and respect to the memory of the 
te Dr. Bruce, who first made these ores known, have induced me to gfr* 
the memoir entire — Editor. 

t Mr. Maclure had already, in 1811, transmitted the New-Jersey mineral 

to M. Vau queli n, who extracted iwom it 

Protoxid of iron, - 0.45 

Oxid of zinc, about ------ 0.50 

And protoxid of manganese, - - - 0.05 

but it appears that this analysis was the result of a simple trial made upon 

the mixed mineral. 






I 



We are not told whether the odour of chlorine is perceptible.— &W** 



320 Analysis of the New-Jersey Ores of Zinc. 

brilliant, lamellar in one direction and slightly conchoida! 
in the other ; the thin slivers are transparent ; it is fragile, 
easily scratched by steel ; easily pulverized ; the powder is 
of a beautiful orange red- After long exposure to the air 
it becomes covered with a white pearly coating, which ap- 
pears to be composed of the carbonates of zinc and man- ; 
ganese. Its specific gravity, according to Bruce, is 6.22. 

With the common blowpipe it is infusible without addi- 
tion ; with borax it gives a yellowish translucent glass. 
Under the flame of the blowpipe fed by oxigen and hydro- 
gen it is volatilized, diffusing at the same time a brilliant 
white light. It loses nothing by calcination ; while it is ] 

hot it appears brown, but as it cools it gradually resumes 
its pristine colour. ■* j 

It easily dissolves in the cold in the mineral acids, and 
even in the acetic acid. During the solution heat is evolv- 
ed, but without effervescence, and the liquor remains col- 
ourless. Still, with the muriatic acid it produces a solu- 
tion of a brownish red, which, without the disengagement 
of any gas, gradually loses its colour : it is probable that a j 

little chlorine is really but very gradually disengaged.* 
The oxids of zinc and manganese appear to have a great 
disposition to unite, and their complete separation is very 
difficult. To accomplish this object, I have employed six 
processes, of which I proceed to announce the results. 

1. I have repeated the process of Bruce, which consists 
in pouring into a nitric solution of the two oxids the oxalic 
acid, as long as there is any precipitate, and then in wash- 
ing and calcining the residuum. Bruce regarded the cal- 
cined precipitate as pure oxid of zinc ; but I have remark- 
ed, that it always retains a very notable quantity of manga- 
nese, and that this is the reason why it always retains a foul 
yellow colour, more or less deep — a fact which Bruce ob- 
served without searching for the cause. The oxid of man- 
ganese is almost perfectly pure, and contains only that por- 
tion of iron, which, when the solution has not been made 
with the greatest caution, is accidentally present, Bruce, 
then, was able to obtain by thi) process, only an inferior 
quantity of manganese, to what really exists in the manga- 
nesian oxid of zinc. 












s 



Analysis of the New-Jersey Ores of Zinc. $Z\ 

2. I precipitated the two oxids from their solution, by 
means of an alkaline sub-carbonate, having taken the pre- 
caution to boil the liquor, that it might not retain any por- 
tion : I calcined the precipitate with the contact of air, till 
the manganese was oxidized to a maximum, and afterwards, 
in one trial, I treated it with nitric, and in another with 
acetic acid — I evaporated it gently to dryness, and treated 
it again with water. Oxid of manganese remained perfect- 
ly pure, but the solution which contained the zinc, retained 
also a notable quantity of manganese ; and when this solu- 
tion was precipitated by an alkaline carbonat, the calcined 
precipitate was of a dirty yellow, more or less deep. By 
treating this precipitate anew, by means of acetic acid, a 
little oxid of manganese is separated, but much the greater 
part always remains with the oxid of zinc. 

3. I precipitated the two oxids by caustic potash in ex- 
cess, and allowed it to digest for some time — it was then 
filtered. The liquor contained nothing but oxid of zinc ; 
but the residuum contained still a large quantity of this oxid, 
and it was necessary to redissolve, to precipitate anew by 
potash, and to repeat this operation many times, in order to 

complete the separation. 

4. I precipitated the solution of the mineral by an alka- 
line carbonate, and through this solution diluted with water, 
I passed a stream of chlorine in excess — I obtained a violet 
coloured liquor and a bJack residuum. The liquor being 
evaporated in the air, became colourless, and deposited 
pure oxid of manganese. The black residuum having been 
treated by acetic acid, now contained nothing but oxid of 
manganese. The two liquors containing the sane, were 
precipitated by a sub-earbonat. The calcined precipitate 
had a light yellow fcolour, and it was found to contain about 
ih part of its weight of oxid of manganese. It is proba- 
ble, that by washing very carefully with abundance of wa- 
ter, the precipitate of zinc and manganese, and by agitating 
it for a long time with chlorine, no particle of the carbonate 
of manganese would escape the action of this agent, and 
that the two metals would be perfectly separated. 

5. M. Berzelius has had the kindness to communicate to 
me the following method which has perfectly succeeded. 
I precipitated by an alkaline carbonate, washed the precipi- 
tate by decantation, digested it for sometime white still 






322 Analysis of the New- Jersey Ores of Zinc. 

moist, in ammonia ; it became immediately brown, and the 
filtred liquor gave by ebullition a white deposit, which, by 
calcination, became perfectly white ; it was the pure oxid 
of zinc : but I remarked that the deposit that was insoluble 
in ammonia, almost invariably contained oxid of zinc, some- 
times in considerable quantity. To remove it entirely we 
may redissolve and reiterate the same operation ; but it is 
better to calcine it, and to heat it with the acetic acid, which 
removes from it the greater part of the manganese, and to 
submit to the action of the ammonia only the deposit 
formed in the acetous fluid, by means of the alkaline car- 
bonate. In this manner we separate the tw r o oxids perfect- 
ly, and with the greatest precision. 

6. Indeed, I have thought, that the zinc being very vola- 
tile, and its oxid easily reducible, we may readily separate 
it, in the dry way, from the oxid of manganese* This was 
practically verified. The oxids were mixed with a deter- 
ninate weight of powdered charcoal, and the mixture pla- 



i 



ced dans un tet etroit, slightly hollowed, which was covered 
by a larger head, perforated in the upper part with little 
holes, a white heat was applied and a very abundant white 
vapour was disengaged. 

As soon as it was certain that this disengagement had 
ceased, the head was uncovered, and the matter winch it 
contained was roasted in order to burn out the remainin; 
charcoal ; the residuum, which was brown, was weighed, 
and to obtain the exact proportion of the manganese, the 
weight of the ashes which the charcoal would leave was 
subtracted, a weight which had been previously determined 
by experiment. The oxide of manganese proved on ex- 
amination not to contain the smallest quantity of zinc. 

All these trials almost exactly agree in giving for the re- 
sult of the analysis of the manganesian oxid of zinc : 

Oxid of zinc, - - - - 0,88 
Red oxid of manganese, - 0,12 



1,00 

It is difficult to say in what degree of oxidizement tiie 
manganese exists in this mineral. Its colour, and the ap- 
pearances which it presents with the muriatic acid^render 
it probable that it is, at least, in the state of deutoxid. 1° 
order to be certain that the union so difficult to be over- 












Analysis of the New~ Jersey Ores of Zinc. 323 

come, between the oxid of zinc and the oxid of manganese, 
aid not depend upon the intervention of any undiscover- 
ed substances, I dissolved pure oxid of zinc with the tenth 
part ot its weight of oxid of manganese, equally pure, and 
heated the solution by the process described under No. 2. 
I obtained, as in the case of the American mineral, an ace- 
tous solution, with which the alkaline carbonates formed a 
precipitate, that became, in consequence of calcination, of 
a dirty yellow, and contained manganese- 

II. The black zinciferous mineral, the FranJclhiiic. 



This mineral is composed of the oxid of iron, the oxid of 
manganese and the oxid of zinc. The association of these 
three oxids has never been before observed, and there is 
every reason to suppose that it constitutes a true species j 
but although it shall be discovered hereafter that these ox- 
i<is are merely mixed, which appears very improbable, 
this mixture will appear too remarkable not to be denoted 
always by a name. As the chemical nomenclature cannot 
in every instance furnish a name, I propose to give it that 
of the Franklinite 9 derived from Franklin, in order to re- 
mind us that it was found, for the first time, in a place to 
which the Americans have given the name of a great fnan, 
whose memory is venerated equally in Europe as in the 
new world by all the friends of science and humanity. 

The appearance of this mineral is much like that of the 
ter oxidule (magnetic iron.) It is of a metallic black, is 
Magnetic but without magnetic polarity ; it occurs in grain*, 
ov in amorphous masses which sometimes present crystal- 
line faces, but they are small and of rare occurrence, and do 
n °t enable us to determine the geometrical forms to which 
they belong ; the fracture is either uneven or conchoidal, or 
mnperfectly lamellar ; it is not very hard ; the powder is of 
a deep red brown, which distinguishes it from the magnetic 
tfon whose powder is black. The specific gravity is 4,87. 
It is scarcely affected by the muriatic acid in the cold ; 
but, by means of this acid, we can separate the carbonate of 
lime and the manganesian oxid of zinc, with which it is al- 
most always mixed, and thus we can obtain it perfectly pure. 
It dissolves very easily in hot muriatic acid, without effer- 
vescence but with a slight smell of chlorine. The analysis 






324 Analysis of the New- Jersey Ores of Zinc. 

is effected by dissolving it in muriatic acid, precipitating the 
solution by an alkaline carbonat, treating the wet precipitate 
by acetic acid to excess, evaporating to dryness by a gentle 
heat and removing the acetate of zinc and manganese by 
water ; the calcined residuum is found to be the pure tri- 
toxid of iron. As to the zinc and manganese, they are sep,- 
arated by the processes pointed out above. 

In a specimen from Franklin there were found : 

Peroxid of iron, - - - - 0,66 



Red oxid of manganese, - 0,16 
Oxidofzinc, - - - - - 0,17 



99 

As the Franklinite acts upon the magnetic needle, the 
iron cannot be in the state of per-oxid, but is probably 
oxidized in the second decree. It is evident that the man- 
ganese is at least, in the state of deutoxid, because the min- 
eral has a brown powder, gives with muriatic acid the 
odour of chlorine, and its muriatic solution contains the iron 
entirely in the maximum state of oxidizement. It is obvi- 
ous that during the solution the two oxids react upon one 
another, and that the oxid of iron passes to the maximum 
by taking away the oxigen from the oxid of manganese, 
which is, on the contrary, reduced to a minimum. 

For the purpose of verifying the result of the humid anal- 
ysis, I made the following trials : — 10 gr. of the franklinite 
were heated in a crucible brasque without addition at the 
temperature proper for the assay of iron. A metallic but- 
ton was obtained, to which adhered a very light greenish 
scoria ; the whole weighed 5 gr. 65 ; the button was of 
an iron grey, hard, but impressible by the file, and capable 
of assuming a beautiful polish ; it flattened under the ham- 
mer, and was broken with difficulty ; its fracture was grey 
and granular, the grains being crystalline ; it was analysed, 
and found to be an alloy of iron and manganese, without a 
' particle of zinc ; the loss in the experiment then represents 
the oxid of zinc, and the oxigen combined in the miners* 
with the iron and manganese. 


















Analysis of the New- Jersey Ores of Zinc. 325 
There were heated at the same temperature, in a cruci- 



ble " brasque 



franklinite, - - - - 10 gr. 

silex, - - - - - - 4 

alumine, ----- 1,50 

lime, 1.40 



Total, - - - 16.90 

There was obtained a button, weighing 12.77 



Loss, 



4.13 



which was owing to the volatilized zinc, the oxigen of the 
iron, &c. 

The fusion was perfect ; the metallic button weighed 
g4. 6 ; it flattened under the hammer, and the fracture was 
granular, and of various shades. The scoria was compact 
vitreous, transparent and green; it weighed 8.17 

Substract from it ------ 6.90 



There remains ------- 1.27 

which represents the oxid of manganese that it contains. 
The g4. 6 of the "fonte" correspond almost exactly with 
the 0.66 of the peroxid of iron discovered by analysis ; the 
metallic button ought to contain a little manganese, in the 
state of an alloy. 

The alloy obtained in the first trial, ought then to be com- 
posed nearly of 

Iron, - - - - 4.60 at most, - - - 0.S14 

Manganese, - - 1.05 at least, - - - 0.186 






5.65 , 1.000 

Lastly, on melting in a crucible u brasque" a mixture of 
peroxid of iron, red oxid of manganese, and oxid of zinc in 
the same proportions as in the franklinite, a button was ob- 
tained, precisely similar to that of the first trial. It is obvi- 
ous then that the analysis of the franklinite can be per- 
formed both in the dry and humid way. The results by 
the dry way favour the opinion that in the analysis in the 
humid way, there is a loss of some portion of the zinc. 

The minerals of New-Jersey may be advantageously 
turned to account in various ways. By assorting into one 
collection, the pieces in which the red mineral prevails, and 

Vol. II No. 2. 42 



326 



(i new process for nitrous Ether. 



into another those in which the franklinite is the prevailing 
part — the first can be employed as ores of zinc, to afford 
that metal by distillation, with charcoal, or to afford brass 
by fusion with copper and charcoal. If we stop at the ex- 
traction of the zinc, the residuum can be advantageously 
melted in the high furnace to obtain the "fq&ie" or at least 
it can be mixed for the same purpose, with the ores that 
are rich in franklinite. 

As these minerals contain a considerable quantity of man- 
ganese, and their principal gangue is carbonat of lime and 
garnet, it is probable that they can be treated in the high 
furnace, without addition, and that they will prove very fu- 
sible. A " fonte" of excellent quality may be obtained 
from them, and in all probability eminently adapted for the 
production of the natural steel, like that which comes from 
the ores of spathic iron. There would be deposited in the 
chimnies of the high furnaces, a considerable quantity of 
the oxid of zinc, as is the fact in Belgium, where this sub- 
stance is known under the name of cadmie des fourneaux 
ou Keiss ; it is the richest and best material which can be 
used for the preparation of zinc and brass. It is possible 
that the abundance of the Keiss may somewhat impede 
the operation of the high furnaces, and necessitate the adop- 
tion of some particular arrangements, to extract it with fa- 
cility ; but the value of this substance would pay for the 
trouble it might occasion. 

Finally, with the pure franklinite, which it will be very 
practicable to obtain, either by picking or washing, the trial 
can be made of preparing in the large w r ay, the same alloy 
of iron and manganese^ which I have obtained in the small 
way, and it can be seen whether it will not be better adapt- 
ed than the common "fonte" for various uses. 












Art. XVII. A new process for Nitrous Ether, by Profes- 
sor Robert Hare, M. D. 

The making of nitrous ether is a critical process. The 
action of the materials vviil often spontaneously increase so 
as to produce explosion. It may be conducted with ease 
and safety by means of a three necked bottle represented 
by Fig, 7, (in the plate which exhibits the eudiometers.) 















Description of a differential Thermometer. 32.1 

The two outermost necks are furnished with funnels, and 
the central one with a tube bent a little more than at right 
angles, and passing through ice to the bottom of a bottle 
surrounded by the same. The acid and alcohol ought to 
be very strong. Let a gill of the latter be poured into the 
bottle, and then add as much acid as will make it boil brisk- 
ly. When the effervescence relaxes, add more acid until 
the addition of this produces no great effect. Then add 
more alcohol, and again more acid, till the bottle becomes 
about one third full. The ether will be rapidly formed and 
collected in the bottle into which the recurved tube leads. 
This tube is represented in the plate of about one third of 
the proper length. There should be a triangular wooden 
Trough adapted to it for holding ice or snow. 

It might be an improvement if another neck were added 
through which the residual liquor might be drawn out. 
With this addition, the distillation of ether might be con- 
ducted in a wav analogous to that of the distillation of whis- 
key by the celebrated Scotch still. 



t g 

Art. XVIII. Description of a differential Thermometer > 
by W. Howard, M. D. Adjunct Professor of Anatomy 
in the University of Maryland.* 

This instrument is in imitation of Mr. Leslie's differen- 
tial thermometer, but is on a different principle. In his, 
the degree of heat is measured by the expansion of air, but 
in the present one by the increase of expansive force of the 
vapour of ether or spirit of wine in vacuo, which affords a 
test of great delicacy, and is easily constructed. 

f A tube (A) being first made with a ball at each extremi- 
ty, in one of which is left a small orifice, a portion of ether 
or spirit of wine is then introduced, and heat being applied, 
is brought to a state of active ebullition. At this moment 
the orifice is closed with a piece of wax, and finally hermet- 
ically sealed by the blowpipe. The tube may then be care- 

* From the London Quarterly Journal of Science. Literature and tbe Arts 
t See the figure at tbe end of the volume 










r 









Description of a differential Thermometer. 

fully bent in the form of a hook,* and the scale and foof 
being adapted, the instrument is finished. (B.) 

This thermometer is intended to be used in the same 
cases as that of Mr. Leslie, but I conceive it to possess some 
advantages. It is more delicate. When a heated body, as 
the hand, is approached to one of the balls, the liquid sensi- 
bly ascends or descends, and as soon as this cause is re- 
moved, begins instantly to return to its former level. 
Whereas in the air thermometer, the impulsion to the liquid 
is not instantaneous, and it continues to move in the same 
direction a moment after the heating cause is removed. 

If the two balls were freed entirely from air, the liquid . 

would always remain at the same level in each branch of J 

the tube, except a trifling difference caused by capillary at- 
traction. This perfection cannot be obtained by the most 
skilful artist; there always remains behind, notwithstandin 
all care to prevent it, a small residuum of air, which is suffi- 
cient to make a difference in the height of the two columns. 









To obviate this inconvenience, before the scale is adapted, 
the liquid is all to be brought into one ball, and the instru- 
ment is then reversed and left for a considerable time in 
that position, that both balls may acquire an equal tempera- 
ture, and the small portion of air may be equally diffused 
through them. It is then to be restored to its proper posi- 
tion, and the point at which the liquid finally settles, is to be 
marked as the commencement of the scale. The same op- 
eration is to be repeated whenever the instrument has been 
deranged by transportation or other causes. 

If it were possible to employ constantly ether or spirit of 
wine of exactly the same degree of strength, it is plain from j 

the laws investigated by Mr. Dalton, that the scale would 
be constantly uniform ; but as this is not easily obtained it j 

is arbitrary. I have hitherto used the division of the mil- * 

limetre of France.f 

Note.— This thermometer is made by Pixii Dumotiez, Rue du jardinel r j 

Paris, and by Mr. Newman, Lyle-sfree't, London. 

* The upper ball being slightly be»t over to contain a small portion of 
liquid. 

t The best mode of constructing (he above instrument, is to bend the 
tube previous to the introduction of the ether, a considerable portion ot 
>vhich should be boiled out of the tube, in order to ensure the expnlsion ct 















Description of a differential Thermometei: 



M9 



* 



* 



* 



»» 

T.- 



* 



Heat in the rays of the Moon. 

Extract of a letter from Dr. Howard, dated August 29, 1820, to 



the Editor of the American Journal of Science, fyc. 



.; 



fi 



aware, to discover 



an> 



heating power in the lunar rays, by means of a common 



thermometer, have been unsuccessful. Indeed this instru- 
ment, however skilfully constructed, is not sufficiently deli- 
cate to be affected by the heat of the rays of the moon, 
which, if it bears any proportion to the light of the same 
rays, must be extremely small ; as Dr. Smith concludes 
(Optics, Vol. I.) that the light of the full moon is to that of 
our day only as 1 to 90.000. 

Having blackened the upper ball of my differential ther- 
mometer, I placed it in the focus of a thirteen inch reflect- 
ing mirror, which was opposed to the light of a bright full 
moon. The liquid began immediately to sink, and jn half 
a minute was depressed 8°, where it became stationary. 
On placing a skreen between the mirror and the moon, it 
rose again to the first level, and was again depressed on re- 
moving this obstacle. I repeated this experiment several 
times to satisfy myself and some of my friends who happen- 
ed to be present, that there was no fallacy in the conclusion 
of its being a positive proof of the calorific power of the lu- 
nar rays, and at the same time affording an evidence of the 
great delicacy of the instrument." 



atmospheric air \ it is also convenient to tinge the ether of a red colour, bjr 
the addition of a drop of tincture of cochir* al. 

I have constructed upon the same principle a photometer, and an etbrio- 
scope, both of which, though liable to some objections, are most curiously 
sensible to the impression of light, and to the frigoriSc emanations of the 
heavens. I have also employed a modification of the same instrument a? 
photometric thermometer, which I have found useful in comparative experi- 
ments upon the light of different (lames. For this purpose, the instrument 
is constructed as shewn in the engraving, by Dr. Howard ; the upper ball is 
then covered by a thin coating of Indian ink, and the other with gold leaf, 
applied by a dilute spirit-varnish ; it is then covered by a thiu glass shade. 
Upon bringing a caudle near the black, or sentient ball, that is within the 
distance of fourteen inches, or one foot, it produces an instantaneous de- 
pression of the column of liquid. Placing this instrument at the distance 
of sixteen inches from the flame of a was candle, it Fell i° in V. A gas 
flame which I had previously ascertained, by a comparison of shadows, t© 
give the light of eight wax candles, caused a depression ef 10° in V, when 

placed at the same distance frera the instrument VT. T. B 



330 



Account of a new inflammable Air Lamp, 



Art. XIX. Account of a new inflammable Air Lamp, b*. 

Professor Jacob Green, of Nassau Hall. 



TO PROFESSOR SILLIMAN. 



Princeton, Feb. 11th, 1820, 
Dear Sir, 

The great facility with which hydrogen gas may be in- 
flamed by even a moderate electric spark, suggested to 






Volta his inflammable air lamp. This, with a slight altera- 
tion, was patented, as a source of instantaneous light; and 
is usually found among the electrical apparatus of every 
person who has a taste for philosophical experiments 
One inconvenience attending the use of this ingenious con- 
trivance, was, that the reservoir containing the hydrogen 
gas soon became expended, and could not, without some 
trouble, be replenished. Gay Lussac, however, not very 
long ago, removed this defect by suspending a bar of zinc 
in the apparatus, so as to produce by a sort of self-action, as 
much gas as was exhausted. There is another fault which 
has not been so happily removed; the electrophorus which 
is connected with this instrument, is, like all other electrical 
machines, so influenced in its action by the state of the 
weather, that there are some seasons when the smallest 
spark cannot be obtained. It has been my object in the 
little contrivance described in this communication, to point 
out a way in which electrical fire may be obtained, inde- 
pendent of the state of the atmosphere. 

Description. 

(Seethe plate nt the end of the volume.) 

A. B. C. D. is a square box, of mahogany, made per- 
fectly air tight. At A. and C. small brass cocks are screw- 
ed into it, so as to form a communication with the inside. 
E. is a glass tube, open at both ends, passing through the 
top of the box, and extending within a short distance of the 

k jj XT T :_ _ l ?_~ ^IsX. •v.^^+U P SUCH 



om. 



K. L. is a glass iar, with an open mouth P- such 



as is commonly used for collecting gases. 



piec« 












* 












Account of a new inflammable Air Lamp. 



331 









of wood, two inches thick, with a groove turned in its top, 
in which the jar K. L. is fitted. There is also a hole, 
through which the tube E. passes, and terminates. F. is 
a small calorimoter, which is surrounded by the jar K. L. 
From the bottom of the calorimoter, proceed the two wires 
N. O. (which connect the poles of the instrument) through 
II. S. M. is a small blowpipe, with stop cocks, which com- 
municates by means of a glass tube, with the interior of the 
jar K. L. ; this tube must reach a little above the calorimo- 
ter, on the inside of the jar. G. is a glass vessel, placed in 
the jar above the calorimoter, the contents of which must 
be about one third more than that part of the jar which 
contains the calorimoter. H. is a vessel of like capacity 
with G. having an open mouth I, and a glass tube G. H. 
open at both ends, passing from the bottom, through P. and 
terminating at the bottom, within the glass vessels G. It 
is scarcely necessary to add, that all the joining of this in- 
strument must be perfectly air tight. 

To use the instrument. 

Remove vessel H. and drop a few small pieces of zinc 
into G. through P. ; then fill G. with a weak solution of sul- 
phuric acid and water ; pour it also into the box A. B. C. 
D. ; through this stop cock A. till on a level with Y. Z. ; 
then by blowing with the mouth into the box at A. the air 
above the fluid being compressed, will be forced up into the 
jar K. L. through this glass tube E. ; and when the jar is 
completely full, turn the cock at A. and adjust the vessel H. 
in its place* Hydrogen gas will quickly be formed ; the 
acidulous water in G. will be forced up into H ; then by 
turning the cock A. the remaining water in K. L. will de- 
scend through E into the box below, and leave the jar filled 
with the gas ; the fluid at the same time descending from 
H. into G. Now, if you wish to set fire to the hydrogen, 
place a small iron or platina wire from N. to O. blow up 
die acidulous fluid into the calorimoter by the stop cock A; 
the wire will be instantly heated, and by turning the stop 
cock of the blowpipe M. so that the gas may strike the 
heated wire, it will be inflamed, and a taper may be light- 
ed. The action of the acidulous fluid on the zinc of the 
calorimoter, will furnish as much gas as will be consumed ; 



332 



Cutbush on the Voltaic Lamp 



but, should there be an unusual consumption of gas, it may 
be supplied by suspending a bar of zinc in the vessel G. 
the lower end of which should reach only one third below 
the brim of the vessel ; the reason for which will be obvious 
to those who understand the structure of the instrument. 
The stop cock at C. is for drawing off the acidulated water, 
when it becomes saturated with the zinc. 

The calorimoter which I use differs a little in construc- 
tion from those commonly made, and perhaps has some ad- 
vantages. The following is a description of it : Take a 
sheet of copper, say four inches wide, and eighteen or twen- 
ty inches long; bend it in the form represented' in Fig. 2. 
(see the plate at the end of the volume,) which is preserved 
in the required shape by a band of the same metal sur- 
rounding it ; the intervals between each fold should be 
about an inch; then cast in proper moulds plates of zinc, ol 
different sizes, so as to slide between these interstices, 
reaching from the bottom to the top, the edges of which 
should be grooved into little strips of wood, in order to pre- 
vent contact with the" copper ; all these plates of zinc should 
be connected together by a strip of copper along their up- 
per edges. By this construction these plates can be easily 
removed, and cleaned whenever required. With an in- 
strument of the above dimensions, I have melted off line 
iron wire. 









I 












Art. XX. Account of an improvement in the Electrical 
Lamp , hy Dr. James Cutbush, of Philadelphia, in fl 
letter to the Editor. 



TO PROFESSOR S1LLIMAN. 



Philadelphia, March 15, 1820 



Sir, 



Some years ago, I purchased an inflammable air lamp, 
commonly called the Voltaic Lamp, made on the original 
construction, which I laid by, as not only troublesome to 
use, but very uncertain in its operation. A description oi 
the apparatus with its appendages, may be seen in Adams" 



J 


















Cutbush on the Voltaic Lamp. 333 

Philosophy, vol. 2, page 93, American edition. Since the 
original was contrived by Mr. Volta, aided by Dr. Ingen- 
houz, several very important improvements have been 
made — more especially that arrangement by which gas is 
formed in the bottle extemporaneously, and of course with- 
out the use of an additional bottle and syphon, or the pre- 
vious filling of bladders with hydrogen gas, a mode hereto- 
fore adopted both by Volta and Ingenhouz. In the appa- 
ratus which I procured, before it was altered I was obliged 
to fill the bottle with water, remove the stop cock and its 
connexion with the string from the electrophorus, and adapt 
a syphon coming from a bottle or flask containing dilute 
sulphuric acid and iron or zinc filings ; and when filled 
with gas, to pour water into the upper vessel, in order to 
force it out when the cock was turned, which causes by its 
connexion with the plate of the electrophorus the transmis- 
sion of the electric fluid, and of course its passage between 
the two conducting points. Filling the gas bottle in this 
way with gas, is at all times attended with trouble. Not 
possessing one of the improved kind, which obviates this 
inconvenience, I thought of having mine altered, w r hich I 
had done, and found it to answer the purpose. The alter- 
ation consisted in removing a brass tube, which went from 
the lower to the upper vessel, and substituting in its place 
a glass one, which was attached and cemented to the 
upper vessel, so that w r hen it was inserted in the bottle, and 
the upper screwed to the lower vessel, it would occupy 
such a distance as to be equivalent to the capacity of the 
water holder, a circumstance necessary to be attended to, 
in order to prevent the fluid when the gas is generated in 
the bottle from running over. It is obvious, therefore, that 
according to this improvement, all that is necessary is to fill 
the bottle with a mixture of sulphuric acid and water, in 
the proportion of about one of the former to eight of the 
latter, and throw in as occasion requires through the tube, 
when the upper is screwed to the lower vessel, either zinc 
or iron filings. The gas, as it is generated, \riil cause the 
fluid to rise in the tube into the upper vessel, which is al- 
ways ready by its pressure, when the cock is turned, to 
force it through the aperture so as to come in contact with, 
the spark. The bottle containing the diluted acid will last 
many months without being renewed, and when the satwra- 

Vol. II No. 2. 43 



334 Cuibush on the Voltaic Lamp. 

tion has been completed, and sulphate of iron or of zinc? 
formed, as the case may be, the quantity of water will al- 
ways prevent its crystallization. Hence it is a matter of 
some moment to have the acid sufficiently diluted. 

In consequence of some defect or imperfection in the 
electrophorus cake, or of its splitting, which sometimes 
happens, I have found it necessary to remelt it, or to make 
a new one, by melting the best yellow rosin, and adding a 
small quantity of Spanish brown. Having melted the rosin, 
it was poured into a shallow dish made of tin plate, and left 
to cool undisturbed, not permitting however any bubbles to 
appear on its surface. 

The electrophorus belonging to my apparatus, when ex- 
cited will retain its effect for many months. I excited it in 
the usual manner, by gently warming it, and rubbing it with 
a foxtail, catskin, or silk handkerchief ; the former of which 
I found preferable. When thus excited, I have been suc- 
cessful in producing a spark even in the dampest weather. 
It requires, however, that the box, which contains the elec- 
trophorus, should be kept as tight as possible. 

There is one defect which in fact is inseparable from the 
construction of the cock ; namely, that however perfectly 
tight it may be, by frequent use it becomes loose, and suf- 
fers the gas to escape gradually. To prevent this, and to 
make the cock as tight as possible, I have used various ex- 
pedients, but the following I find preferable : mix a portion 
of tallow with finely pulverized plumbago, so as to render 
the whole as stiff as possible ; then apply it to the cock. 

From observation I have found, that hydrogen gas pre- 
pared by using zinc, makes its escape more readily than 
that prepared with iron filings ; for, under the same cir- 
cumstances, the former I have discovered to disappear 
sometimes in twenty-four hours, while the latter has re- 
mained more than a week. In consequence of this cir- 
cumstance, I employ iron filings in preference to those oi 
zinc, although we know that the gas from the latter is 
much purer and consequently lighter, whereas that procur- 
ed by using iron filings contains more or less carbon, and O 
consequently impure. 

The lamp answers every purpose, and I find it more cer- 
tain for lighting a candle than any other contrivance, and 
therefore preferable to any which I have tried ; having used 















Grave*' Meteor. 335 

at different times the phosphoric match bottle, the pocket 
lights, the condensing syringe, flint and steel, &c. I am 
aware, however, that the Voltaic lamp is not much used, 
and has been even laid aside, in consequence of the uncer- 
tainty of its operation. But from experience I can say, that 
since I have had the alteration made, I have seldom been 
disappointed in producing flame, and the apparatus is now 
always in order. The only thing to be attended to is, to 
throw in as occasion requires, some iron filings ; the quan- 
tity of which at a time will be readily known. One cubic 
inch of gas will light the taper at least ten times, if the cock 
is quickly turned. Therefore, from the quantity of gas, we 
may calculate the number of times we may light a candle. 



Art. XXI. Account of a gelatinous Meteor, by Rufu 
Graves, Esq. formerly Lecturer on Chemistry at Dart- 
mouth College, (communicated by Professor Dewey-) 

On the evening of the thirteenth day of August, 1819, 
between the hours of eight and nine o'clock, was seen in 
the atmosphere, at Amherst, Massachusetts, a falling meteor 
or fire ball, of the size, as represented by an intelligent 
spectator, of a man's hat, or a large blown bladder, of a 
brilliant white light resembling burnished silver. 

The position of this spectator being in a direct line of 
the street where the luminous ball appeared, and at the 
distance of not more than five hundred yards, with the 
sight bounded by the buildings, there could be no decep- 
tion relative to the direction that it took. Its altitude, at 
its first discovery, was two or three times the height of the 
houses ; it fell slowly in a perpendicular direction, emitting 
great light, till it appeared to strike the earth in front of 
the buildings, and was instantly extinguished, with a heavy 
explosion. At the same instant, as appeared from the re- 
port, and from the ringing of the church bell, an unusually 
white light was seen a few minutes afterwards, by two la- 
dies in a chamber of Mr. Erastus Dewey. While they 
were sitting with two candles burning in the room, a bright 
luminous circular spot suddenly appeared on the side wall 
of the chamber near the upper floor in front of them, of 

the size of a two feet stand-table leaf This spectrum rie- 







form, resembl 



about eight inches in diameter, and something more than 
one in thickness, of a bright buff colour, with a fine nap 
upon it similar to that on milled cloth, which seemed to 
defend it from the action of the air. On removing the 
villous coat, a buff coloured pulpy substance of the consis- 
tence of good soft soap, of an offensive, suffocating smell 
appeared ; and on a near approach to it, or when immedi- 
ately over it, the smell became almost insupportable, pro- 
ducing nausea and dizziness A few minutes exposure to 
the atmosphere changed the buff into a livid colour resem- 
bling venous blood. It was observed to attract moisture 
ve y> r ^adily from the air. A half-pint tumbler was nearly 
half filled with the substance. It soon began to liquify an4 
form a mucilaginous substance of the consistence, colour, 
ant feeling of starch when prepared for domestic use- The 
tumbler was then set in a safe place, where it remained 
undisturbed for two or three days ; and when examined 
afterwards, the substance was found to have all evaporated, 
except a small dark coloured residuum, adhering to the 






33t> Graves' Meteor. 

scended slowly with a tremulous motion nearly to the low- 
er floor and disappeared. 

In critically examining the chamber where the foregoing 
henomenon was observed, it appeared that the light must 
ave entered through the east front window in a diagonal 
direction, and impinged on the north wall of the chamber 
back of the ladies, and thence reflected to the south wall in 
front of them, forming the circular spectrum, with the cor- 
responding tremulous motion of the meteor, and descend- 
ing with it in the same direction, according to the fixed 
laws of incidence and reflection. 

Early on the ensuing morning, was discovered in the 
door yard of the above mentioned Erastus Dewey, at about ¥ 

twenty feet from the front of the house, a substance unlike 
any thing before observed by any one who saw it. The 
situation in which it was found, being exactly in the direc- 
tion in which the luminous body was first seen, and in the 
only position to have thrown its light into the chamber, (as 
before remarked,) leaves no reasonable doubt that the sub- 
stance found was the residuum of the meteoric body. 

This substance when first seen by the writer was entire* 
no part of it having been removed. It was in a circular 






bottom upwards, 

































Crystallization of Snow. 



337 



bottom and sides of the glass, which, when rubbed between 
the fingers, produced a fine ash-coloured powder without 
taste or smell; the whole of which might have been inclu- 
ded in a lady's thimble. 

The place where the substance was first found was exam- 
ined, and nothing was to be seen but a thin membranous 
substance adhering to the ground similar to that found on 
the glass. 

This singular substance was submitted to the action of 
acids. With the muriatic and nitric acids, both concen- 
trated and diluted, no chemical action was observed, and 

With the concentrated 
Sulphuric acid a violent effervescence ensued, a gaseous 
body was evolved, and nearly the whole substance dissol - 
ed. There being no chemical apparatus at hand, the 
evolving gas was not preserved, or its properties examined. 



the matter remained unchanged. 



Art. XXII. On the crystallization of Snow, by Professor 

Jacob Green, of Nassau Hall, Princeton. 

The crystallization of snow has for a long time excited 
the attention of the curious ; few accurate observations 
however have been made upon it. Like the other phenom- 
ena of crystallization, this process is involved in much ob- 
scurity. Beccaria supposed that the regularity often no- 
ticed in these crystals was owing to electricity, and this will 
probably be found the true cause, not only in regard to 
snow but in every other instance of crystallization. W<* 
know that certain changes in the forms of substances are al- 
ways connected with electrical effects, as for instance when 
vapour is formed or condensed, the bodies in contact with the 
vapours become electrical. Haiiy has rendered it extreme- 
ly probable that the integrant particles of matter always 
combine in the same body in the same manner, and that the 
combination is occasioned by cohesive attraction. May 
we not rationally suppose that what is called electrical po- 
larity would induce them to cohere, not promiscuously, but. 
in certain determinate forms. I need not here repeat the 
experiments which prove that the phenomena of electrical 
polarity are precisely analogous to those of magnetism, or 
that magnets will produce asteroidal figures with steel filings. 

With these hints I leave the theoretical part of the subject. 












338 Crystallization of Snow. 

On the 16th of March, (1819) at 5 o'clock P. M. I had 
the pleasure of observing the beautiful asteroidal figures 
sometimes assumed by flakes of snow. On examination 
each appeared to be composed of six thin spicule, diverging 
like rays from a centre. There was but little or no wind, 
and Farenheit's thermometer stood at 33°. The figures 
which I observed are exhibited in the plate at the end of 
the volume, and the numbers annexed to them corrrespond 
With those in the following description. 

No. 1. This is a simple hexagonal star, the radii were ol 
equal lengths and the angles of convergence being equal, 
each angle was of course 60°. 

No. 2. This crystal differs from No. 1, only in the length , 

and breadth of the spiculse, they were shorter and broader. 

No. 3. A simple star, except that the radii proceed 
from a central knob. 

No. 4. The same as the last, differing from it only in 
having the radii bifurcated at the end. 

No. 5. Differing from No. 4 in having three prongs at 
the extremity of the radii. 

No. 6. The radii pinnated near the centre, giving the ap- 
pearance of regular hexagonal figures one within the other, 
about half the distance between the pinnoe and the ex- 
tremity of each radius there was a knob. 

No. 7. Pinnated as No. 6, but without the knob, and 
having each radius trifurcated at the end. 



& 


















When the snow commenced falling, the above figures 
were more distinct and durable, but they could occasionally 
be discovered for about an hour amid the amorphous flocculi. 
Just as the crystals No. 6 and 7 began to melt, their pinna- 
ted radii were most brilliant, assuming somewhat the ap- 
pearance of prismatic drops of dew. The figures were not 
all of the same dimensions ; their principal difference was 
similar to that stated in Nos. 1 and 2. These figures were 
examined both with the single microscope and the naked 
eye ; when not pinnated they were viewed with the most 
satisfaction without using a glass. 

M. DeRattee, who has published an interesting article on 
this subject in the French Encyclopaedia, states, that regu- 
lar crystals of snow do not often occur, but that the flakes 
are commonly of an irregular and unequal figure. He also 















Crystallization of Snow 



339 



remarks it is worthy of observation that the different sorts of 
crystals are scarcely ever seen during the same fall of 
snow, the varieties appearing at different hours of the day 
or on different days. I am of opinion they occur more fre- 
quently than is here supposed, and that different crystals 
are seen during the same fall of snow. We have besides 
the instance now noticed, the authority of Dr. John Netts, 
who has published a paper in the 49th Vol. (1756) of the 



L — 7 — — w 

)f observing the wonderful configurations of 



>/ 



i 



In one day and night (he ob- 



serves) I found fifteen, twenty or more particles of snow dif- 
ferently formed, such as Olaus Magnus mentions, and in the 
year 1740, on the 11th, 12th, 13th, 21st and 23d of January, 
and also on the 6th, 23d and 24th of February, I had an op- 
portunity of delineating eighty different admirable figures of 
snow, and of observing their numberless varieties. 

Accompanying this paper there are figures of ninety-one 
of these beautiful configurations ; the size of them is much 
less than those observed by me on the 16th of March, and 
as they were examined with a double microscope, greater 
complexity was noticed. Most of Dr. Netts' figures are 
hexagonal, but some of the stars exhibited twelve radii. 

In April 1817, Dr. P. S. Townsend read before the Ly- 
ceum of Natural History of New-York, a very interesting 
Hiemoiq on the crystallization of snow. In this paper the 
Doctor has collected most of the facts known respecting this 
subject, and has referred to the writers who have considered 
*t. His communication w T as published in the American- 
Monthly Magazine for May, 1818. 



* 



* 



* 



*- 



■fc 



* 



Some time since an account of stellar snow was forwarded 
to us by Dr. Jacob Porter of Plainfield ; it was described 
as being " in the most regular and beautiful crystals, each 
crystal consisting of six rays diverging from a common cen- 



r 



tre, and each ray of a number of inferior rays proceedin 
from it in a pinnate form. 5 ' The forms observed by Dr. 
Porter will be found among those delineated by Profe-soF 
Green. — [Ed.] 



340 



Foreign Literature and Science. 






INTELLIGENCE AND MISCELLANIES. 



« 



Foreign Literature and Science. 

(Communicated by "Professor Griscom, of New-York.) 

The number of books in all the public libraries of Ger- 
many, (including Austria and Prussia,) amounts at least to 
four millions, without reckoning memoirs, pamphlets, peri- 
odical publications, dissertations, and manuscripts. 

Professor Goerg, of Leipsick, has proved, it is said, very 
satisfactorily, that the vinegar of wood (pyrolignous acid J 
possesses all the antiseptic powers that have been ascribed 
to it. Anatomical preparations, and other animal substan- 
ces, in which putrefaction had commenced, were complete- 
ly restored by contact with this acid. An animal body 
in the opinion of this professor, may be readily converted 
into a mummy by this substance. The discovery of this 
acid is likely to become important to anatomy, domestic 
economy, and medicine. 

In the empire of Austria, there are no less than twenty- 
three botanic gardens. 

The unfolding of the manuscripts of Herculaneumu is car- 
ried on with very considerable success by a chemical pro- 
cess, under the direction of Sir H. Davy. Of one thousand 
six hundred and ninety-six pieces which have been found, 
eighty-eight have been happily unrolled, and the writing 
is very legible ; three hundred and nineteen are not legible, 
and twenty-four have been given as presents to foreign 
princes. There remain one thousand two hundred and 
sixty-five, of which one hundred, or one hundred and twen- 
ty will, it is hoped, be saved from oblivion. 

A plant, called Chinininha by the natives of Peru, has 
been analyzed at Madrid. It proves to be an excellent 
febrifuge. 



i 






i 












J 





















Foreign Literature and Science. 341 

The number of new works and new impressions offered 
for sale at the fair of Leipsic last year, by three hundred 
and thirty-six booksellers, amounted to three thousand one 
hundred and ninety-four. 

I 

Senifelden, the original inventor of the Lithographic ^rt, 
(printing on stone,) has contrived a substitute for the carbo- 
nate of lime, used for that purpose, which has hitherto been 
found in perfection only in Bavaria. He forms an artificial 
plate, of stony substances, attached \o paper, which he calls 
Papyrographic, It is said to possess great advantages. 
The machines are offered for sale at Paris, at from twenty 
to thirty dollars each. 

A new method of taking the lives of animals destined 
for the market, w T hich greatly diminishes their sufferings, is 
now employed in London. It is effected by means of azot- 
ic gas. The meat, it is said, retains its freshness better, 
has a more agreeable taste, and is more easily preserved. 
The greater number of the butchers are in the use of thb 
method. Rev. Ency. de Paris, Jan. 1820. 

An Academy of Natural Sciences has been formed at 
Cadiz, which holds its sittings in one of the halls of the 
medical and surgical college. 

At the village of Chatiauneuf, in the department of the 
lower Alps, in France, a church was struck by three suc- 
cessive thunder bolts, on the 11th of July, 1SI9, about II. 
A. M. during the installation of a new Rector. The com- 
pany were nearly all thrown down, many of them were driv- 
en out of the door, eighty-two were wounded, and nine kill- 
ed. The priest who was celebrating mass, was not affected, 
on account, it is believed, o( his silken dress. All the dogs 
in the church were killed. The house was filled with black 
smoke. 

Hot water is now carried through the streets of Paris for 
the purpose of supplying baths in private houses. It is 
transported in large casks, in which are stoves, so construct- 
ed, that the heat is spent almost entirely in raising the tem- 
perature of the water. It is forced from the cask- through 



Vol. TT No. 2. 44 






342 



Foreign Literature and Science 



>• 



pipes, into the apartment required, and afforded at a very 
moderate price. 

JVL Gonord, of Paris, has discovered the art of enlarging 
or diminishing the scale or size of an engraving on copper, 
without changing the plate ; in other words, if an engraved 
plate of copper be given to him, he can make use of it in 
such a manner as to obtain impressions of any size he pleas- 
es, either greater or less than those of the plate. From 
the plates of a folio atlas, for example, he can produce an 
atlas in octavo, and without changing the plates. He is 
able, also, by the methods he adopts, to make impressions 
upon various materials, as paper, metal, porcelain, marble, 
&tc. An. de Chimiej Jan. 1820. 

Steam Navigation is now making a rapid progress in 
- Great Britain. There are on the river Clyde, twenty-five 
steam boats, the largest of which has a burden of ninety-one 
tons, and the least of thirty-five. Twelve of these boats 
pass between Glasgow and Greenock. There are four steam 
boats on the Frith of Forth, which are said to carry during 
the summer five hundred passengers daily. 

Steam boats also ply on the Fay, the Humber, the 
Trent, the Thames, the Dee and the Mersey. Passengers 
are now conveyed by steam from Liverpool to Belfast and 
Glasgow, and from Dublin to Holyhead. 

The Scotch are very locomotive. The number of pas- 

the Forth and Clyde" 
canal, between Glasgow and Edinburgh, amounted in 1818 
to ninety-four thousand two hundred and fifty ; between 
Glasgow and Paisley on the Ardrossan canal, fifty-one thou- 
sand seven hundred ; and from Glasgow along the Monk- 
land canal, eighteen thousand. 

It is calculated that a person has fifteen hundred opportu- 
nities of leaving London in the course of twenty-four hom> 
by stage coaches, including the repeated trips of the coaches 
which run short distances. It is understood that three hun- 
dred stage coaches pass through Hyde. Park corner daily. 

It appears by a note in the 16th number of the Journal oi 
the Royal Institution of London, that the pyrolignous acid 



sengers who were conveyed a Ion 



. 












/ 















Foreign Literature and Science. 



343 



was known as early as 1661, and its property of converting 



minium into sugar of lead. 



w 



Homer's Iliad. — A copy of Homer's Iliad has been dis- 
covered in the Ambrosian library of Milan which appears to 
be of the fourth century, nearly six ages older than that on 
which the editions of Homer are founded. It contains six* 
ty pictures equally ancient. They are on vellum. The 
characters of the manuscript are square capitals, according 
to the usage of the best ages, without distinction of words, 
without accents, or the aspirates ; that is to say without 
any sign of the modern Greek orthography. 

Heat of a Vacuum. — Gay Lussac has shown by experi- 
ment that when a delicate air thermometer is enclosed in a 
vacuum, and that vacuum is suddenly either enlarged or di- 
minished no change whatever takes place in the thermome- 
ter. But if the smallest quantity of air be admitted, the 
compression, or more properly the diminution of the space 
occasions an elevation of temperature, and the enlargement 
occasions cold. This result he seems to consider as 
strengthening the hypothesis that caloric is not matter, or 
that it does not exist independent of matter. — An. de 
Chimie, Mar. 1820. 

Education in Africa. — At the French settlements of St. 
Louis in Senegal, a school has been opened on the system of 
mutual instruction. It is attended by one hundred and fifty 
children. The kings of Galam and of Bambouk, more than 
two hundred leagues in the interior, have sent their children 
to this school. Lessons have been prepared both in the 
French and Yolof languages. Mr. Dard, the director of 
the school, has prepared a grammar and a dictionary of the 
Yolof (or Wolof.) He has also translated into that language 
the Old and New Testament. A school of fifty girls is also 

there by French nuns. Several African princes 
have visited the schools, and measures have been taken te 
establish others in the interior. The Senegal children pos- 
sess great aptitude for instruction. They read, write and 
calculate with facility. Several of the monitors have be- 
come qualified to conduct other schools. The teacher- 



taught 






> 



44 Foreign Literature and Science* 



. (Dard) appears to be a man of great mind* The establish- 
ment at St. Louis is under the direction of the Education 
Society in Paris. 

A society is to be established in Edinburgh for the pro- 
motion of arts, similar to that in London, and connected 
with a repository of models on the plan of that at the Adel- 

phi. 



The king of Denmark has granted a pension of two hun- 
dred crowns during two years, to four persons distinguished 
for their knowledge, to encourage them to travel in foreign 



countries. 



Dr. Pcrref, of Switzerland, has found that the roots of 
the Plantain. (Plantago major, minor, et latifolia,) is an 
excellent febrifuge. 

i 

Literature of the Loir Countries. — During the first quar- 
ter of the present year there have appeared in the low 
countries (kingdom of Holland) three hundred and eighty- 
ix new publications, of which eighty-eight are original ; 
of these sixty are in Dutch, nine in French, four in Flem- 
ish, four in Latin, and eleven in other lansiuases. 

Bohea tea has been successfully cultivated in the depart- 
ment of Arriege in France. 









Necrology. — Sir Charles Blagden, the celebrated Eng- 
lish Philosopher* died at the house of Count Berthollet, 
Arceuil, hear Paris, on the 26th of March last. He was 
eighty years of age, and retained to the last the sprightli- 
ness and vivacity of middle age. He spent much of his 
time in France, and was a diligent frequenter of the Insti- 
tute, where he held an honourable seat. He was noted for 






pursuing the most exact plan in the distribution of his time 
in his meals, his visits, he. He kept a journal of passing 
events, in which were found the occurrences of the morn- 
ing preceding his death. He kept up a regular correspon- 
dence with his friend, Sir Joseph Banks. He left a con- 
siderable fortune, and was very liberal towards the poor. 









/ 









\ 



Foreign Literature and Science. 345 

Volney, the French traveller and philosopher, died on 
The 22d of April last, aged sixty-three. 

New Jllkalies. — Two new vegetable Alkalies have been 
discovered by French Chemists, which they have named 
Brucine and Delphine. The first is found in what the 
discoverers (Pelletin and Co\enton) call false Angustura 
bark, (Brucca Anti-dysenterica.) It crystallizes in oblique 
quadrangular prisms, colourless and transparent. It dis- 
solves in five hundred parts of boiling water, and in eight 
trained and fifty of cold water. Its taste is exceedingly 



acrid and bitter. Administered in doses of a few grains it 
is poisonous. It forms neutral salts and bisalts, which 
Crystallize with facility. 

Delphine was obtained by Lassaigue and Fenculle in the 
seeds of Staves Acre, (Delphinum Staphysagria.) It is 
crystalline when wet, but becomes opaque as it dries. Its 
taste is acrid and bitter. It melts by heat, and becomes 
hard and resinous. It is not very soluble in water. It 
torms neutral salts with the acids. 



/ 



Count de Romanzovv is fitting out at his own expense 
an expedition which is to pass over the ice from Asia to 
America, to the north of Behring's Straits ; and to ascend 
one of the rivers which disembogue on the western coast, 
m Russian America, in order to penetrate into the unknown 
tracts that lie between Icy Cape and the river Mackenzie. 

New Hydraulic Machine. — Mr. Chjmer has invented in 
London a pump of a simple construction but powerful in 
its effects. It raises and discharges two hundred and fifty 
or three hundred gallons m a minute, not only of water but 
of stones and other hard substances which are not too 
heavy. It is of easy transportation, and appears particu- 
larly well adapted to ships, on account of its not being easily 
choked by sand, coffee, sugar, and other impediments. 



E 



formed in London for 



the purpose of publishing Lithographic prints of all the 
Egyptian monuments of architecture and sculpture as w< I 
as of mummies and hieroglyphic inscriptions, in ordei if 
possible, hy a comparison of signs, to discover their mt 

JUw,. 






V 



Rev. Enc. Mai 1820 * 






34t> Foreign Literature and Science. 

Lithographic printing has made a rapid progress in Rus- 
sia. The plates illustrative of the journey of CoL Drou- 
ville in Persia, are of the finest execution. The designs 
are from the hand of M. Orlowsky, a distinguished artist of 
Petersburg. 

■ 

The Iron Masters of Sweden have granted to Professor 
Serzelius an annuity of five hundred crowns, for the servi- 
ces which he has rendered to the chemical arts. 

The ex-king of Norway, Prince Christian Frederick, oi 
Denmark, is leading a literary life in Italy. He lately read 
a dissertation on Mount Vesuvius at a meeting of the Acad- 
emy of Sciences at Naples. 









Count Lasterjoie is publishing at his Lithographic press 
in Paris, a series of plates to illustrate the machines, instru- 
ments, utensils, constructions, apparatus, &c. employed in 
rural and domestic economy, according to designs from va- 
rious parts of Europe. 

A vessel has been constructed for the navigation of the 
Forth and Clyde canal in Scotland entirely of forged iron, 
the sheets being pieced and riveted nearly as in a common 
boiler. It is larger, and at the same time lighter, and sails 
better than any of those employed. It will of course be 
more durable. It will contain two hundred passengers. 



i 






* 






■ 

The number of letters daily distributed by the Post-Office 
at Paris is nearly thirty-two thousand, and of Journals eigh- 
teen hundred. Whilst in London the amount ofletters is 
one hundred and thirty-three thousand, and of Journals 
twenty-six thousand. This, according to the respective . 
population of the two places, is, in Paris one letter for sixty- 
ty-two persons, and one Journal for three hundred and 
eighty readers ; but in London, one letter for nine persons- . 
and a Journal for forty-three readers, — Idem. 

The literature of Italy is rapidly increasing. The " I> lb ~ 
liotheca Italiana," edited by Acerbi, the author of travels to 
the north Cape, announces that seven hundred cases oi 

* And a private letter from Glasgow to the Editor 









Foreign Literature and Science. • 34? 

books of one hundred and fifty killogramms each, are annu- 
ally imported into Milan from France, Switzerland and 
England; and without including the books which come 
from Germany, and especially from the Austrian states, and 
this commerce is principally in the way of exchange. The 
number of books published in Lombardy alone in the year 
1819, amounted in value to more than one million and forty 
thousand dollars. — Idem. 



B. Braconnot has succeeded in converting by means of 
sulphuric acid, various ligneous substances, such as saw 
dust, linen rags, hempen tow, &c. into gum and sugar. 
The gum perfectly resembles that of the mimosa nilotica. 
The sugar is much like that which is extracted from grapes. 



Id 



em. 



The Cashmeer goat has been introduced into the prov- 
ince of Rousillon in France with encouraging success. 
One hundred and twenty kids have been produced, and 
already bear the valuable down which characterises that 
species. — Idem. 

Bratving in perspective has been introduced into some of 
the elementary (Lancasterian) schools of France. A work 
on this subject, adapted to mutual instruction, has been pre- 
pared by Francoeur, professor in Paris. 

The foundation of a new school for the fine arts has been 
laid in Paris, in the place w^here the museum of French 
monuments has been kept. 

The canal of Alexandria in Egypt is prosecuted with vig- 
our. Mines of lead and iron have been lately discovered 
in upper Egypt. 

A steam boat has been constructed to run between Stock- 
holm and St. Petersburg. The passage, which has hereto- 
fore been tedious and uncertain, can now be effected in 
sixty hours. 

m The population of Sweden has increased in three years, 
vis. 1816, 17 and 18. by seventy-two thousand threa hun- 












.548 



Foreign Literature and Science. 



cited and forty-six individuals. In the capital there has 
been a slight diminution, owing to the tendency of rich 
proprietors to engage more extensively in iron works and ag- 
ricultural employments. The whole population in 1813, 
was two millions five hundred and forty-three thousand four 
hundred and twelve* 



M.K 



oenig, a painter of Bern 



in Switzerland, has invent- 






cd a method of producing transparent pictures so as to ex- 
hibit the effect of the sun, moon and fire in the greatest per- 
fection. His landscapes of Switzerland are said to be much 
more perfect representations of the sublime scenery of the 
Alpine regions than any thing hitherto produced. 

Oil has been extracted in Italy from the grape seed. It 
affords a light equal to that of nut oil : the smoke and odour 
are scarcely perceptible. 

Preparations are making in Malta to introduce the system 
of mutual instruction on the coast of Africa, through the me- 
dium of the Arabic. A small book has been printed in that 
language explanatory of the system. . 

The Greeks of the Ionian Islands are about to witness 
lie realization of their fondest hopes — the establishment ol 
a University in Corfu. Lord Guilford has received from 
the English government the necessary instructions for car- 
rying the project into execution. The Count Capo Dls- 
tria, a native of Corfu, has contributed by various dona* 
lions to the endowment of this University. He has furnish- 
ed M. Politi, professor of chemistry in the new University, 
with the means of establishing a complete chemical labora- 
tory 

J 

A society of artists and men of letters in Paris, have en- 
gaged to publish a collection of lithographical portraits of 
celebrated men and women of that country, with a short bi- 
ographical memoir of each person, and a fac simile oi their 



writing 



persor 
as far as it can be obtained. 



Two numbers, con- 



taining each four portraits with their notices, &c. are pub- 
li hed monthly at seven franc- per number. — Idem. 


















j 










Foreign Literature and Science* J4£> 

The following method-of producing pictures of metallic ve- 
station, by M. Goldsmith, has been read before the French 
nstitute. Place a few grains of iron and copper filings on 
a glass plate at a certain distance from each other. Add to 
each parcel a few drops of nitrate of silver ; the silver is soon 
precipitated in a metallic state, while the copper and the 
iron are oxidated and coloured. Then with a small stick ar- 
range the ramifications of the silver, while the flame of a taper 
placed under the glass, promotes the evaporation of the flu- 
id, facilitates the reaction ' of the materials, blackens the 
plate, and thus forms the ground of the picture. — An. de 
Chimie, Mai 1820. 

Thenard has succeeded in causing pure water to absorb 
oxygen to the enormous extent of six hundred and fifty 
times its volume. The process is complicated. The prin- 
cipal agents he employs are barytes, and muriatic and sulphu- 
ric acid. The oxygenated water has a taste slightly astrin- 
gent and bitter. It whitens the epidermis and occasions 
very pungent sensations. A great number of the metallic 
oxids act upon it with such energy as to produce explosions- 
1 An. de Chimie. 



[Notices communicated by a Correspondent.] 

Boracic Acid. 



About two pr. ct. of Boracic Acid has been obtained by 
evaporating the waters of the lakes in Cherchaio, and it has 
been proposed to deliver this acid in Paris, in any quantity, 
at three francs the kilogram. The acid is in small greyish 
scales, taste slightly bittter, aqueous solution reddens, litmus, 

kc. Tilloch's Phil. Mag. Dec. 1819. 

" M. Lucas, in a letter to M. Arago, describes the occur- 
rence of boracic acid in the water of Vulcano. It is found 
on the surface, at the parts most heated, and where vapors 
are continually rising. It occurs in a very white light state, 
though sometimes soiled, and sometimes mixed with sul- 
phur. The crusts are generally about three quarters of an 
inch in thickness, and sometimes above a foot in extent. It 

Vol. II No. 2, 45 



350 



Foreign Literature and Science. 



occurs in scales, and sometimes fibrous. Their nature was 
ascertained by D. Gioacchino Azzorto, of Messina." 

Branded Journal, 16th No. 






Ma 



of preparing (he Purple of 



Tl 



ie 



mercury, at one of its surfaces, and twenty-four hours after 
fusing it with an equal weight of tin, an alloy was obtained, 
which was fusible in boiling resin. Afterwards triturating 
this alloy with pure caustic magnesia in a mortar, a powder 
was obtained of a very fine purple colour." nJ 



lb 



F 



Count de Maistre also describes a 



fulminating gold, obtained by pouring a small quantity of 
solution of gold into red wine, (Bordeaux,) a sediment form- 
ed, which, when dried, and placed on burning charcoal, in 

an iron capsule, exploded." Ibid. 



" New Alkali. — M.M. Pelletier, and Caventon, have dis- 
covered a new alkali in the seeds of the Veratium Sabadilla j 
it is crystallizable, and extremely acrimonious." Ibid. 



Mr 



of Philos 



a series of experiments on the compounds of mercury. They re- 
late to the chemical constitution of these compounds, and 
the proportion of their elements ; but are concluded by an 
examination of the common mercurial ointment, and an ac- 



count of a new one." 



Mr 



ceived that by forming a chemical union between fat and oxid 
of mercury, in very small quantity, the same results might 
be obtained ; lard, and black oxid of mercury, were, there- 



fore, kept at the temperature of about 350° for two hours, 
continually stirring them. At the end of the process, it 

lard had dissolved, and 



appeared that every ounce of 

united with twenty-one grains of oxid. 

tried on many persons, and found to be as active as 



This ointment was 

the 



common mercurial, containing twelve times the mercury. 
One drachm could be rubbed in completely in from six to 
ten or fifteen minutes, whilst common ointment required 
thirty or forty minutes, and rarely was any eruption produ- 















Foreign Literature and Science. 351 

ced on the part rubbed. The use of it is extremely clean- 
ly, and its expense is very much below that of the common 
ointment. For the preparation of this ointment it is essen- 
tial that the lard be entirely free from salt, or else calomel 
will be formed. The oxid may be prepared by decomposing 
calomel by pure potash, or by pouring solution of nitrate 
of mercmy into caustic alkaline solution. The fat only dis- 
solves three grains of oxid for each drachm, but the quanti- 
ty in the ointment, may easily be increased. The oxid 
should be first triturated with a little cold lard, to make the 
penetration complete. The degree of heat is important. 
At 212° the oxid and lard will not combine, at 600° the ox- 
id will be decomposed, and mercury volatilized, at 500 
and 400° the oxid is partially decomposed, some red oxid 
being formed, and mercury reduced. The best heat is be- 
tween 300° and 320° ; it should be maintained at least an 
hour, and the ointment should be stirred till cold. This 
ointment is now undergoing extensive trial, and the results 
are very favourable. Already several testimonies have been 
given by medical men to its value." Ibid. 

" Lignite. — Mr. Becquerel has examined and published 
an account of a stratum of fossil wood, occurring at Auteuil, 
in the neighbourhood of Paris, which seems of great extent. 
It contains, interspersed here and there, succinite, and crys- 
tals, supposed to be of mellite, but the exact nature of which 
has not been ascertained." " This stratum of lignite con- 
tains trees, still entire in their forms, some of considerable 
length, and varying in diameter from six to eighteen inch- 
es." Ibid. 



Extract of a letter from Dr. Daubeny, of Oxford, (Eng- 
land,)* to his friend in this country. 

"I spent three months," says he, "in Auvergne and the 
Vivarais, and am returned, quite convinced of the igneous 
origin of the whole of that interesting country. In some 
places, the streams of lava may be traced from their waters 

*Dr. Daubeny is a promising mineralogist, and pupil of Jameson and 
Bnckland— he has just returned from Auvergne, and the Vivarais, bavin- 
previously studied the trap rocks of Scotland and Jrdand. 






352 Foreign Literature and Science. 



«b 



tries, are to be referred to the same cause, may still be 
doubted, but there are certainly many striking analogies be- 
tween the products of the volcanoes of Auvergne, and the 
basalts of other countries. Indeed I would defy any mine- 
ralogist to distinguish the basalts of Auvergne from those of 
Ireland. 35 Of Mr. Greenough's map, just published, he 
says, " it is the fruit of years of great labor, with the assis- 
tance of Professor Buckland, and other geologists, of the 
first eminence ; its price is six guineas." 

Of Dr. Mac Culloch's work, he says, " it contains a great 
mass of information ; and the plates are splendid." 

Dr. Boru, of Paris, who is a highly accomplished botan- 
ist, and geologist, is preparing a small work on the Geology 
of Scotland. 



From No. 15 of Branded Journal. 

"Death ofM. F. de St. Fond.— Science has lately lost M. 
Faujas de St. Fond, a distinguished mineralogist and geolo- 
gist. He was bom at Montelimart, in 1750, and died last 
July, (1819) at Soriel, near Valenci. He was Professor ol 
Geology to the museum of Natural History, from the time 
of its establishment; he has enriched its collections by a 
vast number of curious objects, the results of his researches 
and travels, and France owes to him the discovery of one 
of its richest iron mines. M. Faujas has published many 
works on Mineralogy and Geology, as well as numerous me- 
moirs in the Annales du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. He 
has left a collection of minerals, shells, and alluvial fossils, 
among which are many extremely rare specimens, and of 
which the selection announces a Professor, who desired to 
rest upon facts to the utmost possible." 

From Tilloch's PA. Mag. for March. 

"Preparing for publication, 'A Mineralogical Dictionary , 
comprising an alphabetical nomenclature of Mineral Synon* 












in the most satisfactory manner, and every where, even m 
the most ancient volcanic rocks, there exist scoriae, and oth- 
er decided igneous products, which leave no doubt of the I 
mode in which the whole must have been formed. Wheth- I 
er the trap rocks in this, (England, &lc.) and other conn- I 









* 









Foreign Literature and Science. 



353 



yroesj and a description of each substance — to which is pre- 
fixed an explanation of the terms used in describing exter- 
nal characters, and the crystalline structure and forms of 
minerals; illustrated by numerous plates, many relating to 

and 






crystallography — the whole to be 
Miss Lowry. 



>/ 



engraved 



by Mr. 



From the report of 
the Council, February, 1S20, it appears to flourish ; the 
exertions of the members are great, and the numbers and 
collection increasing ; the whole number of members, resi- 
dent and foreign, four hundred and forty-two — income of 
the society, £946 lid. and the expenditure ^798 16s. lOd. 
" The public spirit of the members has induced them to 
open a subscription, which already amounts to =£600, as 
the basis of a fund applicable to the purchase of new cabi- 
nets, and of the most useful books and maps.' 5 

" The first part of the 5th Vol. of the Trans, has been 

published. 

The geological map of Mr. Greenough is published ; 
** the expense, it is supposed, will amount to <£1700 — and 
has been defrayed by the voluntary subscriptions of individ- 
uals, who have engaged to advance the entire sum required, 
upon condition of being repaid out of the first proceeds of 
the sale,, while the loss will be theirs if the proceeds should 
fall short of the sum advanced, and the profits, if any, will 
belong to the society." New officers, 1820, of L. G. S. 

The Right Hon. Earl of Compton, President. 

Most Nob. Marquis of Landsdown, F. R. S. 1 

Hon. W. T. H. F. Strang ways, 1 

Henry Thos. Colebrooke, Esq. F. R. S. he. (President' 

John McCulloch, M. D. F. L. S. 

Alexander Henderson, M. D. } Secretar{es . 

Mr. Thos. Webster, 

Henry Heuland, Esq. Foreign Secretary. 

Daniel Moore, Esq. F. R. S. &c. } TreaS urers. 
Jno. laylor, Esq. 

" Dr. Brewster maintains, from a number of experiment. 

that amber is an indurated vegetable 









Vice* 



and their results, 
iuice." 



354 Foreign Literature and Science 



i 



The No. for April, 1820, mentions, 

" A new Geological map of England and Wales, with 
the inland navigation, &c. &c. : By Wm. Smith, Engineer, 
on one large sheet, neatly coloured and shaded — Cary, St. 
James-st. price 145." 

" Smith's Geological Atlas, No. 3, is published by Cary. 
This work exhibits on separate maps, the Geology ol the 
several counties of England and Wales." 

Conite. — Dr. Mac Gulloch mentions in his account of the 
Western Islands of Scotland, a new mineral, discovered by 
him, and to which he applies the name Conite, from the 
powdery form in which it occurs— he has since found it in 
the Kilpatrick hills, in trap, and also in Sky — the same 
name has been applied by Prof. Schumacher to a very dif- 
ferent substance; but Dr. M. thinks the latter is not likely 
to maintain its place in our catalogue of mineral species, 
but it is peculiarly appropriate to his new substance. 

" Emerald Mines. — M. Caillaud's account of his discov- 
eries in Egypt will shortly be published in Paris. Some 
time ago he discovered near Mount Zabarab, the famous 
Emerald mines, w T hich were previously known only by the 
writings of the ancient authors, and the stories of the 
Arabs" — " they were discovered by M. C. nearly in the 
same state in which they had been left by the engineers 
of the Ptolomies. He penetrated into a vast number of 
excavations and subterraneous canals, some of which are 
so deep that four hundred men may work in them at once. 
In the mines were found cords, levers, tools of various 
kinds, vases and lamps ; and the arrangement of the works 
afforded every facility for studying the ancient process of 
mining. M. C. himself set about working the mines, and 



he has presented six pounds of emeralds to Mahommed 
Ali Pashaw."— " On the banks of the Red Sea, the same 
traveller discovered a mountain of sulphur, on which some 
diggings had been made ; in the neighbourhood of this / 
mountain traces of volcanic eruptions were observable, and 
a quantity of puzzolana, and other igneous substances was 
found," — " He returned last year to Paris, bringing a vast 















Foreign Literature and Science. 



355 



number of drawings, &e. &c. which have been purchased 
by the French government. M. C. has again set out for 

E gypt." 



Dr. John Murray, 

[From Tilloch's Philosophical Magazine, July, 1820.] 

" It gives us much regret to have to announce this month 
the death of that eminent chemist Dr. John Murray, of 
Edinburgh. He died at his house in Nicolson's street on 
Thursday, 22d July. The death of this distinguished phi- 
losopher, snatched from us in the prime of life, and full 
vigour of his faculties, will long be felt as a national loss. 
His works, now of standard celebrity at home and abroad, 
have, from the spirit of profound and accurate analysis, 
which they every where display, and from the force, clear- 
ness, and precision of their statements, most essentially con- 
tributed to advance chemistry to the high rank which it now 
holds among the liberal sciences. His very acute, vigour- 
ous, and comprehensive mind, has been most successfully 
exerted in arranging its numerous and daily multiplying 
details, defining its laws, and, above all, in attaching to it 
a spirit of philosophical investigation, which, while it lays 
the best foundation for extending its practical application, 
tends at the same time to exalt its character, and dignify its 
pursuit. As a lecturer on chemistry, it is impossible to 
praise too highly the superior talents of Dr. Murray : al- 
ways perfectly master of his subject, and very successful in 
the performance of his experiments, which were selected 
.with great judgment, his manner had a natural ease and 
animation, which showed evidently that his mind went 
along with every thing he uttered, and gave his lectures 
great freedom and spirit. But his peculiar excellence as » 
teacher was an uncommon faculty, arising from the great 
perspicuity and distinctness of his conceptions, of leading 
his hearers step by step through the whole process of the 
most complete investigation, with such admirable clearness, 
that they were induced to think that he was following out 
a natural order which could not be avoided, at the very 
time when he was exhibiting a specimen of the most refin- 
ed and subtle analysis. With him the student did not 
merely accumulate frets, note down dry results, or stare at 




Foreign Literature and Science 



I 



amusing experiments 



he was led irresistibly to exercise 
his own mind, and trained to the habits of accurate induc- 
tion. To those solid attainments which entitled Dr. Mur- 
ray to stand in the first rank as a man of science, was unit- 
ed a refined taste and a liberal acquaintance with every 
subject of general interest in literature. His manners were 
easy, polite, and unpretending, regulated by a delicate sense 
of propriety, with much of that simplicity which so often 
accompanies strength of character and originality of mind. 
He rose to eminence by the intrinsic force of his talents ; 
he was above all the second-hand arts by which so many 
labour to attract attention ; and a native dignity of senti- 
ment, and manly spirit of independence, kept him aloof 
from all those petty intrigues which are so often employed 
with success to bolster up inferior pretensions 

In common with all the pupils of Dr. Murray, I can feel- 
ingly bear testimony to the accuracy of the above delinea- 
tion. — Edit. 

Red Snow of Baffin's Bay. 

" Th§ nature of this substance was explained in Mr. 
Bauer's paper read before the Royal Society on the 11th 
May, as noticed in a former number. In the winter he 
put some of the red globules forming this substance into a 

*'***• * ^ _« • * t k e n hial in the 

open air 
the water and added fresh snow. 



M 



phial with compressed snow, and placed the phial 

A thaw having melted the snow, he poured off 

In two days the mass of 
fungi was found raised in little heaps, which gradually rose 



higher, filling the cells of the ice. 

fungi fell to the bottom, but of about twice their 



. & ~~*, »».u h „^ «.«, w* ut^ ww. Another thaw came on, 
and the 

original bulk* They appeared capable of vegetating in wa- 
ter, but in this case the globules produced were not red, 

~ - ■ " killed 



but green. The author found that 



cold 



w excessive 

the original fungi ; but their seeds still retained vitality, and 

if immersed in snow produced new fungi, 
red colour. 



these fungi." 



Snow, then, seems to be the 



generally of a 
proper soil of 



rf Mont D 



"There are found rather abundantly in a ravine of Mont 
D'or, in Auvergne, fragments of a breccia, the hardness 
and other external characters of which, having led to tht* 






. 



j 









• 









* 



Foreign Literature and Science. 357 

bupposition of its being of a siliceous nature, mineralogists 
did not pay much attention to it, except on account of some 
particles of sulphur which it sometimes contains in small 
cavities. M. Cordier, having submitted this breccia to dif- 
ferent trials, found that it yielded by heat a notable propor- 
tion of sulphuric acid ; and upon this important indication, 
he proceeded to make a complete analysis of it, by which 
he found that this stone contained about twenty-eight per 
cent, of silica, twenty-seven of sulphuric acid, thirty-one of 
alumine, six of potash, and a little water and iron. These 
are very nearly the same ingredients as are found in tin 
celebrated ore of Tolfa, which yields Roman alum. Iii 
t Reality, upon treating this breccia from Mont D'or in the 
same manner as is practised at Tolfa, that is to say, by 
breaking it, roasting it, and exposing it to a moist air, from 
ten to twenty per cent, of very pure alum was obtained 
from it ; and this breccia even yielded alum without being 
roasted, but merely by exposure in a damp situation. 

" It is probable, from the researches made upon the spot 
by M. Ramond, that, with some pains, the beds from which 
the fragments scattered in the ravines were detached, may 
be discovered ; and that quarries may be opened, the 
working of which cannot but be of advantage. 

" M. Cordier regards these sorts of stones as a minera- 
logical species consisting essentially of sulphuric acid, alu- 
mine, and potash. The silica found in it is not essential, 
for, quarries of a stone not containing any silica, but all the 
other constituent principles exist at Montrose, in Tuscany, 
and yield the same products as that at Tolfa. Those vari- 
eties of this species into which silica enters, are easily dis- 
tinguished by the jelly they form when they are treated in 
succession with caustic potash and hydrochloric (muriatic) 

acid diluted with water. 

"M. Cordier reduces to this species several volcanic 
stones, hitherto vaguely designated by geologists by the 
general denomination of altered lava." 



Vol. IT No. 2. 46 



Rectification of Alcohol. 

A correspondent of the Giornale de Fisica, reports an ex- 
periment which may be applied with advantage to this pur- 
pose. It is a weli known fact that water passes with facility 
through bladder, while alcohol is almost perfectly retained 
by it. If a bottle of wine be closed by a piece of bladder 

•Perhaps the method described in this article corresponds rather with 
what is, id this country, called inoculating.— [Ed.] 









35 <B foreign Literature and Science. 

[Foreign notices selected by the Editor.] 

Poisons, 

It is now ascertained that sugar taken in lumps is a certain 
antidote for verdigris : that vinegar counteracts the danger- 
ous effects of alkaline substances ; and that raw albumen 
(white of eggs) if administered in time, is a remedy for mer- 
cury sublimate. — Tilloch's Phil. Mag. Dec. 1819. 

It may be added that vinegar counteracts the effects of 
narcotics and gluten those of corrosive sublimate. 

New method of grafting* Trees. 

A common method of grafting, is by making a transverse 
section in the bark of the stock, and a perpendicular slit be- 
low it; the bud is then pushed down to give it the position 
which it is to have. This method is not always successful ; 
it is better to reverse it, by making the vertical slit above 
the transverse section, and pushing the bud upward into its 
position — a method which rarely fails of success : because 
as the sap descends by the bark as has been ascertain- 
ed, and does not ascend, the bud thus placed above the trans- 
verse, receives abundance, but when placed below, the sap 
cannot reach it. — Annales de Chimie, quoted by Tilloch. 

Phosphoric acid in Plants* 

Free phosphoric acid is in all vegetable extracts and in a 
great variety of vegetables. Besides the acid in combina- 
tion with lime, all cultivated plants appear to contain phos- 
phoric salt in abundance. These facts were ascertained by i 
Mr. Berry, liy carrying on the evaporation in vacuo. — Til- 
tech, Jan. 1820. ■ 






j 












Foreign Literature and Science. Mo$ 



Zy 



instead of a cork, a portion of the water will be found to 
have evaporated and passed off through the membrane, and 
the wine left will be found proportionably stronger* If a 
bladder half filled with alcohol of the specific gravity of 867, 
and having its orifice closed, be exposed to the sun, the air, 
©r the heat of a stove, in a short time the alcohol will be 
found rectified to 817 sp. gr. and in this manner all the wa- 
ter may be evaporated. If the same bladder with its con- 
tents, be then exposed to a humid atmosphere (as in a damp 
cellar) it will imbibe water, and return to 867 sp, gr, which 
water may be again separated by hanging it in a dry place. 
In one word, the bladder is a filter, which suffers water to 
pass through it but not alcohol — Tilloch's Phil. Mag, Jan, 



1820. 



Hydrophobia. 



It has been discovered by the inhabitants of Gadici in 
Italy, that near the ligament of the tongue of the man or an- 
imal bitten by a rabid animal, and becoming rabid, pustules 
of a whitish hue make their appearance, which open spon- 
taneously about the 13th day after the bite ; and at this 
time they say, the first symptoms of true hydrophobia make 
their appearance. Their method of cure consists in open- 
ing these pustules with a suitable instrument, and making 
the patient spit out the ichor and fluid which run from 
them, often washing the mouth with salt water. This ope- 
ration should be performed the ninth day after the bite, 
The remedy is so effectual, that with these people this hith- 
erto incurable disease has lost its terrors. — Bibl. Ital. quoted 
by Tilloch, Jan. 1820. 



Thermometer. 



1590, but it was 



sot reduced to a correct standard till 1724, by Fahrenheit 
of Amsterdam. 



JYeiv 



" An introduction to solid geometry, and to the study oi 
crystallography, containing an investigation of some ol the 
properties belonging to the platonic bodies independent ol 
the sphere, by N. I. Larkin, M. G. S. teacher of crystallog- 
raphy and mathematics. Illustrated with four plates, from 
original drawings by the author, 8 vo. pp. 140; 






J60 Foreign Literature and Science. 

"The work under consideration contains a description of a 
variety of solids hitherto unnoted, and a number of new and 
remarkable properties of those solids that have been long 
known. In tracing the properties of the platonic bodies, the 
author shows that they naturally divide themselves into two 
series, each consisting of five solids ; and, what is remarka- 
ble, that each individual solid, in one of the series, is to be I 
found in great abundance among crystals, whereas not a sin* J 
gle individual in the other series has ever been found among 
such productions. The first he calls the natural, the other 
the artificial series. These two series bear a strong resem- 
blance to each other ; inasmuch as the last in each series 
contains all the foregoing in the same series : the angular 4 
points of the contained solids may be traced out in the sur- 
face of the last solid : and what perhaps is equally remark- 
able is, that the whole of the solids composing the natural 
series are commensurable with each other when the first 
four are contained in the last, and that they are to each oth- 
er as the numbers 1, 3, 4, 6 and 8. There is another solid 
whose extremities may be traced out in the surface of the 
last of the natural series, which solid the author calls a cu- 
boctahedron ; this solid, though it is commensurable with 
the rest, is not simple, being as 5f.f : consequently it is 
somewhat less than the fourth, being to it as 80 : 81. The 
author has combined the solids belonging to the natural se- 
ries in pairs, in every possible manner, and given the ratios 
of their volumes in two tables ; he has likewise given the 
ratios of a number of remarkable lines in or upon the solids, 
and has shown how each may be extracted from the others. 
The ratios between the members of the artificial series 
appear to be incommensurable, except in one instance, 
on which account they make a very striking contrast with 
the natural series, which are all commensurable. He 
ifterwards describes five distinct dodecahedrons, which all 
admit of indefinite variation, and which, with the two before 
described, make seven ; the whole of which are shewn to 
be singularly related with the cube. The descriptive part 
is followed by a series of demonstrations contained in fifty- 
three theorems, concluding with an appendix by Dr. Roget, 
containing a demonstration of the relations subsisting be- 
tween the numbers of the artificial series, and likewise be- 
tween their faces and their axes. The whole is illustrated 









* 






> 



Foreign Literature and Science. 861 



& 



by four plates, engraved in a superior manner by Mr. and 
^Iiss Lowry : the third plate is remarkably well executed, 
and is a flattering specimen of that young lady's abilities. 
Upon the whole, the work will be found of great service to 
prepare the mind for the study of crystallography, and at the 
Same time highly interesting to the mathematician. In- 
deed, it is the only work in the English language in which 
the various properties of the geometrical solids are particu- 
larly described ; on which account it cannot fail to be ac- 
ceptable." 

[A copy of this work has been presented to us by Profes- 
sor Coxe, of Philadelphia ; it is beautifully executed, and 
we were intending to publish an original notice of it till we 
met with the above in Tilloeh's Philadelphia Magazine for 
January, 1820, to which we are happy in the opportunity 
of giving additional circulation. — Ed , 

Latent heat of Valours. 

According to the experiments of Dr. Ure, of Glasgow, 
the latent heat of o 

Steam, is - - - 967.000 

Alcohol, - - - 442.000 

Sulphuric ether, - - 302.379 

Naptha, - - - 177.870 

Oil of turpentine, - - 177.870 

Nitric acid, sp. gr. 1.494, 531.999 

Ammonia, sp. gr. 0.978, - 837.280 

Vinegar, sp. gr. 1.007, - 875.000 

Bo iling p o in t of Liqu ids . 

Water does not boil equally in a glass vessel ; the tem- 
perature rises a degree or two above the regular boiling 
point, when a torrent of steam rushes up through it and 
the temperature sinks a little : this continues through the 
whole ebullition, and the temperature vibrates between two 
points, distant, two or three degrees from one another. This 
variation is more remarkable, and may be even dangerous, 
when sulphuric acid is distilled. If a few slips of platinum 
or of any other wire be put into the fluid, the water boil* 
regularly as it does in a metallic vessel.— Annales de Chi- 
mie, &c. Vol. 8. p. 406. 



362- Foreign Literature and Science.' 

Chlorine theory. 

M. Vogel, of Munich, treated phosphoric acid and niu 
riate of barytes separately, each in a platinum crucible, theu 
they were heated together in a platinum tube, and abund- 
ance of muriatic acid gas was obtained : the same results 
were obtained with muriate of tin and muriate of manga- 
nese, and in a less degree with muriate of silver. Boracic 
acid also with the alkaline muriates gave similar results. 
These experiments are directly contrary to those of Davy 
and of Gay Lussac, and Thenard, and if correct, cannot be 
explained upon the new theory of chlorine. — Thomson's 
Annals, Historical Sketch for 1S18. 

Dr. Thomson's method of talcing the sj>. gr. of the gases. 

This method is founded on the well known fact that when 
two gases are mixed their bulk does not alter. Provide a 
large flask with a stop cock ; weigh, exhaust, weigh again, 
the difference is the weight of the common air withdrawn. 
Let it be expressed by a. Then introduce the gas to be 
weighed, taking care first to exhaust the stop cocks connect- 
ed with the apparatus, the volume of the gas which enters 
will be equal to that of the air withdrawn. Now weigh the 
flask ; the increase of weight above the weight of the ex- 
hausted flask is the weight of the gas introduced ; this may 
be expressed by b. The specific gravity of the gas is 

- without any correction for volume, as affected by heat 

or pressure. 

If the gas is mixed with common air, determine the pro- 
portion, and then deduce the specific gravity of the pure 
~as by a very simple calculation. Let 

x=specific gravity of the pure gas. 
A=the volume of air in the mixture. 
a=the sp. gr. of air. 
B= volume of pure gas present. 
sp. gr. of the mixed gas. Then 



\ 



(A + B c — A a 

■ $ 

B 

Thomson's Annals, March, 1820. 



• 









Foreign Literature and Science. 363 

lode. 

It appears from the experiments of Mr. Fife, of Edin- 
burgh, and of It, Gaultier de Claubry, that lode exists in 
sponges although in very small quantity : it is obtained both 
before and after incineration, — Annales de Chimie, he. 
March, 1820. 



Peaches growing on an Almond tree. 

Mr. Thomas Richard Knight, long known by his great 
knowledge and success in horticultural pursuits, has obtain- 
ed peaches from a sweet almond tree. The tree grew in a 
pot which contained about one square foot of earth, and was 
impregnated by the pollen of the peach. It produced nine 
peaches, the first fruit that it had borne ; three opened in 
the manner of almonds and died, the other six had all the 
characters of the peach. Mr. Knight is of opinion that the 
peach and almond are originally the same species, and that 
an almond tree, may, by cultivation, become after a good 
many generations, a peach tree. — Annales de Chimie, &c« 
Mar. 1 820. 

A new Metal, (Aurum Millium.) 

A letter from London to a gentleman in Baltimore, an- 
nounces the discovery of a new metal by Mr. Mills. The 
writer describes the " aurum millium (as it is called) as re- 
sembling gold in colour ; very durable, and malleable, and 
not expensive, the price being 4s. a 4s. 6d. pounce. It is 
hard and sonorous, has the invaluable property of not easily 
tarnishing, and is nearly as heavy as common jeweller's 



gold." 



*> 



Systema Algarum 



Professor Agardh, of the University of Lund, in Swe- 
den, announces that he is preparing for publication a Syste- 
*na Algarum, that will comprehend the disposition and de- 
scription of all the known species of cryptogamous water 
plants.— Dr. Torrey. 



364 Foreign Literature and Science. 

Astronomical Society of London. 

Since the publication of the last number of this Journal, 
the following communication has been received. We cheer- 
fully give it publicity, both from a disposition to promote 
the great object in view, and from sentiments of personal 
respect towards the individual whose signature is attached 
to the letter. 



" London, March 10, 1820. 



Professor Sillimax, 

Sir, 



Having been requested by some friends to the Astro- 
nomical Society to send some of their plans and regulations 
to the public societies in America, and persons there who 
might be disposed to take an interest in this branch of 
knowledge, I with pleasure comply with their wishes in 
requesting your acceptance of the enclosed plan, hoping 
that its laudable object may meet with encouragement and 
communications. From the attention that has been paid to 
astronomy in America, and its great importance as an ob- 
ject of utility, I hope great benefits may arise from collect- 
ing and circulating knowledge in this branch of science, 
and that it may tend to facilitate our mutual intercourse 
and promote the happiness and security of mankind. 
I have the honour to subscribe myself, 
• Sir* 



Your most obedient humble servant, 

WM. VAUGHAN. 



W 



stitution of the society, and a list of its officers and mem- 
bers. Among its members, we observe the names not only 
of some of the first astronomers and philosophers of Great 
Britain, but of some of her most eminent artists. This is 
very proper ; for a Herschell, a Maskelyne, or a New- 
ton, cannot advance a step in observing the phenomena of 
the heavens without the assistance of a Dollond, a Gary, 
*r a Trough-ton ; and the skill of these last can scarcely 






- 






/ 



\ 



Foreign Literature and Science. 363 

"be acquired without producing in themselves serious advan- 
ces in science as well as in manual dexterity. 

The objects of the society are thus mentioned in their 
address — " the perfecting of our knowledge of the latitudes 
and longitudes of places in every region of the globe; the 
improvement of the lunar theory, and that of the figure of 
the earth, by occultations, appulses, and eclipses, simulta- 
neously observed in different situations ; the advancement 
of our knowledge of the laws of atmospherical refraction in 
different climates, by corresponding observations of the 
fixed stars ; the means of determining more correctly the 
orbits of comets, by observations made in the most distant 
parts of the world ; and in general the frequent opportuni- 
ties afforded to a society holding an extensive correspon- 
dence of amassing materials, which (though separately of 
small importance) may by their union become not only 
interesting at the present time, but also valuable as subjects 
of reference in future. 55 The society, in the conclusion of 
their address, sum up their views as follows : to encourage 
and promote their peculiar science by every means in their 
power, but especially by collecting, reducing and publishin 
useful observations and tables; by setting on foot a minute 
and systematic examination of the heavens ; by encourag- 
ing a general spirit of enquiry in practical astronomy; 
by establishing communications with foreign observers; 
circulating notice of all remarkable phenomena about to 
happen and of discoveries as they arise ; by comparing the 
merits of different artists eminent in the construction of as- 
tronomical instruments; by proposing prizes for the im- 
provement of particular departments and bestowing medals 
or rewards on successful research in all ; and finally by act- 
ing as far as possible, in concert with every institution, both 
in England and abroad, whose objects have any thing in 
common with their own ; but avoiding all interference with 
the objects and interests of established scientific bodies. 

Extract of a letter to the Editor, from a gentleman in Glas- 
gow. 

Our streets and shops are now lighted by gas, which is 
here, as every where else, found to be a most important 
improvement. New streets, almost without number, have 
been begun, and are advancing rapidly. In George's 

Vol. II No. 2. 47 



D 









3t>ti Domestic Intelligence. 

square, a bronze statue oi Sir John Moore, hy Flaxman, of 
London, has just been erected ; and a proposal has been 
afloat for some time, to erect a monument, of some kind or 
other, to Sir William Wallace. Some suggestions have 
been made of one also to the memory of Watt, the im- 
prover of the steam engine, whose death you wjll have seen 
announced by the time this reaches you ; he was a native ol 

Glasgow. 

I found on my arrival a Columbian Press at work. Cly- 

mer, the inventor, is in London, and has supplied a consid- 
erable number of them to the printers, who think the Ameri- 
can are superior to any others, in ease of workmanship, 
and fineness of the work produced. Presses of every kind, 
however, will, in all probability, have to give way soon be- 
fore a printing machine, which has been almost perfected in 
London, and performs about the work of six presses, with a 
man and a boy to put on and take off the sheets, and work 
the machine. It operates by a combination of cylinders, 
and can be driven by a steam engine, or any other moving 
power. It promises to effect a complete revolution in the 
art of printing. 



«®# 



*** <**..,*. 



DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE. 



Abstract of the proceedings of the Lyceum of Natural His- 
tory, New-York. 

1819. Mr. N. Paulding communicated a memoir on a 
mineral discovered at Kingsbridge, by Mr. I. Pierce, which 
had been supposed to be rubellite. Mr. Paulding having 
Submitted it to a chemical and geometrical examination has 
proved that it is only a variety of schorl, which he calls red 
tourmaline. This mineral occurs imbedded in primitive 
limestone, or rather dolomite, in crystals, of various shades 
of red and brown, and is associated with reddish brown mi- 
ca. The fundamental form appears to be an equilateral 
three-sided prism, acuminated by three planes, vhich at 
one extremity are set on the lateral edges, and at the other 
on the lateral planes. This form is variously modified by 
truncation and bevelments. Most of the crystals are bevel- 



* 









Domestic Intelligence. 3Gf 

led on the lateral edges, forming nine-sided prisms. Some- 
times the lateral planes are nearly destitute of striae, though 
the faces of the acuminatum are always smooth and splen- 
dent. They vary from translucent to semi-transparent. 
Lustre vitreous, fracture imperfectly conchoidal, and fine 
grained, uneven. Fuses before the blowpipe. By friction 
the crystals exhibit positive electricity — heat did not excite 
any. Sp. gr. 3.05. Geometrical characters. Angle form- 
ed by the planes of the original prism 150°. Angle of the 
bevelling planes 120°. Angle formed by the planes of the 
original prism, and the acuminating planes 118° 30'. An- 
gle formed by two of the acuminating planes 132°. These 
measurements agree almost precisely with the Tourmaline 
isogone of Hai'iy. Mr. P. is of opinion that the subspecies 
Rubellite is not sufficiently distinct from red tourmaline to 
deserve a distinct name, as its only essential character 
seems to be its infusibilty. The Rubellite of Chesterfield, 
however, is uniformly infusible, though it is frequently per- 
fectly incrusted in crystals of common green tourmaline. 
The Geognostic situation of the red tourmaline of Kings- 
bridge, is somewhat uccommon. Schorl seldom occurs in 
limestone, though the limpid variety is said to occur in the 
limestone of St. Gothard. 

Dr. Torrey demonstrated the anatomy of the Scyllea 
pelagica of Lin. and which has been so accurately describ- 
ed and figured by Cuvier in Anat. des Mollusques. There 
had been so much confusion respecting this animal in the 
works of all authors preceding Cuvier, that some zoologists 
have denied its existence. The principal cause of this was. 
that Seba, who first figured it, mistook the abdomen for the 
back. The specimens examined by Dr. T. were taken in 
the Gulf stream, on the Fucus natans. 

Dr. Townsend read a continuation of his observations on 
some varieties of crvstaliized snow, observed near New- 
York. His former "paper is published in the American 
Monthly Magazine. 

Mr. Pierce read a memoir on the mineralogy and geolo- 
gy of the secondary region of New-Jersey, and presented 
many interesting minerals from localities not hitherto no- 



66$ Domestic Intelligence. 

liccd ; among which were, beautiful specimens of prthmte, 
from Newark, second mountains, Scotch plains, &c. imbed- 
ded in greenstone* Some were almost of an emerald 
^reen. Fibrous zeolite, from Patterson, associated with 
greenstone. White stilbite, in compressed four-sided 
prisms, acuminated by four planes. These crystals were 
attached to prehnite, which was traversed by crystals of 
zeolite, from Scotch plains ; fibrous malachite, from Schuy- 
ler's mine, New-Jersey ; compact peat, from the vicinity of 
Elizabethtowiu 






Mr. Pierce communicated a well characterized specimen 
of * kaolin, which he found in considerable quantities near 
Weekawken, New-Jersey. This substance resulted from 
the decomposition of a 'secondary stratum, consisting ot 
feldspar and quartz un< lyinz greenstone. It was slightly 
fused by a blowpipe heat, m winch it differs from the kao- 
lin of France. Thi^ circumstance is probably owing to the 



4 



Dr. Torrey read an analysis of the fibrous sulphate ofba- 
rytes, lately found at Carlisle, Schoharie county, N. Y. The 
first public account of this mineral appeared in the Albany 
Gazette, Nov. 14, 1818, when it was announced as celestim 
or fibrous sulphate of strontian, though it had been known, 
and had circulation a year or two before. Dr. Torrey dis- 
covered the mistake soon after, though his analysis was not 
complete until February, 1819. This mineral so much re- 
sembles sulphate of strontian, that the mistake was natural. 
Its real nature however is very apparent when subjected to 
a few chemical experiments, especially when the sp. gravity 
is ascertained (4.320.) The fibrous sulphate of barytes an- 
alyzed by Klaproth (Analy. Essays, 2. p. 227) appears to 
be a very different variety from the mineral in question, and 
a very new variety should receive a name, we may retain 
that given to it by Mr. Eaton. The very remarkable char- , 

acter of the Carslile mineral is, that it does not decrepitate 
in the least before the blowpipe. j 

As an analysis of this mineral, which agrees very nearly 
with that of Dr. T. has been lately published by Professor ] 

McNeven, of New- York, it will hardly be necessary to j 

make any further remarks on this subject. [For its geolo- : 

ical situation, &c. see No, 5 of this Journal. — Ed.] * j 



« 



Domestic Intelligence. 369 

potash of the feldspar not being entirely separated. It oc- 
curs in sufficient quantities to be used in the manufacture of 
porcelain* 



Oct. — Dr. Torrey read an analysis of a mineral dis- 
covered at Patterson, N. J. by Mr. Pierce. This sub- 
stance had been taken for prehnite, until the analysis of 
Dr. T. ascertained it to be the datholite, or silicious borate 
of lime. This rare mineral had heretofore been found only 
in Arendal in Norway, and its discovery in this country adds 
an interesting species to American mineralogy. Mr. 
Pierce has only observed it at a single locality, viz. near 
the Little Falls of the Passaic, where it was found in dig- 
ging a well. The datholite occurs in pale green crystals, 
sometimes almost white, or in amygdaloid, the base of which 
is wacke, and is associated with stilbite, red and white anal- 
cime, prehnite and crystallized carbonate of lime. The crys- 
tals are aggregated, and vary in size from a small pea to an 
inch in length ; of a complicated form and only partly 
emerged from the matrix, so that it is difficult to describe 
their precise shape. When heated before the blowpipe it 
melts with scarcely any intumesence into a colourless glass. 
Its powder strongly gelatinizes in acids. If some nitric or 
muriatic acid be boiled to dryness in powdered datholite, 
and a little alcohol added to the mass, it burns with a beau- 
tiful green flame. From Dr. T's analysis, the Patterson 
mineral contains much less boracic acid than the datholite of 
Norway, analyzed by Klaproth, and it may prove to be a 
new variety. 

Nov. 15, Dr. Torrey read a memoir on the Tuckahoe, or 

Indian bread, a subterraneous fungus of the southern states, 
This substance was first described in Clayton's Flora Vir- 
ginica, as the tycoperdon tuber, though it is a very different 
fungus ; and it has hardly been noticed by any succeeding 
author. In May 1817, the late Dr. Macbride, of Charles- 
ton, communicated to the New-York Philosophical Society 
an account of this very singular production,* in which he 
maintained that it was a real fungus which was attached to 
the roots of living trees, and not as it had been contended, 

* An abstract of this paper b published in the 1st Vol. of the Amer. Mot 

Ma 



■6 






m granite. 



A memoir was read by the president, Dr. Mitchill, on an 
interesting species of fish, viz : Gobiomones grandicauda, 
Bodiami* trtaconthug, Ksox arrkatm, Diodon vprrueosus. 

P 












370 Domestic Intelligence. 

the root of a convolvulus or any other plant. The iuckahoe 
occurs from one to three feet under the surface of the earth. 
Its form is for the most part globular, and it is found from 
the size of an acorn to the bigness of a man's head. Dr. 
T. has ascertained that the tuckahoe belongs to the genus 
sclerotium of Tode and Person, and that it is an undescribed 
species of that genus which he calls S. giganteum. Dr. 
Macbride supposed that the substance of the sclerotium con- 
sisted of gluten in a peculiar state. Dr. T. in an elaborate 
analysis of this fungus, has proved that no gluten enters into 
its composition, but that it consists almost entirely of a pe- 
culiar vegetable principle which he calls sclerotin. This 
substance is very soluble in even weak caustic alkalies, and 
the solution gelatinizes by acids and most neutral salts. 

Dr. Torrey read an account of a new mineral from Schoo- 
ley's mountain, New-Jersey. It somewhat resembles 
graphite, but is much heavier and possesses very different 
characters. According to Dr. T's analysis it consists of iron 
in a metallic state, and graphite, in the proportion of 54.25 
of the former, and 11.50 of the latter. He proposes for it 
the name of siderographite. 

1819. — Mr. L P. Brace, a corresponding member of the * 
Society, communicated a memoir on the geology and min- 
eralogy of Litchfield in Connecticut, which he illustrated 
with a handsome suite of specimens. Litchfield is entirely 
primitive, and the basis rock of all the hills is gneiss, though 
granite is occasionally found alternating with it. The rocks 
lying on this are porphyritic granite, mica slate, sienite, 
primitive greenstone, steatite and limestone. Mount Pros- 
per, near the west end of the town, is entirely composed ol 
porphyritic granite. Mount Tom, south west of the town, 
appears to be composed of rocks of sienite heaped together 
on a base of tin's granite. Among the minerals sent by Mr. 
Brace, were large and beautiful crystals of cyanite associa- 
ted with talc and mica slate, staurotide with garnets, in mica 
slate, chalcedony, bine feldspar, and beryls in large crystals 





















Domestic Intelligence. J7I 



& 



Squalus squatina and Saccopharynx flaggeUum. All these 
are found in our waters, and form a valuable addition to our 
icthyological catalogue. Of these the S. flagcllum is the 
most interesting. This species is six feet in length, the 
body and head being but fourteen inches. In the shape 
and structure of the body it differed so much from every 
fish hitherto known, that some doubt was at first entertained 
whether it actually did belong to that class. This however 
was fully established by the learned president. By means 
of a particular structure, not easily understood except from 
actual inspection, the animal is able to dilate his mouth to 
an astonishing extent ; from this and the whip-like appear- 
ance of his tail, he has derived his generic and specific 
names. The body is round, cylindrical, scaleless ; dorsal, 
anal and caudal fins united. Belongs to the order Cartila- 
ginae. A particular anatomical description of this interesting 
animal is much wanted. 



i 



Dr. Townsend read a memoir on the organic remains at 
Corlaer's Hook, in the environs of New-York. Part 1st. 
Milleporites, with drawings and specimens. These are 
found in a bank of alluvial sand, resting immediately on the 
primitive rock of the Island. Dr. T. described two species 
and four varieties of ramose millepores. Most of the speci- 
mens found belong to these species. The division ramose 
lie found it necessary to establish, although it approaches 
the millepora truncata of Ellis. Of reticulated millepores he 
describes one species. The great abundance of these re- 
mains serves to refute the opinion of Parkinson, (Vol. 2. p. 
71.) that there are few millepores in a fossil state. The sub- 
stance of these specimens is alumino-silicious. 

Mr. N. Paulding read a memoir upon marine fossil 
shells, found in great abundance in every part of Prince 
George's county, Virginia, and presented to the society by 
I. W. Philip, U. S. A. They belong to the genus pectuu- 
culus, turritelea, area, murex and teredo of authors. 

Many valuable donations have been received by the Ly- 
ceum, among which wo have only time to enumerate the 
following : 



* 









372 Domestic Intelligence* 

A valuable collection of insects, consisting of five hundred 
and twenty-five specimens, chiefly of the orders colcoptua 
and lepidoplua, from Professor Zincken Sommer, physician 
to the court of Brunswick. 

Specimens of minerals from Col. G. Gibbs, among which 
were native gold from Siberia, fluate of lime from New-Jer- 
sey, and granular corundum from Naxos. 

Organic remains from Werberg, near the Weser in Ger- 
many, from Rev. F. Schaeffer. 

Numerous minerals from Professor Geimar, of Halle, 
with a catalogue. 

Organic remains, consisting of vertebrae of fish and ceta- 
cea, bivalves and recent bones of some unknown animal, 
from Dr. William Swift. 

Hortus cryptogamicus Ediuensis No. 1, an herbarium of 
eryptogamic plants, growing near Edinburgh, (Scotland) | 

presented by J. Stewart, lecturer on botany in that city. 

Specimens beautifully prepared of the anas acuta, or • 

pintail duck, (Wilson) by the late Mr. Clements. 

Organic remains from Corlaer's Hook, and a specimen 
supposed to be oolite, never before discovered in this coun- 
try, by Mr. Cozzens. 

Valuable collection of American minerals, among which 
radiated zeolite, from Westchester, &c. by W. R. Clapp 
corresponding member. 

[It is feared that, owing to the illegibility of the MS. some 
errors may have crept into the above " abstract." — Er>.] 

American Geological Society. 

The anniversary meeting was held in the cabinet of Yale 
College ; and the officers of the last year were re-elected, 
with the exception of Mr. T. D. Porter, who, in conse- 
quence of removal to a distant state, resigned the office ol 
Secretary, and Dr. Alfred S. Monson, of New-Haven, was 
elected in his stead. 






* 






Domestic Intelligence. 313 

The society directed that an appropriate address should 
be delivered by a member at thu next anniversary. The 
oase ordered to be constructed, to receive the commencing 
collection of the society, is finished, and in a good measure 
filled. A box of specimens has been presented by Colonel 
Gibbs; and another is announced as being on its way from 
Professor Dewey, of Williamstown. 

A letter has recently been received by one of the Vice- 
Presidents, from William Maclure, Esq. President of the 
society, dated at Paris, in August, informing that a collec- 
tion of books,* and two boxes of foreign specimens, col- 
lected by Mr. Maclure, during his travels in Europe, had 
been shipped for the society, and that another box of rock 
specimens had been ordered by him to be sent from Phila- 
delphia. A box of specimens has been presented to the 
society by Professor Amos Eaton, and Dr. Theodore R. 
Beck ; the collection was made during their late examina- 
tion of Albany county, and is illustrative of the mineralogy 
and geology of that district. 

Pharmaceutical preparations. 

* 

k Dr. Thomas Huntington, of New-London, is engaged in 

*» • i • • .'11 1 __ . _ 






manufacturing medicines, particularly such as are prone to 
be adulterated, or are particularly important. From the 
zeal manifested by this gentleman, and his skill, as evinced 
*• by some very neat, and apparently pure preparations, trans- 
mitted to us, we cannot doubt that he is entitled to the con- 
fidence of the medical faculty, and to that of the public. 
Among his preparations we notice the precipitated carbonat 
of iron, the green sulphate of the same metal, and the sul- 
phate of zinc, and the muriat of barytes. We understand 
that he will prepare the phosphat of iron, and that he will 
occupy himself particularly with the formation of extracts, 
such as that of cicuta, &c« 

Sulphate of Barytes. 

We have received from Dr. Comstock, of Hartford, some 
handsome specimens of sulphate of barytes, penetrated by 

* Perceived from the catalogue to be very valuable. 

Vol. II No, 2. 48 









r< 4 



Domestic Intelligence. 






green and blue carbonat of copper, in beautiful contrast 
with the white of the barytes. 

The sulphate of barytes forms a vein of five or six inche 
thick, in greenstone trap, which reposes on an argillaceous 
sandstone, two miles from Hartford. 

Carbonat of Barytes. 

Professor Rafinesque, in a letter to Dr. Torrey, of JNew- 
York, announces the discovery of large quantities of the 
carbonat of barytes, near Lexington, in Kentucky. We 
shall wait with much interest for a confirmation of this very 
interesting observation. 



[Ed.] 



Comet o/18I9. 



We 



Vol. of the 



transactions of the American Academy of Arts and Scien- 
ces, now printing, which contains a memoir on the orbit of 
this comet, by Professor A. M. Fisher, of Yale College. 

The elements of the orbit, as corrected by the method of 
Laplace, are stated as follows : 

Perihelion distance, - - - - 0.3366878 

Time of passing the perihelion, June 27th, llh. 56m. 28s. 

Mean time at Greenwich. 

Inclination of the orbit, - 

Longitude of the ascending node, 

Place of the perihelion, 

Motion direct. 



,7 



80°. 56'. 11 

273°.39 / .18 / '.4 

286°.21 / .33' / 



Oxid of Manganese, and Chromat of Iron. 

Mr. E. Hitchcock has shewn us specimens of oxid of man- 
ganese from Deerfield and Leverett, and he informs us that 
chromat of iron has been found in Cummington, Mass. 
twenty miles N. W. of Northampton. There is said to be 
a mine of manganese in Greenup county, Kentucky. 



i 






# 












Domestic Intelligence. 316 

Cylinders of Snow. 

Extract of a letter from Bfr. E. Hitchccw k to the Editor, 
The Rev. Mr. Clark's account in vol. 2, p. 132 of the 



Journal, of the singular effect of wind upon a light snow in 
New-Jersey, whereby cylinders were formed having coni- 
cal hollows at each end, brought to my recollection a simi- 
lar fact, which I observed in Deertield, Mass. about the 
year 1812 or 13. I measured the cylinders at the time 
and minuted the circumstances, but mislaid the account and 
cannot now find it. The circumstances attending the phe- 
nomenon were, however, very similar to those mentioned 
by Mr. Clark, except that the ground where the cylinders 
formed was nearly level, and none of them were more than 
six or eight inches in diameter. The time of this curious 
play among the elements, was in the night or early in the 



morning. 



Cleaveland's Mineralogy. 



Min 



is now in the press. We are informed that it will contain 
many valuable additions, communicated by mineralogists 
in the United States. An appendix will, if necessary, be 
given, embracing any new facts which may occur during 
the printing of the work. 

- 

Sulphate of Magnesia, 

Has been found by Professor Eaton and Dr. T. R. Beck 

about sixteen miles west of Albany. 

Hudson Association for improvement in Science. 

Extract from a letter to the Editor, dated May 22, 1820, 
and signed by Austin Abbott, Corresponding Secretary. 

In consequence of the lectures given here last summer by 
Mr. Eaton, an institution has been recently formed in this 
city, for the purpose of studying the sciences of Chemistry, 
Geology, Mineralogy and Botany. We have already made 



376 



Domestic Intelligence. 



a handsome collection of mineralogical specimens, although 
it is but little more than six months since our society was in- 
stituted. We have communication with the Troy Lyceum, 
and with gentlemen of science throughout the state of New- 
York, and have a very flattering prospect of making our 
cabinet respectable in a short time. The neighbourhood 
of the city of Hudson is interesting on account of the organ- 
ic relics which are found in it. It is from this source we 
hope to derive some advantage, by exchanging our speci- 
mens for those of other places. 

There is no doubt of the existence of gypsum, in Ancram, 
in this county. 



[Omitted in its place.] 

Fluoric acid in Mica 



Mr. Rose of Berlin, has lately examined in the Labra- 
tory of Professor Berzelius, at Stockholm, several varieties 
of mica, and among them a specimen of the rose mica from 



fo 



Mass 



In all hf* 




REMARK. 



It has been out of our power, even to peruse several 
original American works, forwarded to us by their authors ; 
they will be mentioned as soon as practicable. 

The transactions of the American Antiquarian Society, 
and particularly the researches of Mr. Caleb Atwater, (con- 



West 



* 



by 



our literary friends, to be very interesting and instructive. 

The papers on Prussic acid, on the hydraulic lime, on 
Mr. Coates' electrical battery, and several others, which 
had been arranged for this number, are unavoidably omitted 
till the next. 









* 









INDEX. 

/ 

Acer eriocarpum,258 — Saccharinum, 250 

Acid, Boracic, 349 — phosphoric, 358 — prussic, 81, 93 — pyrolig- 

neous, 340, 343 
Actynolite, 236 

Adularia, 238, 239, 240 
Adventures up Mount Blanc, 9 
Agates of Woodbury, 232 
Africa, education in, 343, 350 
Alcohol, rectification of, 358 
Algarum, systema, 364 
Alexandria its canal, 347 
Alkalies, new, 345, 350 
Alum, stone of Mont D'Or, 357 
Alumine, fusion of, 292 

Analysis of gases, 314 
Anchors, manufactory of, 20, 
Animals, new mode of killing, 341 

American cinnabar, 170 

American Geological Society, 139,372 

American Verd Antique marble, 165 

Amethyst of New-Jersey, 191 

' Ammonites, 44 



Architectural remains in limestone, 146 



Argillaceous slate, 248 
Ascent of Mount Blanc, 1 
Atmospheric dust, 134 
Atwater, Caleb, on Bones and Shells. 242 
Augite, white, 23S 

Autumn, indications respecting, from flowers, 255 

B. 

Baculites, genus, 40 

Banks, Sir Joseph, his opinion on the sea-serpent, 164 

Bar iron, manufactory of, 298 

Barytes, fibrous sulphate of, 173, 368— sulphate of, 241, 373— fa- 

sioti of, 292 — carbonat of 374 
Beacon mountain, 204 
Belemnites, 44 
Bennett Gersham, on sea-serpent, 150 

Berthier, M. P. analysis of zinc ores, 319 

Bigelow, Jacob, Professor, on sea-serpent, 14 

Bigsby,John I. Dr. on environs of Carthage Bridge, &c. 250 

Bitter spar, 236 

Blagden, Sir Charles, death of, 344 

Blanc, Mount, ascent of, 1 

Blowpipe of Prof. Hare, 281— its importance, 297 

Bohea tea, cultivated in France, 344 

Bones in red sandstone, 146— human, 242 — of mastodon, 245 

Botany, medical, 45 

Bourn, A. on prairies and barrens, 30 

Vol- TI No. 2. 49 






378 INDEX. 

Bournon, Count, on architectural remains in limestone, 14(i 

Brace, J. P. on Litchfield county, 370 

Braconnot, his experiments, 347 

Bradford, A. on sea-serpent, 130 

Breccia of Mont D'Or, 356 

Brogniart, M. his opinion of the American green marble. 165 

Brown, Dr Samuel, on Animal poison, 1(58 

Brown spar, 237 

Bubbles blown in melted rosin, 179 

Bushnel, David, his submarine boat, 94 

Cabot, Samuel, on sea-serpent, l6l 

Cabinet, mineral, 169 

Cadiz, its academy, 341 

Calendar, floral, of Deerfield, 254 

Calorimotor, of Professor Hare, 316 — of Professor Green, 332 

Calyptroea, costata, 40 

Cantharidin in the Lytta vittala, 137 



Carthage Bridge, environs of, 250 



/ 



Cashmeer goat. 34/ 

Cass, Governor, 178 

Catenipora. genus, 34 

Cement for stone houses, 221 

Chamouny, vale of, 1 

Chemistry, medical, 81 

Chene, oriental, 265 

Chlorine theory, 362 

Chlorite slate, 247 

Chlorophane, American, 14 J 

Chinininha of Peru. 340 

Chrysoberyl, its locality, 240 

Cinnabar, American, 170 

Clark, Professor E. D. strictures on, 281 

Clark, Daniel, Rev. on snow and hail, 132 

Claous, 45 to 51 
Cleaveland's mineralogy, 375 

Clove, stony, 24 

Clymer, Mr. his hydraulic machine, 345 

Cold, effects of, 1 77 

Column of ice, 22 

Combustion of the metals, (note,) 296 

Comet of 1819, elements of its orbit, 374 
Conite, 354 

Constitution of American Geological Society, 13y 
Constructions, geometrical, 266 
Cooley, Dennis, Dr. his floral calendar, 25 4 
Corfu, university of, 348 

Cornelius, E. Rev. on a singularly posited rock, 200 
Correspondent, German, 178 
Corundum, fusion of, 291 



INDEX*. 37 J* 



Crabtree, Eleazar, on sea-serpent, 154 

Crystallization of Snow, 337 
Crystals of quartz, 14 

Cummings, Abr>m. on sea-serpent, 151 

Cutbush, Dr. James, his electrical lamp, 332 

D. 

Dana, J. F, Dr. on cantbaridin, 137 — localities, 24$ 
Daubeny, Dr. his remarks, 351 
Datholite of New-Jersey, 191,369 
Demonstrations, mathematical, 266 
Dentalium, 44 

7 

Dewey's, Professor, localities of minerals, 236 

Geological section, 246 



Diamond hill, 13 



Floral indications of autumn, 25 



Dictionary, mineralogical, 352 

Differential thermometer of Dr. Howard, 327 

Doolittle, Isaac, on steam-engine, 101 

Dry rot, 114 

Dust, atmospherical, remarks on, 134 

Dwight, Henry E. his remarks on the Kattskill mountains, 1J. 

Earths, indications of their reduction, 
Eaton, Amos, Professor, fibrous sulphate of barytes, 174 

localities of minerals, 238 

Edinburgh, its society of arts, 344 

Electrical lamp, 330, 332 

Emmons, E. locality of serpentine, 236 — and of wavollite ? 249 

Emerald mines, 354 

Engravings, mode of altering the size of, 342 

Entrocites, 13 
Epidote, 240, 241 
Ergot of rye, 45 






Erie, lake, cinnabar, on its shores, 170 

Eriocarpum, (acer) 258 

Ether, nitrous, new process for, 326 

Eudiometers, new, by Professor Hare, 312 

Exogyra, genus, 43 
Expedition, exploring, 178 

F. 

Facts, curious geological, 144 
Farey, John, on musical intervals, 65 

Felch, Cheever, 159 
Fluor spar, 141 — fetid, 176 
Fond, Faujas, de St. his death, 352 
Foot, Dr. L. on cold, 
Fossil zoology, 34 
Franklinke, analysis of, 323 
Furnaces for iron, 209, 212 









.380 INDEX. 

Gardens, botanical, in Austria, 340 

Garnets, 141, 240 

Gases, analysis of, 314 — mode of weighing, 362 

Gelatinous meteor, 333 

Geological observers, American, advice to, 81 

society, American, 139 — English, 353 
Geometry, new work on its solids, 359 
German correspondent, 178 
Gibbs, George, on dry rot, 114 — donations to Geol. Soc. 142 






Glasgow, improvements in, 365 

Gneiss, excellent quarry of, 228 — connections of, 240 

Gold, combustion of, 295 — fulminating, 350 

Granite, graphic, 141, 203, 240 — granite and gneiss, 204,206 

Granite rock, singular position of, 200 

Grape seed, its oil, 348 

Graphite, 240 

Graves, Rufus, on a meteor, 335 

Graywacke, 247 

Green, Jacob, Prof, his electrical lamp, 330 

Greenstone, of Woodbury, 231 

Griscom, Prof foreign literature and science, 340 

Griswold, Charles, on submarine navigation, 94 

H. 

Hail and snow, 132 

Hare, Robert, Prof, on light, &c. 172 

his blowpipe, 281 

new eudiometers, 312 

new process for nitrous ether, 326 I 

Harmonics, 65 

Heat and light, Morey on, 118, 122 

Heat in the moon's rays, Dr; Howard, discovers, 329 

Homer's Iliad, ancient copy of, 343 

Hop, enquiry concerning, by Dr. A. W. Ives, 30 

Houses, stone, 220 

Howard, Dr. ascends mount Blanc, 1 

his differential thermometer, 327 
Hudson association, 375 






c\ 






Humulus lupulus, 302 

Hunter, town of, on the Kaatskills, 27 

Hydrophobia, mode of cure, 359 

L 

Ice, column of, 22 lode in sponges, 363 

Intelligence, foreign, 1 66— domestic, 366 

Iron ore of Salisbury. 212— of Kent, 216— spathic 226— sand. 

238— vessel on the Clyde, 346— Chromat of 374 
Italy, its literature, 346 
Ives, Ansel W. Dr. on the hop, 302 

J. 

Jesup, Augustus E, 176 






INDEX. 381 



Julien, M. his Revue Encyclopedique, 164 
Junctions of rocks near New-Haven, 283 

K. 

Kaatskill mountains described, 1 1 

town of, 12 

Kaaterskill, 1 6, 17, IS, 21 
Kaolin of New-Jersey, 368 
Kidd, Prof. 163 

L. 
Lakes, 21 

Lane, Ephraim, fluor spar, found by him, 142 
Lamp for inflammable air, 330, 382 
Lavoisier, 284 
Lead, native American, 1?0 
Lee, Ezra, his submarine adventures, 94 
Leipsic fair, 341 

Letters and Journals of London and Paris, 346 
Libraries of Prussia and Germany. 340 
Light, means of producing, by Prof. Hare, 172 

Lightning, terrible effects of, 341 

Lignite, 351 Limestone, primitive, 211 

Lime, attempts to melt it, 288 

Liquids, boiling point of, 36l 

Lithography, 341, 346, 348 
Little, George, Captain 158 
Litchfield hill- 205 

Localities of minerals, 236 

Locke, John, Dr. on river maple, 258 
Low Countries, their literature, 344 
Lupulin of the hop, 909, 311 
Lytta vittata, 137 

Lyceum of New- York, abstract of its proceedings, 36& 

donations to 372 

Maclure, William, 231 
MacNeven, Prof. 174 



M. 



McLean, on sea serpent 15 J , Madrepi 
Magendie, F. D. on prussic acid, 81 
Magnesia, attempts to fuse it, 290 

sulphat of, 375 
Malachite of New- Jersey, 194 

Manganese, ox id of, 374 
Manganesian oxid of zinc, analysis of, 319 
Manuscripts of Herculaneum, 340 
Map, geological of England, 142 

of mountains, 168 
Maple, river, sugar manufactured from, 25? 
Marble, American green, 165 

white, primitive, 21 1, 222 



•■■ 



382 INDEX. 

Mastodon, bones and teeth of, 245 

Mathematics, 54, 266 

Medusae, pentacrinus Caput, 35 

Mercury, its compounds, experiments on, 330 

Mermaid, 178 
Metal, new, 3G3 
Meteor, gelatinous, 335 
Mica, 141— crystals of, 23? 

Mica slate, 205 

Michigan lake, cinnabar on its shores, 170 

Mine hill, 226 Mink por, 24 

Mithcill, S. L. Prof, on fish, 370 
Monson, Dr. Alfred, prepares prussic acid 
Moon, heat in rays of, 329 
Morey, Samuel, his steam engine, 101 

on heat and light, 118, 122 
on rosin bubbles, 179 



JL 



Murray, John, Dr. obituary notice of,-355 

N. 

Naptha, supposed to be in a quartz crystal, 14 

Navigation, submarine, 94 I 

New-Mil ford, 225 

New-York, and New-Jersey, rain, and geol. of, parts of, 183 
New-Preston, 219 

Nitrous ether, new process for, 326 « j| 

O. | 

Officers of American Geological Society, 141 
Oil from oriental Chene, 264 
Ores of zinc, analysis of, 319 



Olmstead, Prof. D. on red sandstone, 175 — on temperature, 180 



Ostrea genus, 42 



P. 



Fantopidan's account of sea serpent, 163 

Paris supplied with hot water, 341 

Paulding, N. on shells, 371 

Peaches on an almond tree, 363 

Pentremite genus, 36 

Perkins, Thomas, 117 * 

Perna torta, 38 

Petrifactions of the Kaatskills, 13 

Pictures, transparent, 348 

Pierce, James, on parts of New-York and New-Jersey, 181 

Pillars, granite rock supported on, 200 

Prisolite, 238 

Pholas ovalis, 39 

Phosphorescence of fluor spar, 142 
Plants indicators of seasons, 255 
Plate for Hare's blowpipe, &c. explanation of, 298 

Eudiometers. * <\ 317 









INDEX. 383 

Platinum, combustion of, 295 

Plumose mica, 141 

Plumbago, 238, 241 

Poison, animal, 168 — antidotes, 358 

Potatoe fly, cantharidin in, 137 

Porter, T. D. contribution to Geol. Soc. 143 

Jacob, Dr. on snow crystals, 339 
Prairies and Barrens of the West, 30 
Prehnite of New-Jersey, 183, 232 
Preparations, pharmaceutical, 373 
Primitive limestone in mica slate, 21] 
Principles, proximate, of the hop, 307 
Prince, James, on sea serpent. 157 
Problems, mathematical, 54, 266 
Prussic acid, 81 
Purple of Cassius, new mode of preparing; 350 

Q. 

Quartz crystals with water, 14 

R. 
Rafinesque, reply to, 134 Rattle snakes, 229 

Red sandstone of North-Carolina, \~b Remilla Americana, 38 
Revue Encyclopedique, 164 Rhinoceros, fossil bones of, 145 
Rochester, town of, 252 Rocks, succession of, 235 

Romanzow, Count, his expedition, 345 
Rosin, bubbles blown in, J 79 Rot, dry, 114 

Rubellite of Kingsbridge, 367 Ruby, fusion of, 292 

Rush, Dr. on sugar of the maple, 26l Rye, ergot of, 45 

8. 

Salisbury iron ores, 213 Sandstone of New-Jersey, 190 

Sappar/l41 — fusion of, 291 
Say, Thomas, on fossil shells, 34 
Scenery near New-Haven, 234 

at the mouth of the Genesee River, 251 
Screws, manufactory of, 208 
Serpent of the sea, documents respecting, 147 

Serpentine of Middlefield, 236 

Shells, known and unknown, 244 Shrubs on the Kaatskills. 26 

Sjdero graphite, 176, 370 Silex, fusion of, 292 

Silliman, B. on Prussic acid, 81 

communication to Geol. Soc. 201 

experiments with gas blowpipe, 282 
Simplon, wad of, 1 Skeletons, human, ancient, in Ohio, 243 

Slate and sandstone, 15 — chlorite, 247 — argillaceous, 24S 
Slaty rocks, primitive, 203 Snow and hail, 132 

Snow, crystals of, 337, 356 cylinders of, 375 

"ociety, American Geological, 139— Egyptian, 345 









S 



Astronomical, 364 — Geological, of London, 353 



Spar, bitter 236 Staurotide, 141 

Steam engine of Morey, 101, 106, 112 



384 



INDEX. 



Steam navigation, 342, 347 



Steel, natural, 22fc 



Steinhaver, Rev. H. his remarks, 233 
Stickney, B. F. on native lead and cinnabar, I/O 
Strata at Carthage Bridge, 253 
Strong, Theodore, Prof, his problems, 266 

Strom nit e, 177 



Strontites, fusion of, 295 
Sugar, manufacture of, 258 
Sullivan, on the steam engine, 106 
Sweden, its population, 347 

T. 



Scyllea pelagica, 367 



Talc, green, 236 



Taconick Range, 246 
Teeth of the Mastodon, 245 
Terrubratula genus, 43 — pennata, 244 
Thermometer, differential, Dr. Howard's, 327 






Thomson, Dr. 284 



Titanium from Virginia, 143 



i 



Torrey, Dr. 173, 176, &c. 

Tour in New-Haven and Litchfield Counties, 201 



OOQ 



radiated, 240 



Tourmalin, zd«* 

Townsend, Dr. P. S. 339, 371 

Traell, Dr. 177 Trees of the Kaatskills, 24 



Trap of New Haven, 202— of Woodbury, 231 

Tremolite, 141, 236, 237, 23 8, 241 

Troy Lyceum, 173 

Troy, rocks between, and Williamstown, 246 



Tuckahoe, 369 
Turritella, 44 



Tuily, Dr. Wm. on Ergot, 45 



U. 






Uses, economical, of New-Jersey ores of zinc, 326 

V. 

Vacuum, heat of, 343 

Van Rensselaer, Dr. ascends Mount Blanc, 1 



Vapours, latent heat of, 36l 
Vegetation, metallic, 349 
Volcanoes, remarks on, 340 



View from the Kaatskills, 19 



Wacko, 12 
Waterfall, 209 



W. 



Volney, death of, 345 



Water, in quartz crystals, 14 

Wavellite, 248, 249 



k 












Webster, Dr. localities of minerals, 239 
Wheeler, Hawkins, on sea serpent, 162 
Windsor, East, fossil bones discovered in, 146 
Woodbury basin, 231 



Z. 






Zoolite of New-Jersey, 191 — of Woodbury, 232 
Zinc ores of New-Jersey, analysis of, 329 




Zircon, fusion of, 292 



Zoophytes, 34 



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